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Table 2 Immigrants' representation in occupations with low educational requirements

  Men Women
Recent immigrants Established immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants
1991 2006 1991 2006 1991 2006 1991 2006
%
Total 22 28 12 21 36 40 24 29
Age
25 to 34 24 27 13 17 37 38 24 23
35 to 44 20 27 12 21 36 39 24 29
45 to 54 21 32 13 22 36 45 23 33
Education
Bachelor's 26 32 15 24 41 44 27 32
Master's 17 22 6 15 25 32 14 20
Doctorate 2 8 1 4 9 8 3 7
Mother tongue
English 14 20 9 15 25 31 18 23
French 13 20 7 16 18 26 16 18
Other 25 29 15 22 42 42 28 31
Category of worker
Employee 23 28 13 21 38 41 25 30
Self-employed 14 25 9 21 15 23 9 15
Field of study
Non applied 28 35 18 27 41 44 28 33
Teaching and fine arts 29 32 17 23 38 37 25 26
Humanities and social sciences 26 37 19 30 42 46 29 35
Administration 29 33 16 23 44 46 30 35
Other1 30 38 16 29 39 40 27 31
Applied 17 24 8 17 24 34 18 22
Engineering 16 25 7 18 24 34 8 19
Mathematics, applied sciences and technology 20 27 12 20 29 35 26 31
Computer science 11 16 8 11 13 31 11 15
Health 13 24 4 13 25 30 9 20
Region of origin
North America 7 10 8 11 12 17 15 14
Central America, South America and Caribbean 28 25 14 24 40 35 22 26
Northern and Western Europe 6 9 5 6 17 18 13 16
Southern and Eastern Europe 22 25 12 17 32 36 16 22
Africa 18 26 9 16 25 31 21 22
Southern Asia 37 38 24 35 62 56 45 43
Southeast Asia 41 42 21 37 55 52 29 47
Eastern Asia 16 24 10 14 31 34 24 23
Western Asia 26 20 14 19 37 32 23 29
Oceania and other 13 18 7 18 20 25 12 27
Visible minority
Yes 26 31 16 24 45 44 29 34
No 13 19 7 13 21 29 15 20
Metropolitan region
Montréal 19 28 10 21 34 33 19 26
Ottawa-Gatineau 17 19 6 12 33 26 15 23
Toronto 24 31 15 22 40 43 26 29
Calgary 20 21 9 17 40 38 27 33
Vancouver 25 29 15 24 39 42 26 33
Other 17 22 11 17 29 35 22 29
1. Includes agriculture and all other fields of study not classified elsewhere.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population.