Prices Analytical Series
Development of a Consumer Price Index for Seniors

by Catherine Michaud

Release date: June 20, 2019

Executive summary

At the request of Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC), Statistics Canada has compiled a Consumer Price Index for Seniors (CPI-S) from January 2013 to August 2018.

During the studied period, the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and the CPI-S showed very little differences in trends, which may imply that the sub-population of seniors and the Canadian population overall are facing the same general inflation. In fact, the CPI-S increased by 11.0% from January 2013 to August 2018, compared to 10.6% for the CPI. Over the period studied, the CPI-S showed an average annual increase of 1.7% and the CPI, 1.6%.

Among the eight major components, Shelter contributes the most, on average, to the observed differences between the CPI and the CPI-S. As well, seniors tend to spend relatively more on Health and personal care and less on Transportation and on Recreation, education and reading as compared to the whole population.

Although the CPI-S was built using a robust methodology, there are a number of limitations given that its compilation relies exclusively on the data collected for the calculation of the CPI:

  1. The existing price information is representative of the target population for which it has been collected, namely the average Canadian. Therefore, it is not specific to the spending habits of the senior population.
  2. The use of two years of combined expenditures from the Survey of Household Spending (SHS) may increase the substitution bias and hinder the comparability of the CPI-S with the CPI – this was, however, a necessary measure in order to achieve a fit-for-use quality of the weight estimates and allow the compilation of the CPI-S.

Background information

To support the work of ESDC to ensure that Old Age Security (OAS) pension and Guaranteed Income Supplement (GIS) payments are indexed in a manner that reflects the price level faced by seniors, Statistics Canada developed a CPI-S for the period of January 2013 to August 2018.Note  The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of this work. The paper begins by defining the concept of a senior household and outlining the methodology used to develop the CPI-S. This is followed by an examination of the CPI-S components, as well as a comparison of their movements to the CPI.

Senior population in Canada

The first part of this report presents an overview of the senior population in Canada and determines if a sub-sample of the SHS could be used to calculate the weights for the defined population. Seniors’ spending patterns are then examined and compared to that of the Canadian population.

Population

A key element in the construction of the CPI-S is the determination of the definition of a senior household. The SHS measures household expenditures, while the CPI-S measures the inflation faced by seniors. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a definition that aligns as closely as possible to the senior population. It was decided that a senior household, for the purpose of the CPI-S, would be any household where the main revenue earner is at least 65 years old.

Chart 1 shows the evolution of the senior population in Canada, based on the Census, as well as the calculated estimates from the SHS sub-sample. As expected, the population of seniors is increasing gradually over time. Also, the SHS estimation of the Canadian senior population is very close to the Census one, which suggests that the SHS senior sub-sample used in building the CPI-S is representative.

It should be noted that while collective dwellings are included in the chosen definition of a senior household, the SHS contains almost exclusively seniors living in private dwellings. The proportion of seniors in collective dwellings is estimated at 7.7% of the population aged 65 and over (or 455,690 seniors), according to the 2016 Census.

Chart 1 Evolution of the senior population in Canada

Data table for Chart 1 
Data table for Chart 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 1 Estimated number of seniors and Estimated number of seniors living in collective dwellings, calculated using thousands units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Estimated number of seniors Estimated number of seniors living in collective dwellings
thousands
2010 SHS seniors 4,606 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2011 SHS seniors 4,710 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2011 Census total seniors 4,945 393
2012 SHS seniors 4,925 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2013 SHS seniors 5,095 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2014 SHS seniors 5,251 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2015 SHS seniors 5,336 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2016 Census total seniors 5,935 455

Spending behaviour

Why do spending patterns matter?

There are two elements involved in the compilation of a consumer price index. The first is the prices for a multitude of goods and services gathered month after month to measure the price changes faced by the target population. The second is the expenditure share allocated to each category, which gives the relative importance of a group of goods or services compared to the others, and is measured using the information gathered from the SHS. The observed changes in prices are then weighted by their expenditure share. Therefore, for a fixed price movement, a larger proportional weight will result in a bigger impact on the overall change in the index. In other words, price changes in goods and services which make up a significant proportion of seniors’ expenditures will have a larger impact than price changes in goods and services for which the seniors’ budget share is smaller.

In designing a specific consumer price index for seniors, it is important to recognize that this sub-population’s consumption patterns may differ from those of the overall Canadian population. Furthermore, these general trends can vary between provinces, highlighting the importance of accurately measuring weights to correctly take into account the impact of price movements of each product category on the CPI-S.

