Abbott, M. 2017. “The epidemiology and impact of gambling disorder and other gambling-related harm.” Discussion Paper for the 2017 WHO Forum on Alcohol, Drugs and Addictive Behaviours. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO headquarters.

American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, Virginia: American Psychiatric Association.

Barnes, G.M., J.W. Welte, and M.O. Tidwell. 2017. “Gambling involvement among Native Americans, Blacks, and Whites in the United States.” American Journal of Addiction. Vol. 26, no. 7, p. 713 to 721. doi:10.1111/ajad.12601.

Barnes, G.M., J.W. Welte, M.C. Tidwell, and J.H. Hoffman. 2013. “Effects of neighborhood disadvantage on problem gambling and alcohol abuse.” Journal of Behavioral Addictions. Vol. 2, no. 2, p. 82 to 89.

Barry, D.T., E.A. Stefanovics, R.A. Desai, and M.N. Potenza. 2011. “Differences in the associations between gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among black and white adults: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.” American Journal on Addictions. Vol. 20, no. 1, p. 69 to 77. doi: 10.1111/j.1521-0391.2010.00098.x.

Belanger, Y. 2010. “First Nations gaming as a self-government imperative: Ensuring the health of First Nations problem gamblers.” International Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue internationale d’études canadiennes. Vol. 41, p. 13 to 36.

Bilodeau, H., A. Kehler and N. Minnema. 2021. “COVID-19: How the pandemic increased the amount of time Canadians spend online.” COVID-19: Data to Insights for a Better Canada.

Binde, P., and U. Romild. 2020. “Risk of problem gambling among occupational groups: A population and registry study.” Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Vol. 37, no. 3, p. 262 to 278.

Black, D.W., M.C. Shaw, B.A. McCormick, and J. Allen. 2012. “Marital status, childhood maltreatment, and family dysfunction: A controlled study of pathological gambling.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Vol. 73, no. 10, p. 1293 to 1297. DOI: 10.4088/JCP.12m07800.

Breen, H., and S. Gainsbury. 2013. “Aboriginal gambling and problem gambling: A review.” International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. Vol. 11, no. 1, p. 75 to 96.

Broman, N., and A. Hakansson. 2018. “Problematic gaming and Internet use but not gambling may be overrepresented in sexual minorities – A pilot population web survey study.” Frontiers in Psychology. Vol. 9, no. 2184.

Browne, M., E. Langham, V. Rawat, N. Greer, E. Li, J. Rose, Donaldson, M, Thorne, P., Goodwin, B, Bryden, B and T. Best. 2016. Assessing Gambling-related Harm in Victoria: A Public Health Perspective. Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. Available at:

Castrén, S., S. Basnet, M. Pankakoski, J.-E. Ronkainen, S. Helakorpi, A. Uutela, H. Alho, and T. Lahti. 2013. “An analysis of problem gambling among the Finnish working-age population: A population survey.” BMC Public Health. Vol. 13, no. 1, p. 1 to 9.

Cox, B.J., N. Yu, T.O. Afifi, and R. Ladouceur. 2005. “A national survey of gambling problems in Canada.” The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 50, no. 4, p. 213 to 217.

Currie, C.L., T.C. Wild, D.P. Schopflocher, L. Laing, P. Veugelers, and B. Parlee. 2013. “Racial discrimination, post traumatic stress, and gambling problems among urban Aboriginal adults in Canada.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 29, no. 3, p. 393 to 415. doi: 10.1007/s10899-012-9323-z.

Currie, S.R., D.C. Hodgins, J. Wang, N. El‐Guebaly, H. Wynne, and S. Chen. 2006. “Risk of harm among gamblers in the general population as a function of level of participation in gambling activities.” Addiction. Vol.101, no. 4, p. 570 to 580.

