Labour market experiences of First Nations people living off reserve, Métis and Inuit, Canada, 2017
Methods used to look for work, reasons for difficulty finding work, and things that would help find work

Release date: November 26, 2018

Related products

Additional products on the labour market experiences for First Nations people living off-reserve, Métis and Inuit from the 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey are now available from our website. These include three booklets The labour market experiences of First Nations people living off reserve, The labour market experiences of Métis, The labour market experiences of Inuit, and three infographics Off-reserve First Nations people entering the labour force, Self-employment among Métis and Harvesting and handicraft activities among Inuit.


The 2017 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is a national survey of the Aboriginal identity population aged 15 years or older as of January 15, 2017, living in private dwellings, excluding people living on Indian reserves and settlements and in certain First Nations communities in Yukon and Northwest Territories.

This is a sample survey with a cross-sectional design. The APS sample was selected from Census of Population long-form respondents who reported an Aboriginal identity or ancestry.

For more information about the 2017 APS, please see the Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS).

Aboriginal identity groups
The Aboriginal identity definition is used in this report. In recognition of the uniqueness of each of the three Aboriginal groups, analyses were conducted and reported separately for First Nations people living off reserve, Inuit, and Métis. However, these three groupings are not necessarily mutually exclusive - it was possible to report both single and multiple responses to the Aboriginal identity question on the APS. For example, a respondent could self-identify as both First Nations and Métis. For this study, such respondents were included in both the First Nations sample and the Métis sample for analysis. However, 98% of off-reserve First Nations, 98% of Inuit, and 97% of Métis respondents reported a single identity.
Inuit Nunangat
This is the Inuit homeland consisting of four Inuit regions: Nunatsiavut (Northern coastal Labrador), Nunavik (Northern Quebec), the territory of Nunavut and the Inuvialuit region of the Northwest Territories.
Individuals not in the labour force
Refers to persons who, during the reference week, were neither employed nor unemployed. This includes persons who, during the reference period, were either unable to work or unavailable for work. It also includes persons who were without work and who had neither looked for work in the past four weeks, nor had a job to start within four weeks of the reference period.
Unemployed individuals
Refers to persons who, during the reference week, were without paid work or without self-employment work and were available for work and either: (a) had actively looked for paid work in the past four weeks; or (b) were on temporary lay-off and expected to return to their job; or (c) had definite arrangements to start a new job in four weeks or less.
Methods used to look for work for work
In the 2017 APS, Unemployed respondents were asked how they went about looking for work. Responses were coded into one of the following 11 categories: "contacted potential employer(s) directly," "searched the Internet," "through friend(s)/relative(s)," "Placed or answered newspaper ad(s)," "contacted public employment agency (Service Canada Centre/Canada Employment Centre, provincial employment centre)," "community bulletin boards/radio," "contacted Aboriginal organization or Aboriginal employment agency," "through co-worker(s) ," "was referred by another employer," "was referred by a union," and "other."
Reasons for difficulty finding work
In the 2017 APS, unemployed respondents were asked if any of the following caused him or her difficulty in finding work – "not knowing how or where to look for work," "not knowing the type of job she or he wanted," "not having the work experience required for available jobs," "not having enough education or training for available jobs," "not having the means of transportation to get to available jobs," "a shortage of jobs," "anything else?"
Things that would help find work
All unemployed, and those not in the labour force but who planned to look for work in the next 12 months were asked what would help him or her most in finding a job. Responses were coded into these categories: "skills training (e.g., computer, language, writing, skilled trades, etc.)," "more education (academic)," "child care assistance," "work experience," "job finding clubs," "résumé writing skills," "moving to another city/region," "help in starting a business/entrepreneurship training," "transportation," "contacts or networking," "better health/younger/older," "more jobs/work available," "other – Specify."
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