The following two sub-sections examine the similarities and differences in spending behaviour between the average senior household and the average Canadian household for the reference years 2013 and 2015.Note  The spending shares in each of the eight major components of the indexes are compared for the average senior household and the average Canadian household. These eight major components are: Food and non-alcoholic beverages; Shelter; Household operations, furnishings and equipment; Clothing and footwear; Transportation; Health and personal care; Recreation, education and reading; and Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products.

Canada-level comparison

Compared to the population as a whole, seniors spend relatively more on Shelter and Health and personal care, and less on Transportation, Recreation, education and reading and on Clothing and footwear. At the national level, seniors’ expenditures on Food and non-alcoholic beverages, Household operations, furnishings and equipment and Alcoholic beverages and tobacco are similar in proportion to those of the total population. Chart 2 illustrates the average proportion of budget spent by seniors and by all Canadians on each of the eight major components.

Chart 2 Basket weight distribution by major component

Data table for Chart 2 
Data table for Chart 2
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2 2013 CPI - All Canadian households, 2013 CPI-S - Senior households only, 2015 CPI - All Canadian households and 2015 CPI-S - Senior households only, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2013 CPI - All Canadian households 2013 CPI-S - Senior households only 2015 CPI - All Canadian households 2015 CPI-S - Senior households only
percent
Food and non-alcoholic beverages 16.1 15.3 16.5 16.0
Shelter 26.2 30.2 26.8 31.2
Household operations, furnishings and equipment 12.9 13.1 13.0 13.6
Clothing and footwear 6.2 4.6 5.7 4.1
Transportation 20.0 18.1 19.5 17.1
Health and personal care 4.8 7.8 5.0 7.1
Recreation, education and reading 11.1 8.8 11.0 8.6
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products 2.7 2.1 2.6 2.3

Even though seniors’ larger spending share in Shelter is widespread throughout this major component, the biggest differences are in the Water, fuel and electricity class. However, for both populations, most of the shelter expenses are allocated to commodities belonging to the Owned accommodation class – 18.1% of the seniors’ budget compared with 16.1% for the average Canadian household. Mortgage interest costs represent a significantly lower share of seniors’ budgets (0.9% for the average senior household compared to 3.8% for the average Canadian household), however this is largely mitigated by higher spending in Homeowners’ replacement cost (6.6% for the average senior household vs 4.7% for the average Canadian household), Property taxes (4.8% for the average senior household vs 3.4% for the average Canadian household), and Homeowners’ maintenance and repairs cost (2.2% for the average senior household vs 1.3% for the average Canadian household).

Health and personal care is another category where seniors (7.4%) spend a higher proportion of their budget than the average Canadian household (4.9%). Most of this difference is attributable to Health care goods (3.4% for the average senior household and 1.7% for the average Canadian household) and Health care services (1.9% for the average senior household vs 1.1% for the average Canadian household).

Canadian seniors tend to spend a smaller share of their budget on Transportation, Clothing and footwear and Recreation, education and reading. More specifically, seniors spend considerably less on Education (0.6% compared with 2.7% for the average Canadian household), Purchase of passenger vehicles (6.1% for the average senior household and 6.9% for the average Canadian household) and Public transportation (1.6% for the average senior household vs 2.1% for the average Canadian household).

In summary, seniors are more sensitive than the Canadian population to price changes in Health care goods and Homeowner’s replacement cost, while changes in Mortgage interest cost and in the price of Education affect them to a lesser degree.

Provincial disparities

Seniors’ expenditures are proportionally higher in Nova Scotia, Quebec and British Columbia relative to the corresponding expenditures for all Canadian households, and lower in Ontario and Alberta, as shown in Chart 3.Note  This suggests that either seniors in Ontario and Alberta spend proportionally less than seniors elsewhere in Canada when compared with the whole population, or that there are smaller proportions of seniors in these two provinces, or both.

Chart 3 Expenditure share and relative population, seniors and entire population, provinces and territories

Data table for Chart 3 
Data table for Chart 3
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 3 CPI - average basket shares, CPI-S - average basket shares, Whole population - % to Canada and Seniors - % to Senior Canadians, calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
CPI - average basket shares CPI-S - average basket shares Whole population - % to Canada Seniors - % to Senior Canadians
percent
Newfoundland and Labrador 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.4
Prince Edward Island 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4
Nova Scotia 2.4 3.1 2.6 2.9
New Brunswick 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.1
Quebec 21.4 23.6 23.2 23.5
Ontario 38.9 37.9 38.3 38.0
Manitoba 3.1 3.2 3.6 3.2
Saskatchewan 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.8
Alberta 13.1 9.1 11.6 9.6
British Columbia 14.2 16.2 13.2 15.8
Yukon 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Northwest Territories 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
Nunavut 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0

