Latest Developments in the Canadian Economic Accounts
Measuring digital economic activities in Canada: initial estimates

Release date: May 3, 2019 Correction date: May 9, 2019

Correction Notice

The breakdown of digital economy jobs by domain (found in Tables 2.1 to 2.14) were incorrectly ordered. The issue did not affect the estimates of total jobs nor did it affect any of the estimates for output and gross domestic product (GDP).

Acknowledgements

This paper was prepared by Amanda Sinclair of the National Economic Accounts Division, Statistics Canada.

This work would not have been possible without the invaluable contributions of Catherine Ayotte, and Andrew Barclay as well as support from Monique Deschambault, Demi Kotsovos, Denise Lafleur, Emmanuel Manolikakis, Julie Smith, Catherine Van Rompaey, James Tebrake and Mark Uhrbach.

Statistics Canada would also like to thank the staff from the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) for sharing their knowledge and experience with us.

Introduction

Advancements in technology and the Internet have fundamentally changed how people and businesses interact and how they produce, distribute and consume goods and services. Not long ago people would typically hire a travel agent to book a vacation, or go to a store to buy a new pair of shoes or rent a movie. Today we can search and compare hundreds of hotel prices ourselves, rent someone else’s home for our vacation, buy products from all over the world and stream a seemingly endless supply of videos—all from the comforts of our home.

As technological advancement continues and digitalization rapidly expands to affect more segments of the economy, there is an increasing need to accurately measure and assess its impacts. Statistics Canada is responding to this challenge by working towards defining and measuring the economic value of digital economic activities in Canada, the provinces and territories.  

This paper presents Statistics Canada’s working definition of the digital economy as well as initial estimates on the output, gross domestic product (GDP) and jobs associated with those activities. The first section provides an overview of the methodology and data sources used to compile the estimates. From there the initial estimates are presented and analysed in context of the total Canadian economy. Finally, the paper outlines some of the limitations of these initial estimates as well as next steps in improving measures of the digitalization of the economy in the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (CMEA).

Methodology

The estimates presented in this paper were derived within the Canadian Supply and Use Framework following the same methods used by Statistics Canada for deriving other satellite accounts. The Supply and Use Tables (SUTs) capture and present the production of products by domestic industries, imports of products as well as their use, either ad inputs, final consumption, investment or exports. However, at times, the classifications that are used in the SUTs hide economic activity that may be important for analytical purposes. Satellite accounting involves disaggregating and recompiling the information from the SUTs into new categories in order to better understand an activity or sector, such as digital transactions.

While built with the Canadian SUTs, this paper applies the same concepts and definitions of the digital economy as used by the U.S. BEA  in “Defining and Measuring the Digital Economy”.Note  These estimates build upon the work done by U.S. BEA by including some “partial” digital products where data was available. 

This work also borrows heavily from the digital economy measurement literature from the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), including its proposed framework for a satellite account for measuring the digital economy.Note  However, due to limitations in available data on the nature of all digital economy transactions, it was not feasible at this time to do a full breakdown of the Canadian SUTs into the recommended digitally-ordered, digitally-delivered and platform-enabled transactions. As a first step we have identified products within the SUTs that either primarily or partially fall into one of the above transaction categories.

The methodology for deriving the estimates of the digital economy in Canada consisted of the following three steps:

  1. Developing a product framework for the digital economy;
  2. Identifying ‘full’ and ‘partial’ digital products, based on the above definition, within the Canadian SUTs;
  3. Estimating the economic value of digital economic activities, in terms of output, GDP and jobs.

Using this methodology, estimates of the digital economy were derived for Canada and the provinces and territories for the period from 2010 to 2015. Estimates for reference years 2016 and 2017 relied on projections of GDP by industry to derive preliminary estimates of gross output and GDP by industry. These preliminary estimates assume the same production function and output distribution as the latest available SUT benchmark year. The output and GDP estimates presented in this paper are valued in nominal basic prices.

1. Product framework for the digital economy

Perhaps the biggest challenge with measuring the digital economy is the lack of a clear and agreed upon definition as to what it should include. As technology and business models continue to evolve at a rapid pace so too should a definition of the digital economy. For this reason, rather than attempting to solidify a complete definition of the digital economy, this paper presents a working list of products that reflect activities within a digitalized economy. The list of products is based on the OECD’s digital economy measurement framework and can be broken down into the following categories: 1) digitally-enabled infrastructure, 2) digitally-ordered transactions (e-commerce), and 3) digitally-delivered products.Note 

Digitally-enabled infrastructure

Technology is the foundation for digitalization and therefore computers and their networks should be captured in estimates of the digital economy. Digital-enabling infrastructure includes the information technology equipment, systems, software, services, and structures upon which the digital economy relies to function (OECD 2011). The U.S. BEA proposed the following categorization of digital-enabling infrastructureNote 

Digitally-ordered transactions (e-commerce)

A defining feature of a digitalized economy is the ability to conduct transactions through digital channels, in other words e-commerce.  In measuring e-commerce, Statistics Canada follows the OECD definition which is “the sale of goods or services where the order is received and the commitment to purchase is made via the Internet, even if payment is made by other means”.Note  Some examples of e-commerce transactions include purchasing goods online and either picking them up in store or having them shipped to your house. E-commerce can also include buying a movie admission ticket via a mobile app, making a hotel reservation on the hotel’s website, or purchasing products that are delivered digitally (i.e. in digital format) such as music downloads or video streaming.

E-commerce, or digitally-ordered transactions, can be business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C) or peer-to-peer (P2P). B2B and B2C e-commerce transactions consist of the sale of goods and services over the Internet. While P2P transactions also use the Internet to sell goods and services, they can also be classified as platform-enabled as they often involve a third party to facilitate transactions via a digital platform.    

The OECD proposed framework for a digital economy satellite account also recommends that platform-enabled transactions be distinguished from traditional e-commerce transactions.  However, there are many challenges in identifying and measuring platform-enabled transactions.

Digitally-delivered products

Digitally-delivered products consists of content transmitted and consumed in digital format. It seems as though every day more and more products are being delivered and consumed in digital format, whether it is purchasing or renting music and videos, reading books and newspapers, storing photos and documents or accessing banking services online.

For the purposes of these estimates, Statistics Canada considers digitally-delivered products as those that are created, delivered, accessed or consumed in digital format. In addition to digital products themselves, any legal rights or licences that accompany the sale and distribution of digitally-delivered creative content are included. 

This definition allows for the inclusion of free media, which is content accessed with no direct cost to consumers. For the time being, however, Statistics Canada has limited the estimates to direct sales of digitally-delivered content. The consumption of free digital content, while important for discussions about consumer surplus and social welfare, is not directly measured within the CMEA.

2. Identifying digital products within the Canadian Supply and Use Tables

Once the working definition of the digital economy was developed, products that fit within each domain were identified in the Canadian SUTs. The Canadian SUTs use the Supply and Use Product Classification (SUPC) system, a variant based on the North American Product Classification System (NAPCS), to classify products within the economy. Products within the SUPC were identified as either ‘full’ or ‘partial’ digital economy products and grouped into their corresponding digital economy domains. A complete list of the included products can be found in Annex A.

A product is classified as a ‘full’ digital economy product if its purpose is exclusively or primarily within one of the digital economy domains outlined above.  Some examples of ‘full’ digital economy product include computers, computer peripherals and parts, general purpose software as well as mobile and fixed internet access services. The functions of these products are exclusively to enable digital computing, processing and communication and therefore are included in measures of the digital economy in their entirety.

Products are classified as ‘partial’ digital economy products if they are comprised of both digital and non-digital components. For example, books can either be in digital format (e-books) or in physical print format. These products were evaluated to determine if they could be split into digital and non-digital components. In the end, not all identified ‘partial’ products could be included as, in many cases, data was not available to identify the digital components.