Day, B., G. Rosenthal, F. Adetunji, A. Monaghan, C. Scheele, and J.K. Tracy. 2020. “Evaluating for differences by race/ethnicity in the association between income and gambling disorder.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 36, p. 1093 to 1105. Available at:

Dion, J., M. Cantinotti, A. Ross, and D. Collin-Vézina. 2015. “Sexual abuse, residential schooling and probable pathological gambling among Indigenous Peoples.” Child Abuse & Neglect. Vol 44, p. 56 to 65. Available at:

Dion, J., D. Collin-Vézina, M. De La Sablonnière, M.-P. Philippe-Labbé, and T. Giffard. 2009. “An exploration of the connection between child sexual abuse and gambling in Aboriginal communities.” International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.Vol. 8, p. 174 to 189. doi: 10.1007/s11469-009-9234-0.

Elton-Marshall, T., R. Wijesingha,T. Sendzik, S.E. Mock, M. van der Maas, J. McCready, R.E. Mann, and N.E. Turner. (2018). Marital Status and Problem Gambling among Older Adults: An Examination of Social Context and Social Motivations. Canadian journal on aging = La revue canadienne du vieillissement, 37(3), 318–332.

Elton-Marshall, T., S.T. Leatherdale, and N.E. Turner. 2016. “An examination of internet and land-based gambling among adolescents in three Canadian provinces: Results from the youth gambling survey (YGS).” BMC Public Health. Vol. 16, p. 277. Available at:

Ferland, F., P.-M. Fournier, R. Ladouceur, P. Brochu, M. Bouchard, and L. Pâquet. 2008 “Consequences of pathological gambling on the gambler and his spouse.” Journal of Gambling Issues. Vol. 22, p. 219 to 229.

Ferris, J., and H. Wynne. 2001. The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final Report (Phase II). Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.

Government of Canada. 2006. The Human Face of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Canada. Available at:

Government of Canada. Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Available at:

Government of Canada. 2021. Safe and Regulated Sports Betting Act. Order Fixing August 27, 2021 as the Day on Which that Act Comes into Force: SI/2021-56. Canada Gazette, Part II, Volume 155, Number 18.  Available at:

Hare, S. 2015. Study of Gambling and Health in Victoria: Findings from the Victorian Prevalence Study of 2014. Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. Available at:

Humphreys, B.R., B.P. Soebbing, H.J. Wynne, J. Turvey, and Y.S. Lee. 2011. University of Alberta SEIGA Research Team: Final Report to the Alberta Gaming Research Institute on the Socio-economic Impact of Gambling in Alberta. Available at:

Iowa Department of Public Health. 2017. Data Portal. Available at:

Johansson, A., J.E. Grant, S. Won Kim, B.L. Odlaug, and K.G. Gotestam. 2009. “Risk factors for problematic gambling: A critical literature review.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 25, p. 67 to 92.

Kairouz, S., C. Paradis, L. Nadeau, D. Hamel, and C. Robillard. 2015. “Patterns and trends in gambling participation in the Quebec population between 2009 and 2012.” Canadian Journal of Public Health. Vol. 106, no. 3, p. e115 to e120.

Kidd, J.D., K.B. Jackman, M. Wolff, C.B. Veldhuis, and T.L. Hughes. 2018. “Risk and protective factors for substance use among sexual and gender minority youth: A scoping review.” Current Addiction Reports. Vol. 5, no. 2, p. 158 to 173. doi:10.1007/s40429-018-0196-9.

Marshall, K. 2011. “Gambling 2011.” Perspectives on Labour and Income. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-001-X.

Mason, K, and Ministry of Health. 2009. A Focus on Problem Gambling: Results of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health. Available at:$file/a-focus-on-problem-gambling-results-200607-nz-health-survey.pdf.

McCready, J., R.E. Mann, J. Zhao, and R. Eves. 2008. “Correlates of gambling-related problems among older adults in Ontario.” Journal of Gambling Issues. Vol. 22, p. 174 to 194.

Mcgrath, D.S., and S.P. Barrett. 2009. “The comorbidity of tobacco smoking and gambling: A review of the literature.” Drug & Alcohol Review. Vol. 28, no. 6, p. 676 to 681.

Ministry of Health. 2009. A Focus on Problem Gambling: Results of the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Papoff, K.A., and J.E. Norris. 2009. “Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: Increasing risk for problem gamblers.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 25, p. 185 to 199. DOI 10.1007/s10899-009-9117-0.