Seniors in Newfoundland and Labrador tend to spend a higher proportion of their budget on Food and non-alcoholic beverages compared with the average provincial household. In Newfoundland and Labrador, seniors spend 18.2% of their household budget on Food and non-alcoholic beverages while the average household spends 15.7%. Conversely, seniors in British Columbia spend 1.2% less on Food and non-alcoholic beverages when compared to the average British Columbia household (mostly attributable to Food purchased from restaurants). Seniors in Newfoundland and Labrador also spend 4.3% less on Recreation, education and reading, the main contributors being lower spending on the Purchase and operation of recreational vehicles as well as on Education.

When comparing the provincial average with the Canadian average for senior households, very similar trends are observed with respect to their spending on Shelter, Clothing and footwear, Transportation, and Health and personal care.

Both seniors (17.8%) and the general population (18.7%) in Quebec spend a larger share of their budget on Food and non-alcoholic beverages than the national average (15.7% for seniors and 16.3% for the general population). Also, seniors in Ontario (14.5%) spend relatively less on Food and non-alcoholic beverages compared with the overall population of Ontario (15.4%).

Methodology and construction

Calculating a price index

The CPI-S is calculated in two steps, using the same methodology as the CPI. The first step involves calculating price relatives, using a matched-model approach, and then averaging them together to obtain the movement for the elementary price indexes. This is done by averaging the price relatives by commodity and geography using, in most cases, an equally weighted geometric average known as the Jevons formula. This produces the first level of aggregation.

The second level of aggregation uses expenditure weights of the different elementary aggregates and calculates a weighted arithmetic average using a fixed-basket Lowe formula.

The Lowe formula is denoted by:

P Lo = i=1 n s i 0b ( p i t p i 0 ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGqbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaamitaiaad+gaa8aabeaak8qacqGH 9aqpdaGfWbqabSWdaeaapeGaamyAaiabg2da9iaaigdaa8aabaWdbi aad6gaa0WdaeaapeGaeyyeIuoaaOGaam4Ca8aadaqhaaWcbaWdbiaa dMgaa8aabaWdbiaaicdacaWGIbaaaOWaaeWaa8aabaWdbmaalaaapa qaa8qacaWGWbWdamaaDaaaleaapeGaamyAaaWdaeaapeGaamiDaaaa aOWdaeaapeGaamiCa8aadaqhaaWcbaWdbiaadMgaa8aabaWdbiaaic daaaaaaaGccaGLOaGaayzkaaaaaa@4CD3@

Where s i 0b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGZbWdamaaDaaaleaapeGaamyAaaWdaeaapeGaaGimaiaadkga aaaaaa@3A09@  represents the share of the expenditure on commodity i at time 0, the time of reference of the prices. The expenditure weights are price-updated to reflect changes in prices between the reference period of the basket (b) and the price reference period (0). s i 0b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGZbWdamaaDaaaleaapeGaamyAaaWdaeaapeGaaGimaiaadkga aaaaaa@3A09@  can be expressed as:

s i 0b = p i 0 q i b p i 0 q i b MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGZbWdamaaDaaaleaapeGaamyAaaWdaeaapeGaaGimaiaadkga aaGccqGH9aqpdaWcaaWdaeaapeGaamiCa8aadaqhaaWcbaWdbiaadM gaa8aabaWdbiaaicdaaaGccaWGXbWdamaaDaaaleaapeGaamyAaaWd aeaapeGaamOyaaaaaOWdaeaadaqfGaqabSqabeaacaaMb8oaneaape GaeyyeIuoaaOGaamiCa8aadaqhaaWcbaWdbiaadMgaa8aabaWdbiaa icdaaaGccaWGXbWdamaaDaaaleaapeGaamyAaaWdaeaapeGaamOyaa aaaaaaaa@4B8F@

The basket weights, or shares of expenditures, determine the relative importance of the different product classes and geographical regions in the All-items index.Note 

Construction

Given that the senior population represents approximately 25% of the surveyed population, there was a need to assess the quality of a senior-only household sub-sample and to select an appropriate index construction method.

Pooling of expenditure for weights

Due to small sub-sample sizes, four years of SHS senior-specific expenditures would have been needed to attain the same level of quality in basket weights as the CPI. However, this would reduce the timeliness of the basket weights and could result in a larger substitution bias.Note  Therefore, the following factors were assessed to find an optimal solution: 1) the statistical quality of the weights; 2) comparability with the CPI weights; 3) the magnitude of the resulting substitution bias in the index; and 4) operational feasibility.

While pooling multiple years of data increases the accuracy of the weight estimates, the introduction of older weights reduces the timeliness, which in turn brings the possibility of increasing the substitution bias. The operationally feasible option that strikes the best balance between statistical quality and substitution bias is to combine two years of expenditure data;Note  it leads to expenditure weights with acceptable sampling variability and reduces the potential substitution bias increase caused by using four years of data. By pooling two years together, it is assumed that the target populations of the survey cycles are the same and spending patterns are not significantly different between the years.

Use of the same sample of products and outlets as the CPI

The CPI-S is based on the same sample of products and outlets as the official CPI, which assumes that the senior population has the same spending preferences as the general population. This approach excludes various senior-specific products and may include goods and services that are not as representative for the average senior household. It also assumes that Canadian seniors have the same outlet preferences as the average Canadian.

Quality evaluation

In order to evaluate the quality of the CPI-S, an International Monetary Fund (IMF) Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF) for the Consumer Price Index was used. The current approach in constructing a CPI-S series uses known statistical techniques. The series can be analyzed and quality can be monitored.

The CPI-S is built using a robust methodology. However, according to the DQAF, the current approach does not meet certain quality criteria, notably:

Further research would lead to improvements in the weights and in the product and outlet samples, resulting in an improved index quality. An option for improving the quality according to one of the criteria without affecting the other is to increase the sample size of the SHS to a point that would allow the use of a single year for the CPI-S weight estimates. In addition, to best measure price changes experienced by seniors, both the prices and the CPI-S weights would need to reflect the reality of this segment of the population. The CPI-S measures inflation experienced by senior households based only on different spending patterns. A complete representation of price change as experienced by seniors can only be attained by calculating a price index using both seniors’ expenditures as well as a basket of goods and services representative of seniors’ consumption for which the prices have been collected in outlets typically visited by seniors.

Consumer Price Index for Seniors

The CPI-S spans from January 2013 to August 2018, and largely follows the same trend as the CPI. As illustrated in Chart 4, the divergent trend appearing in early 2016 continues through 2018. Still, given the relatively short time period studied, small differences such as those observed between the two indexes are not enough to conclude that the CPI-S is at a higher level than the CPI. In addition, for the duration of the latest basket (from January 2017 onward), the trends in the indexes show almost no difference, suggesting that the observed difference between the indexes appeared during previous baskets.

Chart 4 All-items, Consumer Price Index for Seniors and Consumer Price Index

Data table for Chart 4 
Data table for Chart 4
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 4. The information is grouped by Reference Period (appearing as row headers), CPI-S and CPI , calculated using (201301=100) units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Reference Period CPI-S CPI
(201301=100)
2013
January 100.0 100.0
February 101.1 101.2
March 101.2 101.3
April 101.1 101.2
May 101.2 101.4
June 101.3 101.4
July 101.3 101.5
August 101.4 101.5
September 101.4 101.6
October 101.3 101.4
November 101.4 101.4
December 101.2 101.2
2014
January 101.5 101.5
February 102.4 102.3
March 102.9 102.9
April 103.3 103.2
May 103.7 103.7
June 103.8 103.8
July 103.6 103.6
August 103.6 103.6
September 103.6 103.7
October 103.7 103.8
November 103.5 103.4
December 102.9 102.6
2015
January 102.9 102.5
February 103.6 103.4
March 104.3 104.1
April 104.1 104.0
May 104.7 104.6
June 104.9 104.9
July 105.0 104.9
August 105.0 104.9
September 104.8 104.8
October 104.9 104.9
November 104.9 104.8
December 104.6 104.3
2016
January 104.9 104.5
February 105.2 104.8
March 105.7 105.4
April 106.0 105.8
May 106.4 106.2
June 106.7 106.4
July 106.6 106.3
August 106.5 106.1
September 106.5 106.2
October 106.7 106.4
November 106.5 106.0
December 106.3 105.9
2017
January 107.2 106.8
February 107.4 106.9
March 107.6 107.1
April 108.0 107.5
May 108.0 107.6
June 108.0 107.5
July 108.1 107.5
August 108.1 107.6
September 108.3 107.8
October 108.3 107.9
November 108.7 108.2
December 108.4 107.8
2018
January 109.0 108.6
February 109.7 109.2
March 110.0 109.6
April 110.1 109.9
May 110.5 110.0
June 110.5 110.1
July 111.2 110.7
August 111.0 110.6

Among the major components, Shelter contributes the most, on average, to the observed difference between the CPI and the CPI-S. However, despite overall higher spending, the senior population is not facing significantly different inflation for the Shelter component, as demonstrated in Chart 5. Both the CPI and the CPI-S show a steady increase through time. Furthermore, the gap between the two indexes appearing in early 2014 is diminishing after reaching a peak in late 2016 through late 2017.

Chart 5 Shelter, Consumer Price Index for Seniors and Consumer Price Index

Data table for Chart 5 
Data table for Chart 5
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 5. The information is grouped by Reference Period (appearing as row headers), CPI-S Shelter and CPI Shelter , calculated using (201301=100) units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Reference Period CPI Shelter CPI-S Shelter
(201301=100)
2013
January 100.0 100.0
February 100.1 100.2
March 100.2 100.2
April 100.3 100.4
May 100.4 100.5
June 100.5 100.7
July 100.8 100.9
August 100.8 101.0
September 100.9 101.2
October 101.1 101.4
November 101.6 101.8
December 101.6 101.9
2014
January 102.1 102.4
February 102.3 102.6
March 102.8 103.0
April 103.6 103.9
May 103.8 104.0
June 103.4 103.8
July 103.8 104.1
August 103.6 104.0
September 103.7 104.1
October 103.9 104.3
November 103.9 104.4
December 104.1 104.5
2015
January 104.1 104.5
February 104.1 104.5
March 104.3 104.8
April 104.1 104.6
May 104.2 104.7
June 104.5 104.9
July 104.7 105.2
August 104.8 105.3
September 104.8 105.3
October 105.1 105.6
November 105.2 105.8
December 105.2 105.9
2016
January 105.3 106.0
February 105.4 106.0
March 105.5 106.1
April 105.6 106.3
May 105.7 106.5
June 106.1 106.9
July 106.4 107.2
August 106.6 107.4
September 106.6 107.5
October 107.1 108.2
November 107.4 108.5
December 107.4 108.5
2017
January 107.8 108.9
February 107.7 108.8
March 107.7 108.8
April 107.9 109.0
May 107.7 108.7
June 107.8 108.8
July 107.7 108.6
August 108.0 109.0
September 108.1 109.0
October 108.5 109.5
November 108.7 109.8
December 108.9 110.0
2018
January 109.3 110.4
February 109.5 110.5
March 109.5 110.5
April 109.8 110.7
May 109.9 110.8
June 109.9 110.8
July 110.3 111.1
August 110.5 111.2

In addition, even though seniors tend to spend proportionally more on goods and services in Health and personal care, they are facing very similar inflation in that component relative to the Canadian population as a whole, as can be seen in Chart 6. The two indexes have diverged by one percentage point over the 5 year period studied.

Chart 6 Health and personal care, Consumer Price Index for Seniors and Consumer Price Index

Data table for Chart 6 
Data table for Chart 6
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 6. The information is grouped by Reference Period (appearing as row headers), CPI-S
Health and personal care and CPI
Health and personal care, calculated using (201301=100) units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Reference Period CPI-S
Health and personal care
CPI
Health and personal care
(201301=100)
2013
January 100.0 100.0
February 100.0 100.1
March 99.8 99.8
April 99.9 100.1
May 99.5 99.8
June 99.5 99.9
July 99.3 99.6
August 99.3 99.7
September 99.5 99.9
October 99.3 99.5
November 99.3 99.6
December 99.4 99.7
2014
January 99.4 99.8
February 99.4 99.9
March 99.2 99.7
April 100.0 100.3
May 100.2 100.6
June 100.1 100.4
July 100.1 100.3
August 100.3 100.6
September 100.4 100.7
October 100.2 100.3
November 100.7 101.2
December 100.5 100.9
2015
January 101.2 101.3
February 100.9 101.4
March 101.1 100.8
April 100.8 101.4
May 101.3 101.9
June 101.5 101.7
July 101.3 101.8
August 101.1 101.7
September 101.2 101.9
October 101.1 101.9
November 102.0 102.6
December 101.6 102.1
2016
January 101.8 102.5
February 101.9 102.5
March 101.7 102.4
April 102.2 103.1
May 102.4 103.2
June 102.3 103.1
July 101.9 103.0
August 102.1 103.5
September 103.0 103.3
October 103.2 103.6
November 103.3 103.7
December 103.2 103.5
2017
January 103.5 104.1
February 103.5 104.1
March 103.6 104.2
April 104.5 104.8
May 104.4 104.7
June 104.5 105.0
July 104.8 105.2
August 104.9 105.5
September 104.7 105.1
October 105.1 105.7
November 104.6 104.8
December 104.7 105.0
2018
January 105.0 105.6
February 105.4 106.0
March 105.7 106.6
April 105.8 106.5
May 105.6 106.2
June 105.6 106.6
July 105.5 106.4
August 105.9 106.9

Conclusion

From January 2013 to August 2018, the two indexes showed very little difference in trends, which may imply that the sub-population of seniors and the overall Canadian population are facing the same general inflation. In fact, the CPI-S increased by 11.0% compared to 10.6% for the CPI.

Appendix - Table A.1

Table A.1
CPI and CPI-S All-items and major components, rebased to January 2013 = 100 and by reference month
Table summary
This table displays the results of CPI and CPI-S All-items and major components. The information is grouped by Reference month (appearing as row headers), All-items, Food and non-alcoholic beverages, Shelter, Household operations, furnishings and equipment, Clothing and footwear, Transportation, Health and personal care, Recreation, education and reading, Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products, CPI and CPI-S, calculated using index 2013001 = 100 units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Reference month All-items Food and non-alcoholic beverages Shelter Household operations, furnishings and equipment Clothing and footwear Transportation Health and personal care Recreation, education and reading Alcoholic beverages and tobacco products
CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S CPI CPI-S
201301=100
2013
January 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
February 101.2 101.1 101.0 101.1 100.1 100.2 100.7 100.6 104.0 104.6 102.8 102.8 100.1 100.0 101.0 101.0 100.4 100.3
March 101.3 101.2 100.6 100.6 100.2 100.2 101.1 100.9 108.4 108.7 102.2 102.1 99.8 99.8 101.4 102.4 100.6 100.5
April 101.2 101.1 100.4 100.3 100.3 100.4 100.7 100.6 107.7 107.8 101.5 101.6 100.1 99.9 101.4 102.4 100.9 100.6
May 101.4 101.2 100.8 100.7 100.4 100.5 100.4 100.2 106.8 106.7 102.0 101.9 99.8 99.5 102.7 103.6 101.6 101.4
June 101.4 101.3 100.7 100.8 100.5 100.7 100.6 100.4 103.8 103.7 102.8 102.4 99.9 99.5 102.8 103.7 101.4 101.3
July 101.5 101.3 100.8 100.9 100.8 100.9 100.9 100.6 102.8 102.5 102.4 102.1 99.6 99.3 103.9 104.8 101.2 100.9
August 101.5 101.4 101.1 101.0 100.8 101.0 100.5 100.4 104.2 104.1 102.0 101.7 99.7 99.3 104.1 105.1 101.1 100.7
September 101.6 101.4 100.2 100.0 100.9 101.2 100.9 100.7 106.6 106.7 102.1 101.6 99.9 99.5 104.1 104.5 101.4 101.2
October 101.4 101.3 100.1 99.9 101.1 101.4 101.1 100.8 106.9 107.0 101.4 101.0 99.5 99.3 103.1 103.6 101.5 101.3
November 101.4 101.4 100.9 101.0 101.6 101.8 101.1 101.1 104.8 104.7 101.0 100.8 99.6 99.3 102.4 102.8 101.6 101.4
December 101.2 101.2 100.7 100.7 101.6 101.9 101.1 101.2 101.7 101.8 101.4 101.0 99.7 99.4 101.5 101.8 101.7 101.5
2014
January 101.5 101.5 101.1 101.2 102.1 102.4 101.1 101.2 101.5 101.0 102.0 101.8 99.8 99.4 101.0 100.7 101.4 101.3
February 102.3 102.4 102.1 102.3 102.3 102.6 101.6 101.6 103.5 103.3 103.2 103.2 99.9 99.4 102.6 103.2 102.9 102.4
March 102.9 102.9 102.1 102.3 102.8 103.0 101.9 101.9 106.9 106.8 103.9 103.9 99.7 99.2 102.7 103.4 104.6 103.8
April 103.2 103.3 102.3 102.5 103.6 103.9 101.8 102.0 108.1 107.8 104.3 104.1 100.3 100.0 102.4 103.2 104.5 103.5
May 103.7 103.7 103.1 103.4 103.8 104.0 102.0 102.1 107.5 107.2 104.7 104.5 100.6 100.2 104.0 104.6 105.3 104.2
June 103.8 103.8 103.6 103.9 103.4 103.8 102.6 102.9 105.5 105.4 105.1 104.8 100.4 100.1 104.3 104.8 105.6 104.3
July 103.6 103.6 103.7 104.0 103.8 104.1 102.5 102.9 104.4 104.3 103.8 103.5 100.3 100.1 105.0 105.7 105.9 104.6
August 103.6 103.6 103.3 103.3 103.6 104.0 103.5 103.4 104.8 105.1 103.2 103.0 100.6 100.3 105.5 106.3 106.8 105.6
September 103.7 103.6 103.0 102.9 103.7 104.1 103.6 103.5 108.8 109.1 102.6 102.1 100.7 100.4 105.7 105.9 106.9 105.6
October 103.8 103.7 102.9 102.8 103.9 104.3 104.1 103.6 110.2 110.7 102.5 102.4 100.3 100.2 104.8 105.1 107.4 106.3
November 103.4 103.5 104.0 104.2 103.9 104.4 104.1 103.7 107.7 108.5 100.8 101.1 101.2 100.7 103.0 102.8 107.6 106.4
December 102.6 102.9 104.4 104.5 104.1 104.5 103.8 103.5 103.6 103.8 98.6 99.0 100.9 100.5 102.3 102.2 107.3 106.0
2015
January 102.5 102.9 105.7 105.9 104.1 104.5 104.0 103.6 103.6 103.3 96.6 97.6 101.3 101.2 101.8 101.6 107.9 106.7
February 103.4 103.6 106.0 106.2 104.1 104.5 104.8 104.4 106.1 106.0 98.1 98.9 101.4 100.9 104.1 105.0 108.2 107.0
March 104.1 104.3 106.0 106.2 104.3 104.8 105.2 104.8 109.7 109.6 99.9 100.5 100.8 101.1 104.8 106.0 108.5 107.2
April 104.0 104.1 105.9 106.2 104.1 104.6 105.5 105.0 109.4 109.5 99.9 100.3 101.4 100.8 103.9 104.3 109.0 107.6
May 104.6 104.7 107.0 107.2 104.2 104.7 105.5 105.0 108.1 107.8 101.0 101.3 101.9 101.3 106.0 106.8 109.4 107.9
June 104.9 104.9 107.1 107.4 104.5 104.9 105.7 105.4 105.8 105.3 102.3 102.3 101.7 101.5 106.7 107.6 109.5 108.1
July 104.9 105.0 107.1 107.3 104.7 105.2 105.8 105.5 105.8 105.4 102.0 101.9 101.8 101.3 107.2 108.5 109.6 108.1
August 104.9 105.0 107.0 107.2 104.8 105.3 106.1 105.8 106.9 107.2 100.9 100.8 101.7 101.1 107.7 109.2 109.9 108.3
September 104.8 104.8 106.6 106.9 104.8 105.3 106.2 105.9 110.0 110.4 99.0 99.1 101.9 101.2 108.3 109.3 110.1 108.6
October 104.9 104.9 107.1 107.2 105.1 105.6 106.3 106.0 111.1 111.3 99.3 99.4 101.9 101.1 106.8 107.5 110.1 108.5
November 104.8 104.9 107.6 107.7 105.2 105.8 105.6 105.7 110.0 110.3 99.7 100.0 102.6 102.0 104.9 104.9 110.7 109.0
December 104.3 104.6 108.3 108.5 105.2 105.9 105.4 105.7 104.3 104.5 99.1 99.7 102.1 101.6 104.1 103.7 110.5 108.7
2016
January 104.5 104.9 109.9 110.3 105.3 106.0 105.7 106.0 103.3 103.0 98.7 99.5 102.5 101.8 104.1 103.7 111.2 109.4
February 104.8 105.2 110.2 110.6 105.4 106.0 106.6 106.6 104.8 104.7 97.6 98.6 102.5 101.9 105.7 106.2 111.7 109.9
March 105.4 105.7 109.8 110.2 105.5 106.1 107.0 106.9 109.2 109.1 98.9 99.6 102.4 101.7 106.9 108.0 112.5 110.6
April 105.8 106.0 109.3 109.6 105.6 106.3 107.1 107.0 109.2 109.4 100.9 101.5 103.1 102.2 106.4 106.7 112.7 110.9
May 106.2 106.4 108.9 109.1 105.7 106.5 107.6 107.4 109.2 109.5 102.1 102.6 103.2 102.4 107.7 108.7 112.9 111.1
June 106.4 106.7 108.5 108.7 106.1 106.9 107.8 107.8 107.1 107.4 103.4 103.7 103.1 102.3 108.0 109.3 112.8 111.0
July 106.3 106.6 108.8 108.9 106.4 107.2 107.8 107.7 105.3 105.4 101.7 102.4 103.0 101.9 109.3 111.1 113.1 111.2
August 106.1 106.5 108.1 108.1 106.6 107.4 107.7 107.8 106.5 107.0 101.2 101.8 103.5 102.1 108.9 110.8 113.2 111.4
September 106.2 106.5 106.7 106.6 106.6 107.5 107.4 107.6 110.1 110.7 101.3 101.9 103.3 103.0 109.7 110.9 113.5 111.7
October 106.4 106.7 106.3 106.1 107.1 108.2 107.6 107.7 110.9 111.4 102.3 102.8 103.6 103.2 108.4 108.8 113.8 112.0
November 106.0 106.5 106.8 106.6 107.4 108.5 107.1 107.5 108.6 109.5 101.1 101.8 103.7 103.3 107.1 107.0 113.8 111.9
December 105.9 106.3 106.8 106.6 107.4 108.5 106.9 107.4 104.6 105.3 102.1 102.7 103.5 103.2 106.3 105.9 113.6 111.7
2017
January 106.8 107.2 107.5 107.4 107.8 108.9 107.0 107.4 103.6 103.8 105.0 105.5 104.1 103.5 107.3 107.6 114.3 112.4
February 106.9 107.4 107.7 107.5 107.7 108.8 107.2 107.7 105.7 106.0 104.1 104.6 104.1 103.5 109.2 110.8 114.6 112.7
March 107.1 107.6 107.8 107.5 107.7 108.8 107.0 107.5 108.2 108.5 103.5 104.0 104.2 103.6 110.8 113.6 115.0 113.0
April 107.5 108.0 108.1 107.8 107.9 109.0 107.7 107.9 107.1 107.3 105.1 105.8 104.8 104.5 109.8 111.7 115.3 113.3
May 107.6 108.0 108.7 108.6 107.7 108.7 107.8 108.0 107.6 107.6 104.4 105.1 104.7 104.4 110.4 112.7 115.7 113.7
June 107.5 108.0 109.1 109.0 107.8 108.8 108.1 108.3 105.2 105.1 104.0 104.6 105.0 104.5 110.8 113.1 116.1 114.0
July 107.5 108.1 109.5 109.4 107.7 108.6 107.7 108.1 105.2 105.0 103.6 104.3 105.2 104.8 111.7 114.4 116.4 114.4
August 107.6 108.1 109.1 108.9 108.0 109.0 107.4 108.0 106.0 105.8 104.0 104.7 105.5 104.9 111.2 114.0 116.6 114.6
September 107.8 108.3 108.2 107.8 108.1 109.0 107.0 107.9 107.6 107.6 105.1 105.9 105.1 104.7 112.1 114.5 117.0 115.0
October 107.9 108.3 107.7 107.2 108.5 109.5 107.8 108.3 109.2 109.2 105.4 106.0 105.7 105.1 110.0 111.3 116.9 114.9
November 108.2 108.7 108.6 108.1 108.7 109.8 108.1 108.6 108.4 108.7 107.1 107.8 104.8 104.6 109.0 110.0 117.0 114.9
December 107.8 108.4 109.0 108.7 108.9 110.0 106.5 107.8 105.1 105.7 107.1 107.7 105.0 104.7 107.2 107.5 116.8 114.7
2018
January 108.6 109.0 110.0 109.6 109.3 110.4 107.8 108.5 104.3 104.7 108.3 109.0 105.6 105.0 107.8 108.4 117.5 115.4
February 109.2 109.7 110.0 109.6 109.5 110.5 108.7 109.7 106.1 106.7 108.7 109.3 106.0 105.4 110.0 111.9 118.1 116.0
March 109.6 110.0 109.6 109.0 109.5 110.5 108.3 109.4 108.1 108.6 108.9 109.6 106.6 105.7 112.2 115.5 119.5 117.3
April 109.9 110.1 110.0 109.5 109.8 110.7 109.2 110.0 109.4 109.8 110.1 110.8 106.5 105.8 109.6 110.8 120.9 118.6
May 110.0 110.5 109.9 109.3 109.9 110.8 108.2 109.5 108.5 108.8 110.3 111.2 106.2 105.6 112.3 115.0 121.0 118.7
June 110.1 110.5 110.6 110.1 109.9 110.8 108.0 109.5 107.2 107.5 110.9 111.7 106.6 105.6 111.5 113.2 121.6 119.2
July 110.7 111.2 111.0 110.5 110.3 111.1 108.5 109.7 105.8 106.0 112.1 112.9 106.4 105.5 113.7 117.2 121.7 119.3
August 110.6 111.0 110.9 110.3 110.5 111.2 108.3 109.8 106.6 107.1 111.5 112.0 106.9 105.9 113.3 116.5 122.0 119.6

Notes


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