Social inclusion indicators for Canada's ethnocultural groups: Participation in the labour market

Welcome to the Data visualization tool — Social inclusion indicators for Canada's ethnocultural groups: Participation in the labour market. The customizable graphs present social inclusion indicators that can be disaggregated by various racialized groups (visible minorities) and selected sociodemographic characteristics for the population in private households.

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Additional information

The Data visualization tool — Social Inclusion indicators for Canada's ethnocultural groups: Participation in the labour market is part of a conceptual framework on social inclusion and covers a total of 11 themes. Each theme has a similar interactive visualization tool that is accessible on the page Data visualization tools — Social Inclusion indicators for Canada's ethnocultural groups.

These themes are participation in the labour market, representation in decision-making positions, civic engagement and political participation, basic needs and housing, health and well-being, education and skills development, income and wealth, social connections and personal networks, local community, public services and institutions, and discrimination and victimization.

The framework, the indicators and the visualization tools are products released by the Centre for Gender, Diversity and Inclusion Statistics that aim to support Canada's Anti-Racism Strategy by providing evidence. Over 120 indicators can be used to examine various socioeconomic facets of visible minorities which are being referred to as "racialized population" in analytical and communication products at Statistics Canada.

Definitions, concepts and geography

In 2021 Census analytical and communications products, the term "visible minority" has been replaced by the terms "racialized population" or "racialized groups," reflecting the increased use of these terms in the public sphere. For technical reasons the term "visible minority" is used in this data visualization tool. The data displayed in this visualization tool are measured from the standard census variable of visible minority.

Visible minority refers to whether a person is a visible minority or not, as defined by the Employment Equity Act. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as "persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour." The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Arab, Latin American, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

Gender and sex

The gender question was introduced in the Census of Population in 2021. Prior to 2021, the census only collected information on sex, which referred at the time to whether the person was male or female. The terminology related to sex is used in this data visualization tool, since 2021 Census of Population data are not presented. For additional information on changes of concepts over time, please consult the Age, Sex at Birth and Gender Reference Guide, Census of Population, 2021.


In this data visualization tool, the social inclusion indicators can be disaggregated at the Canada level, geographical region of Canada, province or territory and census metropolitan area (CMA) level.


Participation rate
Refers to people aged 15 years and over were employed or unemployed during the reference week.
Employment rate
Refers to people aged 15 years and over were employed during the reference week.
Unemployment rate
Refers to people aged 15 years and over were unemployed during the reference week.
Population in full-time employment
Includes persons aged 15 years and over who worked full-time weeks (30 hours or more per week) during the previous year.
Population in self-employment (unincorporated)
Includes persons whose job consisted mainly of operating a business, farm or professional practice, alone or in partnership. For more information, please consult the section of "Class of worker" in the Dictionary, Census of Population, 2021.
Population in overqualification situation
Refers to people with a bachelor's degree or above (at bachelor's level or above) who, during the current year or the year prior the census, held a position usually requiring a high school diploma or equivalency certificate or less.
Youth not in employment, education or training

Refers to the proportion of youth aged 15 to 29 who were not in employment during the census reference week (in 2016, the reference week is May 1 to May 7) and who had not attended any accredited educational institution or program in the eight months preceding the census reference week (for example, in 2016 this period is between September 2015 and May 2016).

The Labor Force Survey (LFS) is the main data source for calculating national estimates of the youth not in employment, education, or training indicator, commonly known as "NEET".  For more information on the measurement differences between the two concepts' characteristics, please consult the Reference guide on social inclusion indicators for Canada's ethnocultural groups.

Related products

Reference guide on social inclusion indicators for Canada's ethnocultural groups

The Daily - Housing conditions among racialized groups: a brief overview

The Daily - Portraits of the social, political and economic participation of racialized groups

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