Queensland Government Statistician’s Office, and Queensland Treasury. 2021. Australian Gambling Statistics, Explanatory Notes. 36th edition. Available at:

Rash, C.J., J. Weinstock, and R. Van Patten. 2016. “A review of gambling disorder and substance use disorders.” Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation. Vol. 7, p. 3 to 13.

Raylu, N., and T.P. Oei. 2004. “Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling.” Clinical Psychology Review. Vol. 23, no. 8, p. 1087 to 1114.

Rendall, M.S., M.M. Weden, M.M. Favreault, and H. Waldron. 2011. “The protective effect of marriage for survival: A review and update.” Demography. Vol. 48, no. 2, p. 481 to 506. DOI:10.1007/s13524-011-0032-5.

Rust, K.F., and J.N.K. Rao. 1996. “Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques.” Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Vol. 5, no. 3, p. 283 to 310.

Saunders, P., and K. Doyle. 2021. “Gambling interventions in Indigenous communities, from theory to practice: A rapid qualitative review of the literature.” Journal of Gambling Studies. P. 1 to 36.

Shaw, M.C., K.T. Forbush, J. Schlinder, E. Rosenman, and D.W. Back. 2007. “The effect of pathological gambling on families, marriages, and children.” CNS Spectrums. Vol. 12, p. 615 to 622. doi:10.1017/S1092852900021416.

Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Rapid Response July-December 2018 – Gambling. Available at:

Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health and Well-being.  Available at:

Stucki, S., and M. Rihs-Middel. 2007. “Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005: An update.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 23, no. 3, p. 245 to 257.

Suurvali, H., D.C. Hodgins, T. Toneatto, and J.A. Cunningham. 2012. “Motivators for seeking gambling-related treatment among Ontario problem gamblers.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 28, no. 2, p. 273 to 296.

Turner, N.E., T. Elton-Marshall, J. Shi, J. Wiebe, A. Boak, M. van der Maas, and R.E. Mann. 2018. “Cross validation of the Gambling Problem Severity Subscale of the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Index (CAGI/GPSS) on a sample of Ontario high school students.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 34, no. 2, p. 521 to 537.

Volberg, R.A. 2003. “Has there been a ‘feminization’ of gambling and problem gambling in the United States?” Journal of Gambling Issues. Vol. 8, p. 1 to 33.

Wardman, D., N. el-Guebaly, and D. Hodgins. 2001. “Problem and pathological gambling in North American Aboriginal populations: A review of the empirical literature.” Journal of Gambling Studies. Vol. 17, no. 2, p. 81 to 100.

Welte, J.W., G.M. Barnes, M.C. Tidwell, and J.H. Hoffman. 2009. “The association of form of gambling with problem gambling among American youth.” Psychology of Addictive Behaviors. Vol. 23, no. 1, p. 105 to 112. DOI:10.1037/a0013536.

Welte, J.W., G.M. Barnes, W.F. Wieczorek, M-C.O. Tidwell and J.C. Parker. 2004. “Risk factors for pathological gambling.” Addictive Behaviors. Vol. 29, no. 2, p. 323 to 335.

Wiebe, J., P. Mun, and N. Kauffman. 2006. Gambling and Problem Gambling in Ontario 2005. Responsible Gaming Council.

Wiebe, J., E. Single, and A. Falkowski-Ham. 2001. Measuring Gambling and Problem Gambling in Ontario. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.

Williams, R.J., R. Volberg, and R.A. Stevens. 2012. The Population Prevalence of Problem Gambling: Methodological Influences, Standardized Rates, Jurisdictional Differences, and Worldwide Trends. Report prepared for the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care.

Wilson, A., N., C. P.Salas-Wright, M. G. Vaughn and B. R. Maynard. 2015. “Gambling
prevalence rates among immigrants: A multigenerational examination.” Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 42, p. 79 to 85.

Zaranek, R.R., and E.E. Chapleski. 2005. “Casino gambling among urban elders: Just another social activity?” The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. Vol. 60, no. 2, p. S74 to S81.
Report a problem on this page

Is something not working? Is there information outdated? Can't find what you're looking for?

Please contact us and let us know how we can help you.

Privacy notice

Date modified: