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A Canadian peer-reviewed journal of population health and health services research

December 2008

Why does the social gradient in health not apply to overweight?

by Stefan Kuhle and Paul J. Veugelers

One of the paradigms of public health is that in developed countries, individuals of lower socio-economic status (SES) tend to have poorer health. Numerous studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes, a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease and some cancers, and higher allcause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality in lower SES groups.

The concentration-coverage curve: A tool for ecological studies

by Philippe Finès

In ecological studies, individuals are grouped into units of analysis (UAs) rather than being considered separately. In certain instances, a researcher may wish to employ UAs to make inferences about a population, but there is a potential for error if the population of interest (PI) is not sufficiently represented in those UAs.

November 2008

Beverage consumption of children and teens

by Didier Garriguet

Asubstantial proportion of Canadians' daily calories come not from what they eat, but from what they drink. This is particularly true for children. According to results from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Nutrition, beverages make up almost 20% of the calories consumed by children and teens aged 4 to 18. At ages 1 to 3, beverages account for an even higher 30%.

Beverage consumption of Canadian adults

by Didier Garriguet

Fluid intake, notably water, is essential for good health. Water plays a role in almost all body functions and is a major component of every cell, tissue and organ. It regulates temperature, transports oxygen and nutrients through the blood, helps get rid of waste, and provides a medium for biological reactions. Water is important for the digestion and absorption of food. It lubricates joints and moistens tissue in the eyes, mouth and nose.

Lead, mercury and cadmium levels in Canadians

by Suzy L. Wong and Ellen J.D. Lye

The heavy metals lead, mercury and cadmium are widely dispersed in the environment, and at excessive levels, are toxic to humans. Chronic exposure to these substances may also be hazardous. Although these metals occur naturally, exposure may be increased by human activities that release them into the air, soil, water and food, and by products that contain heavy metals.

October 2008

Under-reporting of energy intake in the Canadian Community Health Survey

by Didier Garriguet

Data collection is particularly challenging in nutrition surveys. The majority of studies based on data from such surveys have revealed a problem with under-reporting; that is, respondents tend to report that they ate and drank less than they actually did.

Impact of identifying plausible respondents on the under-reporting of energy intake in the Canadian Community Health Survey

by Didier Garriguet

The 2004 Canadian Community HealthSurvey (CCHS)–Nutrition was the firstnational survey of the eating habits of the Canadian population since the early 1970s. One of the objectives of the 2004 CCHS was todetermine the intake of energy (calories),macronutrients (fats, proteins and carbohydrates)and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) fordifferent groups.


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Why does the social gradient in health not apply to overweight?

The concentration-coverage curve: A tool for ecological studies