Characteristics of research and development in Canadian industry


The data used to create this interactive web application is from the following listed data tables:

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In-house R&D expenditures

In-house or intramural research and development refers to research and development that is performed within the organization, whatever the source of funds. In-house research and development comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge - including knowledge of humankind, culture and society - and devise new applications of available knowledge.

Outsourced R&D expenditures

Outsourced R&D expenditures refer to payments made within or outside Canada to other organizations, companies or individuals to purchase or fund R&D activities. These payments include grants, donations, fellowships, as well as contracts.

Energy-related areas of technology

Energy-related technologies include: fossil fuels, renewable energy sources, nuclear fission and fusion, electric power, hydrogen and fuel cells, energy efficiency and other energy-related technologies.

Payments made and received for intellectual property products and technological services (IP)

Payments and receipts for IP are considered measures of innovation and creativity often related to R&D. IP can include different forms of registered instruments that generate revenues through sales and licensing, such as patents, trademarks and copyrights. It can also include transactions related to original and packaged software, databases with useful lives exceeding one year and other payments for IP. Other payments entail technological services such as technical assistance and know-how, offered by the R&D-active businesses' highly skilled personnel to support the adoption of R&D results by purchasing organizations.

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