Digitally-enabled infrastructure

Following this approach, nearly all computer hardware and software products, telecommunication goods and services and support services were identified as full digital economy products and included within the digitally-enabled infrastructure domain. One exception was in the support services category, where education services were identified as a partial digital economy product. Including education as a support service to the digital economy is based on the idea that for the digital economy to function it requires the necessary knowledge and skills to create, maintain and develop digitally-enabled infrastructure and other resulting digital products.

To meet this requirement, a portion of postsecondary education services, as well as trade, technical and professional training services assumed to support the digital economy, were included. Statistics Canada’s Postsecondary Student Information System (PSIS), a national survey providing information on student enrollments in Canadian public postsecondary institutions, was used to estimate the share of enrollments in identified digital-enabling education programs relative to total enrollments. The PSIS classifies enrollments using the Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) from which digital-enabling programs were identified. The complete list of digital-enabling programs identified and used can be found in Annex B.

While the PSIS only tracks enrollments in public postsecondary institutions, it was used to estimate the share of digital-enabling education services for both public and private education services. This was necessary due to a lack of data available on the types of education and training programs offered by private organizations in Canada.

Although arguments could be made to include a wider list of education programs supporting the digital economy, (for example business management), at this time, only programs that provide knowledge and skills directly related to the creation and use of digital technology were included. Additionally, it would make sense to include a portion of primary and secondary education services as the resulting knowledge and skills are necessary to pursue postsecondary education and in turn support the digital economy. However, due to data limitations, no primary or secondary education services could be included in the digital economy estimates.

Similarly, the production of government organizations and regulators supporting the digital economy were not included. Government finance statistics do not currently contain sufficient detail to support this analysis. Future releases of these estimates may identify these amounts.

Finally, within the digital-enabling infrastructure domain, Statistics Canada did not include structures and IoT because of the difficulty in determining an accurate split of these products into their digital and non-digital components.

Digitally-ordered transactions (e-commerce)

When it comes to digitally-ordered transactions, the portion of wholesale and retail margins attributable to e-commerce were included. Data from the e-commerce modules on the Annual Wholesale Trade Survey, the Annual Retail Trade Survey and the Annual Retail Non-store Survey were used to estimate the portion of sales attributable to e-commerce transactions for each wholesale and retail industry. These e-commerce ratios were then applied to each wholesale and retail margin by industry.

The only non-margin product included within the digitally-ordered domain was travel arrangements, reservation and planning services. This product category includes services associated with planning and booking transportation and accommodation services as well as entertainment and recreation services. Research identified that these types of services are primarily conducted via the Internet, even when there is an intermediary or travel agent facilitating the transaction. While the presence of intermediary platforms suggests this product be separated into its own category, there is a lack of detail to separate out those transactions that are platform enabled and those that are not. For the time being Statistics Canada decided to include this product within the digitally-ordered (e-commerce) domain.

Digitally-delivered products

Statistics Canada identified several full and a few partial digitally-delivered products to be included within the estimates. Most of the full digitally-delivered products were media products, such as movies, videos, music and other sound recordings, which today are most often created and delivered (either to intermediaries or final consumers) in digital format. In addition to the these digital media products, the associated licensing and broadcasting rights were included, as content creators typically sell rights to others to distribute their content. From the broadcasting side, fees for distribution as well as advertising revenue generated based on their distribution were included.

The identified partial digitally-delivered products include other media products sometimes created and delivered in digital format, such as books, newspapers and magazines. For these products digital ratios were derived using data from the corresponding service industry, which collect information on the proportion of sales attributable to the digitally-delivered version of the industries’ main products. For books, a ratio for sales of e-books was derived, while for newspapers and magazines, digital ratios were based on sales for digital versions of the products themselves, including advertising in the digitally-delivered products.

A limitation of these partial digitally-delivered media products is that data on the digital components were only available for the primary producing industry. For example, sales of e-books was only available for the book publishing industry. The result is that these partial digitally-delivered products could not be split between the digital and non-digital components for the entire economy.

As mentioned earlier, Statistics Canada does not directly measure the consumption of free media products, such as watching videos broadcasted on the Internet. Advertising revenue earned by platforms that distribute free media content are captured in the CMEA and included in digital economy estimates as internet advertising. Additionally, income earned by individuals from posting creative content on free distribution sites or social media ‘influencers’ is included in the CMEA. However, there are challenges in capturing this activity as with all household production, due to potential under-reporting and misclassification of revenuesNote . For these reasons, it is difficult to identify which products to include in this activity.

The final partial digitally delivered product included in these initial estimates is explicit banking service fees. Everyday more and more financial services, such as checking account balances, depositing cheques, transferring funds, paying bills or applying for credit, are provided online. In fact some financial institutions only offer online services and do not have a physical presence in the form of ‘bricks and mortar’ branches for consumers to access their services.

There are several challenges with including banking service fees within these estimates. First, financial institutions do not necessarily charge a direct fee for accessing or using their online services, but rather bundle access to online services within other charges. Moreover, some explicit banking service fees are charged for financial services that are not digitally delivered, for example, an overdrawn account or a non-sufficient fund charge on an account are not associated with online access to banking services. Despite these challenges it is important to include, at least partially, some of the explicit banking fees charges by financial institutions in estimates of the digital economy.

The portion of explicit banking fees included was derived using detailed information on the types of explicit service fees charged by banks and credit unions in Canada relative to their total revenue from explicit charges. Additional information on the proportion of Canadians who use online or mobile banking as their primary method of banking was also taken into considerationNote .

3. Estimating the economic value of digital economic activities

After identifying the full and partial digital products, the output of these products were aggregated by industry. As indicated above, all of the output is taken for those products identified as full while only a portion of the output for the partial products is included. The digital portions for each of the partial products were estimated using additional data from surveys and administrative sources, regarding the products components.

The aggregate output of all the identified digital products by industry was divided by the total output for each industry taken from the supply table. The resulting ratios were then used to estimate the GDP and jobs, by industry. Table 1 illustrates how the digital output ratios were calculated and applied to GDP and jobs by industry and for the entire economy.


Table 1
Example of the method used for calculating digital output, gross domestic product (GDP), and jobs using the supply and use tables
Table summary
This table displays the results of Example of the method used for calculating digital output Industry A, Industry B and Total economy, calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Industry A Industry B Total economy
number
Output
Product A: fully digital product 5,000 10,000 15,000
Product B: partially digital product 3,000 0 3,000
Product B.1: digital portion 2,000 0 2,000
Product B.2: non-digital portion 1,000 0 1,000
Product C: all other products (non-digital) 12,500 2,000 14,500
Total output 23,500 12,000 35,500
Digital output (product A + product B.1) 7,000 10,000 17,000
Digital output ratio (digital output ÷ total output) 0.29 0.83 0.48
Total GDP 12,750 8,000 20,750
Digital economy GDP (total GDP × digital output ratio) 3,570 6,640 10,210
Total jobs 1,000 2,500 3,500
Digital economy jobs (total jobs × digital output ratio) 280 2,075 2,355

The approach taken assumed that the relationship between an industry’s intermediate inputs and output for digital products was the same as its total output. The same assumption was applied when estimating jobs for the digital economy. The methodology used to derive the estimates in this paper assumed that the production function of an industry is the same for digital and non-digital output.

While this assumption is limiting, there is currently a lack of available data on the intermediate inputs associated with the production of digital products versus non-digital products. Incorporating more information on intermediate inputs and jobs attributable to the production of digital products is something that can be improved as Statistics Canada continues to refine estimates of the digital economy. This and other challenges are discussed later in the paper.    

Results

The following estimates of the digital economy were derived according to the methods outlined previously. They represent a first attempt at estimating the size, growth and nature of digital economic activities in Canada. Digital economic activities, commonly referred to as the digital economy, include those activities that enable digitization or are highly affected by it. All dollar values are expressed in nominal basic prices. A complete set of tables, by province and territory, are available at the end of this report.

Gross domestic product

The nominal GDP associated with digital economic activities in Canada totalled $109.7 billion in 2017 or 5.5% of the total economy.

While the digital economy is not an industry, to give a scale of its importance, in 2015 it was larger than mining, quarrying and oil and gas extraction (4.8%), transportation and warehousing (4.6%) and utilities (2.4%).Note 

Chart 1 Proportion of total gross domestic product (GDP) by sector, Canada, 2015

Data table for Chart 1 
Data table for Chart 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 1 . The information is grouped by Sector (appearing as row headers), Percent (appearing as column headers).
Sector Percent
Management of companies and enterprises 0.7
Arts, entertainment and recreation 0.8
Agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting 1.8
Other services (except public administration) 2.1
Accommodation and food services 2.2
Utilities 2.4
Administrative and support, waste management and remediation services 2.9
Information and cultural industries 3.1
Transportation and warehousing 4.6
Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 4.8
Retail trade 5.0
Wholesale trade 5.2
Digital economy 5.5
Educational services 5.6
Professional, scientific and technical services 5.9
Finance and insurance 6.7
Public administration 7.1
Health care and social assistance 7.5
Construction 8.1
Manufacturing 10.7
Real estate and rental and leasing 12.9

Between 2010 and 2017, nominal GDP for the digital economy (+40.2%) grew more than the total economy (+28%). On an annual basis, the digital economy increased more than the total economy every year except 2011 and 2017, which were years of strong growth in the energy sector.

Chart 2 Growth in gross domestic product (GDP) for the digital economy and the total economy, Canada, 2011 to 2017

Data table for Chart 2 
Data table for Chart 2
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 2 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using % units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
%
Digital economy 5.1 4.0 8.8 5.5 3.3 4.0 3.9
Total economy 6.6 2.9 4.2 4.8 -0.6 1.7 5.7

Telecommunications and support services, part of the digital-enabling infrastructure domain, were the largest contributors to the digital economy in Canada. However, between 2010 and 2017 the contribution of the telecommunications sub-domain declined from roughly 37% in 2010 to slightly under 30% by 2017. During the same period, the same period the contribution of e-commerce more than doubled, increasing from 5.5% of the digital economy in 2010 to 12.4% in 2017.

Chart 3 Contribution to digital economy gross domestic product by domain, Canada, 2010 to 2017

Data table for Chart 3 
Data table for Chart 3
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 3 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using % units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
%
E-commerce 5.5 5.4 5.3 10.0 10.5 11.4 12.1 12.4
Hardware 8.1 7.3 6.3 5.7 5.9 5.7 5.8 5.9
Digitally-delivered products 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.7 11.7 10.5 10.6 10.5
Software 15.7 15.7 16.2 15.1 15.6 15.8 15.7 15.9
Support services 22.9 23.9 25.1 24.4 25.1 25.8 26.1 26.6
Telecommunications 36.9 36.6 36.1 33.1 31.2 30.9 29.7 28.7

On a regional basis, the nominal value added of the digital economy in 2017 was the largest in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The three territories and Saskatchewan had the smallest digital economy GDP as a proportion of their total economies.

Between 2010 and 2017 the nominal GDP of digital economic activities grew in all provinces and territories. However, when compared to growth in the total economy, Manitoba, Yukon and Nunavut saw slower growth in digital economy GDP over the seven year period.

Chart 4 Digital economy gross domestic product (GDP) as a proportion of the total economy, by province and territory, 2017

Data table for Chart 4 
Data table for Chart 4
Table summary
This table displays the results of Data table for Chart 4. The information is grouped by Geography (appearing as row headers), Percent (appearing as column headers).
Geography Percent
Canada 5.5
N.L. 3.1
P.E.I. 3.8
N.S. 4.5
N.B. 3.8
Que. 5.6
Ont. 7.1
Man. 3.3
Sask. 2.5
Alta. 3.6
B.C. 5.2
Y.T. 2.8
N.W.T. 2.1
Nvt. 1.4

Output

In 2017, the digital economy produced $207.7 billion of goods and services, an increase of 6.4% from the previous year. This growth was led by increased output of support services (+11.1%), followed by e-commerce (+9.2%).   

Of all the provinces and territories, Ontario produced the most digital economy goods and services in 2017, while British Columbia saw the largest increase in digital economy output in 2017. Yukon and the Northwest Territories were the only two jurisdictions where output of the digital economy declined in 2017.

Jobs

In 2017 there were 886,114 jobsNote  associated with digital economic activities, representing 4.7% of all jobs in Canada.

This estimate includes all jobs, paid and self-employed, associated with the production of digital economy output. For example, a custodian working in the telecommunications industry is captured in these estimates because they contribute to the output of telecommunications services. A data analyst or computer engineer working in the agriculture industry, however, is not reflected in these job estimates as the agriculture industry does not have any digital output, according to the definition used in this paper.  

This proportion of digital economy jobs was smaller than the digital economy share of total GDP and output. Nevertheless, jobs associated with the digital economy (+37.0%) grew three times more than the total economy (+8.6%) between 2010 and 2017.

The largest contributors to digital economy jobs in 2017 were the support services domain (30.2%), followed by e-commerce (18.6%). The hardware domain (6.4%) had the smallest share of digital economy jobs in Canada.

On a regional basis, British Columbia (+49.1%) and Quebec (+41.0%) saw the largest gains in digital economy jobs between 2010 and 2017, while Newfoundland and Labrador (-9.1%) and the Northwest Territories (-3.5%) recorded losses in digital economy jobs over the same time period.

Future improvements

The estimates presented in this paper are an important first step towards measuring digital economic activities in Canada. They provide a working definition of the digital economy, which can be built upon as measurement frameworks progress and new data sources become available.

The methodology used to derive these initial estimates follows the same approach used for other satellite accounts, focusing on the output of certain products to estimate the economic importance of a desired sector. While this approach does provide useful information on, in this case, the digital economy, it comes with certain limitations.

First, as mentioned above, the assumption that an industry’s production function is the same for the production of digital and non-digital output, is not precise. However, a lack of data on the inputs specific to the production of digital output makes it a necessary assumption. The limitations of this assumption are less significant for those industries that primarily produce one type of output, in this case, digital products, as the production function would be more homogenous.

Another limitation of the approach is that it only measures the output, GDP and jobs of industries that produce digital economy goods and services. These initial estimates do not include the uses of digital products in the production process. For example, industries such as health care and agriculture, while users of digital technologies, do not produce digital goods and services. Expanding the estimates to include the uses of digital products would be more provide a more complete picture of the digitalization of the economy. The ability to include more partial digital products would also increase the representativeness of the estimates.

As discussed above, consumption of free media products are not included in initial estimates of the digital economy. As with official measures of GDP, advertising revenue earned by platforms in Canada that distribute free media are included. Income earned from posting creative content should be included according to existing concepts and recommended treatment, although it is difficult to evaluate the extent to which it is fully captured in available measures. Statistics Canada will continue to collaborate with international organizations and national statistics offices to advance concepts and measures in this area.

In addition to free media, data were not measured as a distinct product and/or asset in GDP. Statistics Canada is working jointly with the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis and other international organizations to develop a framework for defining and measuring data within the CMEA

In order to enhance these initial estimates, as well as ensure that core economic measures, such as GDP, reflect our economic reality, Statistics Canada needs to look beyond traditional data sources. Digitalization is changing the way people interact and how goods and services are produced, delivered and consumed. Changing business models and new technologies mean that products can easily be produced by anyone and purchased from anywhere in the world. Many traditional household and business surveys are not well-suited to measure the globalization or digitalization of consumption, increasing household production or the role of digital intermediary platforms in economic transactions. New data sources, collection and estimation methods, such as crowdsourcing, web scrapping and machine learning, must be exploited so that new and emerging phenomenon related to the digitalization of the economy are captured in our economic and social statistics.

Tables, by province and territory


Table 2.1
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 78,241,137 82,200,478 85,516,034 93,074,795 98,186,598 101,475,422 105,519,259 109,660,277
Digitally-delivered products 8,586,003 9,050,186 9,415,068 10,846,392 11,517,080 10,664,434 11,202,083 11,563,074
E-commerce 4,284,598 4,471,156 4,539,987 9,345,810 10,313,104 11,543,788 12,807,034 13,601,934
Infrastructure - Hardware 6,333,350 6,021,472 5,359,931 5,289,109 5,822,335 5,743,070 6,127,301 6,425,921
Infrastructure - Software 12,251,200 12,915,963 13,854,843 14,067,015 15,309,882 16,029,321 16,578,163 17,440,779
Infrastructure - Support services 17,939,011 19,649,060 21,505,328 22,694,132 24,597,061 26,171,741 27,488,529 29,184,800
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 28,846,975 30,092,641 30,840,877 30,832,336 30,627,137 31,323,067 31,316,150 31,443,768
Output 140,788,370 146,481,255 151,341,553 165,849,761 176,769,864 184,630,222 195,172,921 207,704,048
Digitally-delivered products 19,325,957 19,963,530 20,724,420 22,985,543 23,517,419 24,409,604 25,804,745 27,205,891
E-commerce 6,936,212 7,094,883 7,433,489 15,553,008 17,185,760 19,675,675 22,458,594 24,529,278
Infrastructure - Hardware 15,956,821 15,464,885 14,263,469 14,007,227 16,568,839 16,228,816 17,725,585 18,714,587
Infrastructure - Software 20,822,804 21,670,526 22,900,088 23,030,973 24,930,702 26,096,540 27,346,218 29,477,225
Infrastructure - Support services 29,831,690 32,089,663 34,539,355 37,568,746 40,413,547 43,111,149 45,763,561 50,830,033
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 47,914,886 50,197,768 51,480,733 52,704,265 54,153,596 55,108,438 56,074,219 56,947,034
number of jobs
Jobs 646,729 664,970 678,029 765,367 781,698 811,590 852,012 886,114
Digitally-delivered products 88,644 91,385 93,687 115,787 116,782 124,959 134,599 135,908
E-commerce 66,407 66,298 66,821 127,893 134,426 149,223 160,469 164,549
Infrastructure - Hardware 57,361 55,515 51,349 51,823 56,179 52,962 56,439 56,995
Infrastructure - Software 127,401 132,242 136,212 130,213 137,494 138,658 144,017 152,170
Infrastructure - Support services 182,801 195,254 205,469 218,502 225,498 237,246 248,816 267,746
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 124,115 124,275 124,491 121,148 111,319 108,542 107,672 108,745

Table 2.2
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Newfoundland and Labrador

Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 680,925 742,362 806,711 808,589 806,387 841,214 951,300 952,222
Digitally-delivered products 53,734 59,514 58,346 59,719 59,963 58,065 47,981 48,227
E-commerce 38,953 35,288 33,101 45,884 62,142 56,459 71,270 56,543
Infrastructure - Hardware 6,669 20,984 12,894 20,561 13,337 7,705 17,628 19,822
Infrastructure - Software 62,887 77,861 92,533 81,951 85,950 93,219 90,489 95,334
Infrastructure - Support services 73,507 81,529 71,507 61,149 61,875 79,207 81,440 87,891
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 445,175 467,186 538,331 539,327 523,120 546,559 642,493 644,406
Output 1,211,061 1,312,668 1,332,504 1,378,216 1,434,903 1,513,226 1,714,918 1,750,989
Digitally-delivered products 84,996 91,463 94,066 95,663 93,200 92,290 92,121 94,308
E-commerce 65,016 60,795 57,308 72,971 99,741 90,401 125,738 102,180
Infrastructure - Hardware 28,768 58,283 34,678 64,742 50,004 27,388 67,190 78,084
Infrastructure - Software 99,744 127,327 143,569 135,131 131,369 142,397 154,145 167,966
Infrastructure - Support services 105,389 122,897 103,123 89,028 86,849 112,863 126,625 143,052
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 827,147 851,903 899,760 920,681 973,740 1,047,887 1,149,098 1,165,400
number of jobs
Jobs 4,727 4,858 4,753 4,425 4,479 4,478 4,789 4,297
Digitally-delivered products 596 637 638 613 605 622 626 542
E-commerce 746 717 706 804 1,097 892 1,265 892
Infrastructure - Hardware 67 194 121 176 90 60 110 119
Infrastructure - Software 726 828 979 881 805 818 813 773
Infrastructure - Support services 907 871 809 720 656 779 789 770
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 1,684 1,610 1,501 1,232 1,226 1,307 1,186 1,200

Table 2.3
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Prince Edward Island
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 180,306 185,284 200,997 214,217 229,273 246,228 223,953 232,812
Digitally-delivered products 11,739 12,849 14,992 16,780 16,534 16,359 13,267 13,370
E-commerce 3,467 2,964 2,437 7,077 11,535 9,555 23,102 26,344
Infrastructure - Hardware 7,726 3,666 4,908 6,089 5,570 5,186 5,701 6,898
Infrastructure - Software 30,484 31,950 31,193 32,587 37,233 43,904 34,897 35,128
Infrastructure - Support services 26,092 28,699 29,295 29,940 29,888 34,878 34,310 34,858
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 100,798 105,156 118,171 121,744 128,513 136,346 112,676 116,215
Output 280,596 284,971 298,250 330,539 363,983 376,215 394,501 423,701
Digitally-delivered products 19,132 21,096 25,036 25,973 27,121 24,190 24,212 24,776
E-commerce 6,859 5,516 4,651 26,658 43,594 36,322 38,372 46,606
Infrastructure - Hardware 18,828 10,352 13,163 16,253 13,795 12,378 16,900 22,400
Infrastructure - Software 45,967 47,089 44,042 44,996 51,851 59,903 56,844 58,753
Infrastructure - Support services 40,580 44,483 43,617 45,088 46,827 53,148 56,664 61,007
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 149,231 156,435 167,741 171,571 180,795 190,274 201,510 210,159
number of jobs
Jobs 1,387 1,403 1,608 1,635 1,710 1,771 1,678 1,876
Digitally-delivered products 138 155 189 220 205 195 188 174
E-commerce 82 66 60 150 218 195 194 279
Infrastructure - Hardware 144 80 95 120 90 85 105 150
Infrastructure - Software 402 425 440 417 473 559 523 554
Infrastructure - Support services 355 423 495 459 489 515 490 508
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 265 255 329 269 235 222 178 212

Table 2.4
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Nova Scotia
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 1,482,910 1,499,622 1,597,063 1,633,559 1,704,047 1,835,856 1,736,274 1,768,496
Digitally-delivered products 124,073 118,644 130,704 159,003 144,039 143,802 141,603 139,456
E-commerce 102,294 97,686 104,175 116,786 127,568 138,089 149,982 147,870
Infrastructure - Hardware 55,128 50,313 22,082 45,916 45,782 39,862 42,582 43,360
Infrastructure - Software 172,469 152,816 185,130 172,526 201,862 211,282 211,776 223,624
Infrastructure - Support services 260,813 265,597 268,865 227,431 268,792 375,063 388,359 422,357
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 768,132 814,565 886,107 911,898 916,004 927,759 801,971 791,829
Output 2,454,752 2,424,970 2,484,985 2,590,164 2,707,110 2,943,517 3,110,623 3,244,191
Digitally-delivered products 269,437 258,412 279,667 313,926 282,800 297,986 291,948 295,125
E-commerce 154,134 162,102 161,612 188,143 199,433 218,328 255,574 260,618
Infrastructure - Hardware 160,034 156,097 62,051 134,342 125,912 109,745 133,925 141,490
Infrastructure - Software 289,114 255,009 307,379 278,193 324,162 340,968 352,824 383,723
Infrastructure - Support services 414,470 410,415 407,108 360,583 415,804 593,511 642,086 731,299
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 1,167,562 1,182,935 1,267,169 1,314,977 1,358,999 1,382,979 1,434,265 1,431,937
number of jobs
Jobs 13,248 14,004 14,007 15,102 14,591 15,484 16,116 16,632
Digitally-delivered products 1,756 1,657 1,722 2,329 2,214 2,389 2,528 2,561
E-commerce 2,197 2,162 2,332 2,426 2,409 2,628 2,760 2,700
Infrastructure - Hardware 928 869 384 743 534 554 676 729
Infrastructure - Software 2,220 2,110 2,527 2,378 2,651 2,437 2,542 2,656
Infrastructure - Support services 2,994 3,353 3,362 3,255 3,574 4,578 5,013 5,399
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 3,153 3,854 3,679 3,970 3,209 2,897 2,597 2,587

Table 2.5
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, New Brunswick
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 1,025,930 1,115,184 1,146,066 1,232,750 1,274,031 1,297,203 1,239,243 1,249,876
Digitally-delivered products 71,267 67,963 75,272 83,002 83,978 82,993 80,828 80,598
E-commerce 37,524 49,421 48,499 102,080 125,206 133,948 108,305 127,065
Infrastructure - Hardware 19,373 19,882 13,748 22,775 23,946 26,443 47,348 62,314
Infrastructure - Software 146,817 137,799 145,004 135,018 148,410 164,696 160,482 153,183
Infrastructure - Support services 203,533 244,908 243,969 251,753 250,476 255,363 255,031 237,071
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 547,415 595,210 619,575 638,122 642,014 633,760 587,249 589,644
Output 1,706,455 1,808,173 1,836,939 1,930,895 2,054,761 2,084,279 2,265,936 2,369,443
Digitally-delivered products 126,795 119,093 128,702 137,195 147,749 147,772 141,187 141,114
E-commerce 60,171 69,211 74,928 165,453 202,047 202,506 188,654 232,760
Infrastructure - Hardware 64,473 68,698 36,626 72,700 80,821 80,220 174,903 239,645
Infrastructure - Software 260,663 239,994 248,625 208,045 242,234 262,446 291,393 286,767
Infrastructure - Support services 327,594 386,300 376,707 353,129 364,363 376,420 419,306 402,583
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 866,760 924,876 971,352 994,373 1,017,546 1,014,916 1,050,493 1,066,576
number of jobs
Jobs 8,630 9,444 9,195 10,732 10,921 10,565 10,108 10,570
Digitally-delivered products 932 853 967 1,144 1,082 1,028 968 931
E-commerce 588 825 813 1,756 1,997 1,892 1,669 1,849
Infrastructure - Hardware 356 341 198 379 372 346 683 860
Infrastructure - Software 1,713 1,699 1,748 1,566 1,795 1,787 1,793 1,824
Infrastructure - Support services 2,410 2,949 2,839 2,979 2,956 2,842 3,006 3,083
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 2,632 2,776 2,630 2,907 2,719 2,670 1,990 2,024

Table 2.6
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Quebec
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 15,888,980 16,884,334 17,673,976 19,735,681 20,636,592 20,649,717 21,171,041 21,733,633
Digitally-delivered products 1,655,290 1,648,881 1,758,300 1,937,774 1,978,689 1,831,133 1,996,259 1,923,370
E-commerce 663,204 557,818 546,961 1,677,652 1,937,189 2,149,895 2,287,149 2,239,669
Infrastructure - Hardware 1,599,006 1,743,001 1,590,207 1,723,150 2,041,119 1,804,357 1,671,040 1,819,352
Infrastructure - Software 2,798,304 3,022,881 3,210,465 3,191,790 3,460,433 3,407,135 3,334,955 3,534,911
Infrastructure - Support services 3,672,806 4,026,593 4,638,063 5,454,187 5,868,405 5,697,425 5,865,071 6,267,290
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 5,500,369 5,885,160 5,929,979 5,751,128 5,350,758 5,759,771 6,016,567 5,949,041
Output 29,246,333 31,074,818 32,320,522 36,526,356 37,886,062 38,489,795 39,719,968 41,725,193
Digitally-delivered products 3,633,183 3,738,583 3,975,335 4,487,943 4,370,963 4,644,764 4,765,159 4,651,973
E-commerce 1,167,431 987,374 1,086,648 2,892,518 3,286,674 3,689,500 4,042,574 4,077,020
Infrastructure - Hardware 4,066,895 4,320,103 4,042,444 4,537,071 5,148,385 4,626,308 4,785,149 5,171,849
Infrastructure - Software 4,678,699 4,969,857 5,198,373 5,181,305 5,472,786 5,479,259 5,607,598 6,100,991
Infrastructure - Support services 6,025,485 6,414,865 7,332,090 8,729,409 9,076,528 9,231,631 9,758,076 10,963,898
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 9,674,639 10,644,036 10,685,632 10,698,110 10,530,726 10,818,333 10,761,412 10,759,462
number of jobs
Jobs 145,775 150,944 158,198 175,623 181,340 184,365 198,460 205,496
Digitally-delivered products 20,622 19,635 20,818 25,190 26,199 26,968 31,332 31,998
E-commerce 13,021 11,738 12,144 27,036 28,412 30,585 32,423 31,411
Infrastructure - Hardware 15,984 17,087 16,316 18,023 20,420 17,752 18,540 18,437
Infrastructure - Software 30,112 33,048 33,754 30,669 32,390 32,162 34,006 36,075
Infrastructure - Support services 38,851 42,434 47,927 51,952 54,147 57,016 60,116 65,432
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 27,186 27,002 27,240 22,754 19,771 19,881 22,043 22,143

Table 2.7
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Ontario
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 37,060,410 38,834,921 40,042,978 43,232,419 45,465,840 47,723,639 51,722,483 54,408,617
Digitally-delivered products 4,683,622 4,873,529 5,060,456 5,990,060 6,299,832 5,792,106 6,013,868 6,225,957
E-commerce 2,080,655 2,539,573 2,536,539 4,625,308 4,977,309 5,551,813 6,410,427 7,073,897
Infrastructure - Hardware 3,781,728 3,362,900 2,891,706 2,620,336 2,782,562 2,789,606 3,263,854 3,334,586
Infrastructure - Software 5,767,974 6,058,373 6,388,069 6,579,579 7,060,705 7,862,039 8,495,256 9,054,930
Infrastructure - Support services 9,334,513 10,277,726 11,143,292 11,554,826 12,309,416 13,469,520 14,631,374 15,600,645
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 11,411,917 11,722,821 12,022,916 11,862,310 12,036,017 12,258,555 12,907,705 13,118,602
Output 69,909,617 72,303,810 74,010,378 80,082,945 85,077,974 89,681,333 95,944,862 103,043,925
Digitally-delivered products 11,017,902 11,335,574 11,686,625 12,827,609 13,084,022 13,172,442 13,898,090 14,564,130
E-commerce 3,307,734 3,812,389 3,912,291 7,718,636 8,286,592 9,579,787 11,284,279 12,753,159
Infrastructure - Hardware 9,149,725 8,516,910 7,763,737 6,854,361 8,572,662 8,417,919 9,365,000 9,644,155
Infrastructure - Software 9,987,784 10,354,281 10,709,968 10,902,389 11,733,284 12,931,128 13,843,883 15,092,529
Infrastructure - Support services 15,817,908 17,103,984 18,200,031 19,717,937 21,002,959 22,821,394 24,408,120 27,188,821
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 20,628,563 21,180,672 21,737,727 22,062,012 22,398,456 22,758,663 23,145,490 23,801,131
number of jobs
Jobs 304,402 314,646 317,366 361,468 365,682 378,900 398,973 416,464
Digitally-delivered products 40,432 41,943 43,601 56,332 52,980 57,626 61,510 61,911
E-commerce 28,915 31,042 31,115 58,597 61,476 67,679 73,254 77,268
Infrastructure - Hardware 30,958 28,372 26,282 24,422 26,056 24,914 26,753 27,181
Infrastructure - Software 58,058 59,767 61,284 59,710 62,804 64,620 67,458 71,886
Infrastructure - Support services 89,819 96,722 101,229 108,653 110,067 115,860 122,338 132,279
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 56,220 56,799 53,854 53,753 52,300 48,200 47,662 45,939

Table 2.8
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Manitoba
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 1,809,548 1,908,449 2,031,377 2,247,575 2,309,877 2,343,864 2,098,268 2,187,943
Digitally-delivered products 203,626 200,264 202,133 216,342 228,108 241,926 236,479 231,712
E-commerce 129,631 101,818 98,280 205,313 229,281 252,187 272,236 301,612
Infrastructure - Hardware 20,927 30,636 27,893 101,586 111,666 114,267 106,987 115,174
Infrastructure - Software 206,571 221,061 245,795 206,951 218,958 203,637 191,993 199,942
Infrastructure - Support services 279,445 299,620 328,357 323,040 338,967 343,732 302,619 323,264
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 969,347 1,055,051 1,128,919 1,194,341 1,182,898 1,188,116 987,955 1,016,240
Output 2,928,066 3,088,626 3,193,114 3,532,265 3,729,154 3,812,092 3,908,060 4,159,029
Digitally-delivered products 443,393 440,000 453,415 485,683 509,311 546,374 519,394 521,527
E-commerce 214,103 180,248 172,058 347,926 389,058 424,656 479,754 558,693
Infrastructure - Hardware 78,582 111,097 94,509 218,286 284,281 324,875 313,765 336,849
Infrastructure - Software 346,757 369,566 398,619 334,780 352,291 320,808 332,979 351,599
Infrastructure - Support services 448,586 476,262 498,958 491,378 519,156 502,606 495,191 552,491
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 1,396,645 1,511,453 1,575,555 1,654,213 1,675,057 1,692,773 1,766,977 1,837,870
number of jobs
Jobs 13,316 13,583 14,010 15,807 16,098 16,287 16,159 16,642
Digitally-delivered products 1,923 1,880 1,973 2,337 2,284 2,713 2,699 2,701
E-commerce 1,478 1,460 1,617 3,072 3,417 3,690 3,963 4,031
Infrastructure - Hardware 335 454 377 802 996 1,011 899 621
Infrastructure - Software 2,503 2,477 2,666 2,310 2,395 2,158 2,084 2,182
Infrastructure - Support services 3,496 3,603 3,609 3,486 3,598 3,478 3,464 3,702
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 3,581 3,710 3,769 3,800 3,409 3,237 3,049 3,404

Table 2.9
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Saskatchewan
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 1,425,038 1,496,562 1,662,702 1,788,698 1,854,567 1,893,899 1,916,234 1,879,829
Digitally-delivered products 128,409 136,727 155,592 185,634 172,294 175,150 167,987 166,396
E-commerce 90,309 106,636 104,843 191,817 199,230 187,364 197,064 188,108
Infrastructure - Hardware 82,352 66,551 78,002 75,276 82,627 125,503 126,238 118,315
Infrastructure - Software 119,600 109,238 141,759 137,827 146,776 160,784 159,894 166,363
Infrastructure - Support services 233,014 314,839 340,118 323,787 375,482 359,022 354,544 379,584
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 771,354 762,571 842,389 874,356 878,158 886,075 910,507 861,062
Output 2,450,018 2,561,180 2,879,605 3,068,425 3,223,211 3,309,704 3,503,910 3,514,797
Digitally-delivered products 273,983 259,232 299,450 341,574 317,228 322,335 324,992 328,416
E-commerce 133,978 160,476 165,540 294,058 314,910 301,278 341,367 337,404
Infrastructure - Hardware 250,957 217,957 258,883 242,811 225,746 304,676 353,825 349,409
Infrastructure - Software 196,515 177,415 225,772 218,739 231,480 252,306 263,927 280,025
Infrastructure - Support services 357,768 494,070 515,011 492,819 589,450 545,362 587,869 658,787
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 1,236,818 1,252,029 1,414,948 1,478,423 1,544,397 1,583,746 1,631,932 1,560,757
number of jobs
Jobs 12,680 12,936 14,429 15,954 16,094 16,114 16,090 16,244
Digitally-delivered products 1,734 1,774 2,043 2,577 2,465 2,216 2,151 2,171
E-commerce 1,357 1,418 1,488 2,353 2,449 2,368 2,488 2,340
Infrastructure - Hardware 838 684 720 750 769 1,140 1,185 1,250
Infrastructure - Software 1,444 1,217 1,581 1,431 1,491 1,530 1,520 1,587
Infrastructure - Support services 2,568 2,920 3,508 3,520 3,782 3,709 3,739 3,882
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 4,738 4,922 5,089 5,323 5,137 5,152 5,008 5,013

Table 2.10
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Alberta
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 9,156,158 9,768,897 10,030,036 11,015,001 11,869,427 11,797,867 11,266,294 11,370,882
Digitally-delivered products 810,988 839,053 828,087 980,810 927,101 985,909 1,012,384 1,016,098
E-commerce 460,211 435,660 452,116 1,080,327 1,125,816 1,187,488 1,506,769 1,525,068
Infrastructure - Hardware 302,423 284,050 245,123 254,159 262,479 332,936 297,674 334,148
Infrastructure - Software 1,283,656 1,382,064 1,594,946 1,671,411 1,866,959 1,704,447 1,502,184 1,524,267
Infrastructure - Support services 2,058,933 2,238,412 2,402,851 2,310,415 2,701,586 2,806,869 2,625,881 2,633,642
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 4,239,947 4,589,658 4,506,913 4,717,880 4,985,486 4,780,219 4,321,403 4,337,660
Output 14,622,070 15,424,279 15,989,671 17,453,110 19,355,616 19,640,698 20,034,981 20,775,191
Digitally-delivered products 1,550,837 1,537,082 1,608,417 1,876,762 1,825,005 2,030,884 2,019,464 2,061,525
E-commerce 710,182 743,497 795,048 1,713,443 1,859,298 2,020,611 2,590,263 2,729,234
Infrastructure - Hardware 823,369 792,644 652,530 702,764 736,888 875,677 868,625 992,354
Infrastructure - Software 2,159,077 2,309,492 2,636,886 2,637,221 2,903,977 2,688,293 2,458,716 2,556,822
Infrastructure - Support services 3,352,087 3,621,185 3,848,150 3,638,242 4,314,099 4,457,677 4,368,628 4,590,271
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 6,026,518 6,420,379 6,448,641 6,884,677 7,716,349 7,567,556 7,729,285 7,844,984
number of jobs
Jobs 57,720 57,558 58,438 65,174 67,722 70,849 72,697 73,237
Digitally-delivered products 7,021 7,420 7,382 8,503 7,855 8,941 9,113 8,771
E-commerce 6,036 6,005 5,840 11,946 13,040 14,042 17,230 17,074
Infrastructure - Hardware 3,146 2,946 2,349 2,571 2,332 2,562 2,715 2,833
Infrastructure - Software 11,175 11,599 12,334 12,161 13,470 12,339 11,928 11,959
Infrastructure - Support services 19,022 19,109 19,346 19,357 22,010 22,497 21,901 22,695
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 11,319 10,478 11,187 10,636 9,014 10,467 9,811 9,905

Table 2.11
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, British Columbia
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 9,344,902 9,563,085 10,113,578 10,920,813 11,787,173 12,599,339 12,974,861 13,660,612
Digitally-delivered products 844,105 1,093,935 1,134,846 1,216,288 1,606,112 1,334,167 1,478,750 1,705,083
E-commerce 674,227 540,446 607,882 1,289,389 1,511,679 1,867,741 1,767,549 1,903,040
Infrastructure - Hardware 452,149 435,879 469,656 415,511 447,794 485,390 530,610 558,390
Infrastructure - Software 1,652,294 1,717,215 1,816,468 1,844,046 2,076,952 2,169,568 2,379,690 2,435,934
Infrastructure - Support services 1,769,366 1,844,467 1,999,966 2,127,307 2,360,910 2,721,623 2,943,151 3,191,227
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 3,952,761 3,931,142 4,084,761 4,028,272 3,783,725 4,020,851 3,875,110 3,866,938
Output 15,676,011 15,891,557 16,679,510 18,588,113 20,550,020 22,381,030 24,141,812 26,272,927
Digitally-delivered products 1,886,197 2,144,252 2,154,260 2,370,594 2,837,164 3,108,339 3,704,388 4,498,661
E-commerce 1,109,383 905,379 994,500 2,117,523 2,486,586 3,090,391 3,089,627 3,408,999
Infrastructure - Hardware 1,290,418 1,199,710 1,291,030 1,143,811 1,302,375 1,402,124 1,577,904 1,683,854
Infrastructure - Software 2,733,390 2,796,376 2,961,274 3,068,040 3,459,633 3,592,022 3,949,421 4,162,207
Infrastructure - Support services 2,908,768 2,989,667 3,187,193 3,634,092 3,984,354 4,403,985 4,889,540 5,525,631
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 5,747,855 5,856,173 6,091,253 6,254,052 6,479,908 6,784,169 6,930,932 6,993,575
number of jobs
Jobs 82,870 83,041 84,295 98,246 102,734 111,702 116,004 123,543
Digitally-delivered products 13,382 15,276 14,256 16,340 20,718 21,935 23,071 23,644
E-commerce 11,630 9,990 10,122 19,703 21,030 26,401 26,667 27,794
Infrastructure - Hardware 4,591 4,397 4,653 3,883 4,310 4,402 4,754 4,921
Infrastructure - Software 19,314 19,312 19,368 18,830 19,517 19,734 20,778 22,077
Infrastructure - Support services 21,360 22,063 21,514 23,765 23,795 25,645 27,564 29,712
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 12,593 12,003 14,382 15,726 13,364 13,585 13,170 15,395

Table 2.12
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Yukon
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 66,354 69,321 69,396 82,491 87,450 78,569 80,483 79,543
Digitally-delivered products 2,431 2,263 2,616 3,519 4,419 5,248 4,978 5,015
E-commerce 1,324 1,585 1,783 2,788 2,831 3,075 3,967 4,036
Infrastructure - Hardware 1,787 1,261 1,171 1,826 3,305 4,217 4,874 3,235
Infrastructure - Software 6,224 5,628 5,811 4,174 4,444 4,596 4,826 4,957
Infrastructure - Support services 10,395 5,194 5,779 4,998 3,995 3,875 3,457 3,916
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 44,194 53,391 52,235 65,186 68,456 57,558 58,382 58,385
Output 117,898 110,808 112,223 138,304 152,803 148,123 156,002 153,288
Digitally-delivered products 6,640 4,937 5,758 7,214 8,260 8,735 10,486 10,729
E-commerce 2,255 2,612 2,973 4,606 4,657 4,984 6,686 7,136
Infrastructure - Hardware 9,436 6,329 5,492 8,457 15,342 19,243 18,900 13,000
Infrastructure - Software 10,185 8,980 8,942 6,460 7,247 7,700 9,838 10,237
Infrastructure - Support services 16,137 7,872 9,227 7,021 6,182 5,880 5,656 6,577
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 73,245 80,078 79,831 104,547 111,115 101,582 104,436 105,610
number of jobs
Jobs 639 558 564 552 589 602 677 703
Digitally-delivered products 70 65 55 60 71 95 128 123
E-commerce 21 21 38 50 48 46 54 57
Infrastructure - Hardware 20 19 15 25 40 50 45 25
Infrastructure - Software 76 63 57 49 54 53 58 58
Infrastructure - Support services 130 56 74 71 67 55 61 69
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 320 334 324 297 309 303 332 372

Table 2.13
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Northwest Territories
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 86,631 89,352 92,687 111,872 110,041 117,291 100,320 96,736
Digitally-delivered products 6,495 6,665 6,689 7,961 6,424 5,799 6,087 6,095
E-commerce 2,577 2,617 2,670 6,393 7,224 9,536 7,781 7,261
Infrastructure - Hardware 4,141 1,879 1,076 2,952 3,102 7,162 11,398 9,009
Infrastructure - Software 6,096 6,048 6,675 6,219 7,145 6,296 6,931 7,211
Infrastructure - Support services 9,468 9,639 10,092 3,211 2,279 1,892 2,052 1,820
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 57,854 62,504 65,485 85,135 83,866 86,606 66,071 65,340
Output 135,887 136,348 136,743 165,878 165,688 183,137 202,917 195,033
Digitally-delivered products 10,916 11,320 10,842 12,553 10,987 10,274 10,390 10,522
E-commerce 3,988 4,019 4,124 9,304 10,431 14,283 13,181 12,912
Infrastructure - Hardware 13,521 6,152 3,990 11,613 12,437 27,494 44,200 36,199
Infrastructure - Software 10,890 11,011 12,376 11,392 13,236 11,473 13,368 13,850
Infrastructure - Support services 13,685 14,975 14,696 4,849 3,666 3,168 3,587 3,359
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 82,887 88,870 90,715 116,167 114,932 116,446 118,191 118,191
number of jobs
Jobs 475 470 468 476 450 479 484 459
Digitally-delivered products 66 64 73 94 76 77 80 71
E-commerce 44 53 44 79 75 99 96 85
Infrastructure - Hardware 25 15 10 20 20 35 60 70
Infrastructure - Software 50 49 56 52 58 50 51 47
Infrastructure - Support services 77 59 63 26 22 18 21 24
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 213 230 222 206 200 200 176 161

Table 2.14
Digital economy gross domestic product, output and jobs, by domain, Nunavut
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digital economy gross domestic product 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, calculated using thousands of dollars and number of jobs units of measure (appearing as column headers).
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
thousands of dollars
Gross domestic product 33,024 43,105 48,467 51,130 51,853 50,736 38,505 39,075
Digitally-delivered products 1,407 1,414 1,682 1,598 2,102 2,129 1,611 1,698
E-commerce 377 499 770 709 1,055 1,315 1,434 1,420
Infrastructure - Hardware 937 267 2,187 7 80 311 1,367 1,319
Infrastructure - Software 1,924 1,992 1,991 2,256 3,480 3,973 4,790 4,996
Infrastructure - Support services 2,056 1,688 2,267 3,606 1,833 2,405 1,241 1,236
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 26,323 37,244 39,570 42,954 43,303 40,603 28,062 28,406
Output 49,572 59,044 67,108 64,553 68,505 67,073 74,431 76,341
Digitally-delivered products 2,546 2,487 2,848 2,854 3,535 3,220 2,914 3,085
E-commerce 977 1,263 1,809 1,767 2,740 2,628 2,525 2,557
Infrastructure - Hardware 1,815 553 4,336 16 191 769 5,300 5,300
Infrastructure - Software 4,019 4,129 4,263 4,282 7,152 7,837 11,280 11,759
Infrastructure - Support services 3,234 2,686 3,443 5,171 3,311 3,505 2,213 2,258
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 36,980 47,926 50,409 50,462 51,576 49,114 50,198 51,382
number of jobs
Jobs 97 102 110 131 146 140 139 135
Digitally-delivered products 22 23 23 35 40 44 44 43
E-commerce 9 9 9 15 25 17 16 17
Infrastructure - Hardware 10 5 20 5 5 5 10 10
Infrastructure - Software 20 20 21 23 37 37 37 37
Infrastructure - Support services 12 11 11 27 17 13 9 9
Infrastructure - Telecommunications 24 33 26 27 23 23 23 18

Annex A


Canadian digital economy product framework
Table summary
This table displays the results of Canadian digital economy product framework. The information is grouped by Supply and Use Product Code (SUPC) (appearing as row headers), SUPC Title, Full or partial digital product and Method for splitting partial products (appearing as column headers).
Supply and Use Product Code (SUPC) SUPC Title Full or partial digital product Method for splitting partial products
Hardware
MPG23C400 Communication engineering construction Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334100 Computers, computer peripherals and parts Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334201 Telephone apparatus Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334209 Other communications equipment Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334A01 Audio and video equipment and unrecorded media Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334A02 Navigational and guidance instruments Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334A06 Measuring, control and scientific instruments Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334401 Printed and integrated circuits, semiconductors and printed circuit assemblies Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG334409 Other electronic components Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG335902 Communication and electric wire and cable Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG335903 Wiring devices Full Note ...: not applicable
MPG335909 Other electrical equipment and components Full Note ...: not applicable
Software
MPS511200 General purpose software Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS541501 Custom software design and development services Full Note ...: not applicable
IMS541502 Own-account software design and development services Full Note ...: not applicable
Telecommunications
MPS517002 Mobile telecommunications services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS517003 Cable, satellite and other program distribution services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS517004 Fixed Internet access services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS517001 Fixed telecommunications services (except Internet access) Full Note ...: not applicable
Support services
MPS518000 Data processing, hosting, and related services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS532A01 Computer equipment rental and leasing services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS541503 Computer systems design and related services (except software development) Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS610002 Tuition and similar fees for colleges and C.E.G.E.P.s Partial Share of enrollments in 'digitally-enabled' education programs relative to total enrollments. Derived using Statistics Canada's Postsecondary Student Information System.
MPS610003 Tuition and similar fees for universities Partial
MPS610004 Tuition and similar fees for trade, technical and professional training Partial
MPS610009 Other educational training and services Partial
NGS611200 Community college and C.E.G.E.P services provided by governments Partial
NGS611300 University services provided by governments Partial
NGS611A00 Other educational services provided by governments Partial
E-commerce
MPS411000 Wholesale margins - farm products Partial Margins associated with e-commerce wholesale transactions derived using e-commerce data collected in Statistics Canada's Annual Wholesale Trade Survey.
MPS412000 Wholesale margins - petroleum and petroleum products Partial
MPS413000 Wholesale margins - food, beverages and tobacco products Partial
MPS414000 Wholesale margins - personal and household goods Partial
MPS415000 Wholesale margins - motor vehicles, motor vehicle parts and accessories Partial
MPS416000 Wholesale margins - building materials and supplies Partial
MPS417000 Wholesale margins - machinery, equipment and supplies Partial
MPS418000 Wholesale margins - miscellaneous products Partial
MPS410002 Wholesale trade commissions Partial
MPS441000 Retail margins - motor vehicles and parts Partial Margins associated with e-commerce retail transactions derived using e-commerce data collected in Statistics Canada's Annual Retail Trade Survey and Annual Retail Non-store Trade Survey.
MPS442000 Retail margins - furniture and home furnishings Partial
MPS443000 Retail margins - electronics and appliances Partial
MPS444000 Retail margins - building materials, garden equipment and supplies Partial
MPS445000 Retail margins - food and beverages Partial
MPS446000 Retail margins - health and personal care products Partial
MPS447000 Retail margins - automotive fuels Partial
MPS448000 Retail margins - clothing and clothing accessories Partial
MPS451000 Retail margins - sporting and leisure products Partial
MPS453000 Retail margins - miscellaneous products Partial
MPS454310 Retail margins - household fuels Partial
MPS4A0004 Retail trade commissions Partial
Digitally-delivered products
MPG511111 Newspapers Partial Share of digital newspaper sales or advertising in digital newspapers. Derived using information collected in the Survey of Service Industries: Newspaper publishers.
MPS511112 Advertising space in newspapers Partial
MPG5111A1 Periodicals Partial Share of digital periodical sales or advertising in digital periodicals. Derived using information collected in the Survey of Service Industries: Periodical publishers.
MPS5111A4 Advertising space in periodicals and in other publications Partial
MPG5111A2 Books Partial Share of digital book sales derived using information collected in the Survey of Service Industries: Book publishers.
MPS5121A1 Recorded movies, television programs and videos Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS5121A2 Movie, television program and video production, post-production and editing services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS5121A3 Licensing of rights to use audiovisual works Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS512201 Recorded music and other sound recordings Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS512202 Audio recording services and copyright administration Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS512203 Licensing of rights to use musical works and sound recordings Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS515100 Advertising air time on radio Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS515A01 Advertising air time on television Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS515A02 Fees for the distribution of television and radio program channels (affiliation payments) Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS519001 Subscriptions for online content Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS519002 Internet advertising Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS519008 Other information services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS5221A0 Banking and other depository credit intermediation services - explicit charges Partial Share of explicit fees associated with the access to online 'digitally-delivered' banking services. Derived using data from schedules reported to Financial Information Committee.
MPS561500 Travel arrangement, reservation and planning services Full Note ...: not applicable
MPS71A009 Broadcast and other media rights Full Note ...: not applicable

Annex B


Digitally-enabled education programsAnnex B Note 1
Table summary
This table displays the results of Digitally-enabled education programs (appearing as column headers).
Classification of Instructional program (CIP)Annex B Note 2 Code CIP Title
09.07 Radio, television and digital communication
10.01 Communications technology/technician
10.02 Audiovisual communications technologies/technicians
10.03 Graphic communications
10.99 Communications technologies/technicians and support services, other
11.02 Computer programming
11.03 Data processing and data processing technology/technician
11.04 Information science/studies
11.05 Computer systems analysis/analyst
11.06 Data entry/microcomputer applications
11.07 Computer science
11.08 Computer software and media applications
11.09 Computer systems networking and telecommunications
11.10 Computer/information technology administration and management
11.99 Computer and information sciences and support services, other
14.09 Computer engineering
14.10 Electrical, electronics and communications engineering
15.00 Engineering technology, general
15.03 Electrical and electronic engineering technologies/technicians
15.12 Computer engineering technologies/technicians
30.15 Science, technology and society
30.16 Accounting and computer science
47.01 Electrical/electronics maintenance and repair technology
50.0102 Digital arts, general
50.0706 Intermedia/multimedia
52.0208 E-commerce/electronic commerce
52.21 Telecommunications management
52.2101 Telecommunications management

References

OECD (2011), OECD Guide to Measuring the Information Society, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2014), Measuring the Digital Economy: A New Perspective, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2015), OECD Digital Economy Outlook 2015, OECD Publishing, Paris.

OECD (2016), Measuring GDP in a Digitalized Economy, STD Working Paper (2016)07.

OECD (2017), Issue paper for a proposed framework for a satellite account for measuring the digital economy, STD/CSSP/WPNA (2017)10.

Statistics Canada (2017), "Measuring the sharing economy in the Canadian Macroeconomic Accounts", Latest Developments in the Canadian Economic Accounts, Statistics Canada catalogue number 13-605-X.

U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (2018), Defining and Measuring the Digital Economy, Bureau of Economic Analysis, Washington DC.

Canadian Bankers Association (2016), How Canadians Bank, posted July 12 2017.


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