Atlantic Canada at Work: Evolving Opportunities

Release date: June 17, 2019

A Data Story: A discussion with Statistics Canada

Anil Arora
Chief Statistician of Canada

Moncton, June 17, 2019

Delivering insight through data for a better Canada

Key challenges in today's labour market

Atlantic Canada at Work: Evolving Opportunities

Recent trends in an evolving labour market

Vision for analyzing tomorrow's labour market

Recent trends in an evolving labour market


Shift in fertility rate in Atlantic Canada to below the national average

Shift in fertility rate in Atlantic Canada to below the national average
Description for chart 1 - Shift in fertility rate in Atlantic Canada to below the national average (number of children per woman)
Shift in total fertility rate in Atlantic Canada to below the national average(number of children per woman)
  N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Canada Replacement level fertility
1971 .. 2.86 2.46 2.62 2.13 2.10
1972 .. 2.60 2.27 2.42 1.97 2.10
1973 .. 2.30 2.12 2.22 1.88 2.10
1974 .. 2.30 1.99 2.14 1.83 2.10
1975 .. 2.17 1.96 2.09 1.83 2.10
1976 .. 2.13 1.87 1.88 1.78 2.10
1977 .. 2.10 1.76 1.92 1.75 2.10
1978 .. 2.05 1.75 1.76 1.70 2.10
1979 .. 1.95 1.70 1.75 1.70 2.10
1980 .. 1.94 1.67 1.69 1.68 2.10
1981 .. 1.89 1.62 1.67 1.65 2.10
1982 .. 1.91 1.64 1.67 1.63 2.10
1983 .. 1.85 1.63 1.65 1.62 2.10
1984 .. 1.85 1.60 1.61 1.62 2.10
1985 .. 1.88 1.60 1.57 1.61 2.10
1986 .. 1.80 1.58 1.53 1.59 2.10
1987 .. 1.83 1.55 1.51 1.58 2.10
1988 .. 1.87 1.57 1.53 1.60 2.10
1989 .. 1.84 1.62 1.56 1.66 2.10
1990 .. 1.95 1.68 1.59 1.71 2.10
1991 1.44 1.86 1.59 1.56 1.72 2.10
1992 1.41 1.85 1.59 1.56 1.71 2.10
1993 1.32 1.77 1.57 1.53 1.68 2.10
1994 1.34 1.74 1.54 1.55 1.69 2.10
1995 1.28 1.79 1.52 1.51 1.67 2.10
1996 1.31 1.74 1.52 1.46 1.63 2.10
1997 1.28 1.66 1.46 1.45 1.57 2.10
1998 1.24 1.60 1.44 1.47 1.56 2.10
1999 1.30 1.63 1.46 1.44 1.54 2.10
2000 1.30 1.58 1.41 1.42 1.51 2.10
2001 1.30 1.55 1.40 1.41 1.54 2.10
2002 1.31 1.49 1.38 1.40 1.51 2.10
2003 1.33 1.60 1.39 1.43 1.54 2.10
2004 1.32 1.58 1.41 1.42 1.55 2.10
2005 1.36 1.54 1.40 1.43 1.57 2.10
2006 1.41 1.65 1.40 1.48 1.61 2.10
2007 1.44 1.64 1.49 1.53 1.66 2.10
2008 1.55 1.74 1.55 1.60 1.69 2.10
2009 1.55 1.71 1.52 1.61 1.68 2.10
2010 1.53 1.65 1.51 1.61 1.64 2.10
2011 1.40 1.66 1.51 1.57 1.62 2.10
2012 1.38 1.53 1.51 1.57 1.62 2.10
2013 1.44 1.66 1.47 1.57 1.60 2.10
2014 1.47 1.68 1.52 1.60 1.61 2.10
2015 1.46 1.61 1.46 1.54 1.60 2.10
2016 1.47 1.64 1.46 1.56 1.59 2.10
2017 1.36 1.53 1.43 1.54 1.54 2.10
.. not available for a specific reference period
Note: 2017 birth data is considered preliminary.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Canadian Vital Statistics, Births Database, 1971 to 2017, and Demography Division, Demographic Estimates Program.

Population pyramids, 1988 and 2018

Population pyramids, 1988 and 2018
Description for chart 2 - Population pyramids, 1988 and 2018
Population pyramids, 1988 and 2018
Age Percentage of total population
Canada Atlantic
1988 2018 1988 2018
0 0.014 0.010 -0.013 -0.009
1 0.014 0.010 -0.013 -0.009
2 0.014 0.011 -0.014 -0.009
3 0.014 0.011 -0.014 -0.009
4 0.014 0.011 -0.014 -0.009
5 0.014 0.011 -0.014 -0.009
6 0.014 0.011 -0.014 -0.010
7 0.014 0.011 -0.014 -0.010
8 0.014 0.011 -0.015 -0.010
9 0.014 0.011 -0.015 -0.010
10 0.014 0.011 -0.015 -0.010
11 0.014 0.011 -0.015 -0.010
12 0.014 0.011 -0.016 -0.010
13 0.014 0.010 -0.016 -0.010
14 0.013 0.011 -0.016 -0.010
15 0.014 0.011 -0.017 -0.010
16 0.014 0.011 -0.017 -0.010
17 0.015 0.011 -0.018 -0.011
18 0.015 0.012 -0.017 -0.011
19 0.015 0.013 -0.016 -0.011
20 0.015 0.013 -0.017 -0.012
21 0.016 0.013 -0.017 -0.012
22 0.017 0.013 -0.017 -0.012
23 0.018 0.013 -0.018 -0.012
24 0.019 0.014 -0.018 -0.012
25 0.019 0.014 -0.018 -0.012
26 0.019 0.014 -0.018 -0.012
27 0.019 0.014 -0.018 -0.012
28 0.019 0.014 -0.018 -0.012
29 0.019 0.014 -0.017 -0.012
30 0.019 0.014 -0.017 -0.011
31 0.018 0.014 -0.017 -0.011
32 0.018 0.014 -0.017 -0.012
33 0.018 0.014 -0.017 -0.012
34 0.017 0.014 -0.017 -0.012
35 0.017 0.014 -0.016 -0.012
36 0.016 0.014 -0.016 -0.012
37 0.016 0.014 -0.016 -0.012
38 0.016 0.013 -0.015 -0.012
39 0.015 0.013 -0.015 -0.012
40 0.015 0.013 -0.015 -0.012
41 0.016 0.013 -0.015 -0.012
42 0.014 0.013 -0.013 -0.012
43 0.013 0.013 -0.012 -0.012
44 0.012 0.013 -0.012 -0.013
45 0.012 0.013 -0.011 -0.013
46 0.011 0.013 -0.011 -0.013
47 0.011 0.013 -0.010 -0.014
48 0.010 0.013 -0.010 -0.014
49 0.010 0.013 -0.009 -0.014
50 0.010 0.013 -0.009 -0.014
51 0.009 0.013 -0.009 -0.014
52 0.009 0.014 -0.009 -0.015
53 0.009 0.015 -0.008 -0.016
54 0.009 0.015 -0.008 -0.016
55 0.009 0.015 -0.009 -0.017
56 0.009 0.015 -0.009 -0.016
57 0.009 0.015 -0.008 -0.017
58 0.009 0.015 -0.008 -0.016
59 0.009 0.014 -0.008 -0.016
60 0.009 0.014 -0.008 -0.016
61 0.009 0.014 -0.008 -0.016
62 0.009 0.013 -0.008 -0.016
63 0.009 0.013 -0.008 -0.016
64 0.008 0.012 -0.008 -0.015
65 0.008 0.012 -0.008 -0.014
66 0.008 0.011 -0.008 -0.014
67 0.008 0.011 -0.007 -0.014
68 0.007 0.011 -0.008 -0.013
69 0.006 0.010 -0.007 -0.013
70 0.006 0.010 -0.006 -0.013
71 0.006 0.010 -0.006 -0.013
72 0.006 0.008 -0.006 -0.011
73 0.006 0.008 -0.006 -0.009
74 0.005 0.007 -0.006 -0.009
75 0.005 0.007 -0.005 -0.008
76 0.004 0.006 -0.005 -0.008
77 0.004 0.006 -0.004 -0.007
78 0.004 0.005 -0.004 -0.006
79 0.003 0.005 -0.004 -0.006
80 0.003 0.005 -0.003 -0.006
81 0.003 0.004 -0.003 -0.005
82 0.003 0.004 -0.003 -0.005
83 0.002 0.004 -0.002 -0.004
84 0.002 0.004 -0.002 -0.004
85 0.002 0.003 -0.002 -0.004
86 0.001 0.003 -0.001 -0.003
87 0.001 0.003 -0.001 -0.003
88 0.001 0.002 -0.001 -0.002
89 0.001 0.002 -0.001 -0.002
Source: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates Program.
Population pyramids, 1988 and 2018
Canada Atlantic
1988 2018 1988 2018
Median Age 38 46 37 50
Source: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates Program.

Lowest proportions of immigrants in the Atlantic provinces…

Proportion of immigrants in population aged 25 to 54, by province, 2018
Description for chart 3 - Proportion of immigrants in population aged 25 to 54, by province, 2018
Proportion of immigrants in population aged 25 to 54, by province, 2018
  percent
Newfoundland and Labrador 3.1
New Brunswick 6.4
Nova Scotia 7.7
Prince Edward Island 8.3
Saskatchewan 17.2
Quebec 20.7
Manitoba 25.2
Alberta 25.7
Canada 27.7
British Columbia 32.6
Ontario 35.2
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

…but growth outpacing Canadian average

Growth in the number of immigrants between 1999/2008 and 2009/2018
Description for chart 4 - Growth in the number of immigrants between 1999/2008 and 2009/2018
Growth in the number of immigrants between 1999/2008 and 2009/2018
  percent
Canada 17
Newfoundland and Labrador 93
Prince Edward Island 380
Nova Scotia 70
New Brunswick 170
Source: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates Program.

Population growth rates in 2018

Population growth rates by province, 2018
Description for chart 5 - Population growth rates by province, 2018
Population growth rates by province, 2018
percent
British Columbia 1.4
Alberta 1.5
Saskatchewan 1.0
Manitoba 1.3
Ontario 1.8
Quebec 1.1
New Brunswick 0.5
Nova Scotia 1.0
Prince Edward Island 1.8
Newfoundland and Labrador -0.6
Canada 1.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates Program.

By 2061, the population share of the Atlantic provinces could be half of what it was in 1961

Population share by region, 1961 to 2061
Description for chart 6 - Population share by region, 1961 to 2061 (percent)
Population share by region, 1961 to 2061
  1961 1986 2011 2036 2061
  percent
Atlantic 10.4 8.9 6.7 5.7 4.6
Quebec 28.8 25.7 23.2 22.0 21.2
Ontario 34.2 36.2 38.5 38.8 38.7
Prairies 17.4 17.4 18.2 19.4 21.0
British Columbia 8.9 11.5 13.0 13.8 14.2
Territories 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4
Source: Demographic Estimates Program and Population projections, custom scenarios based on recent trends.

Immigration driving population growth in most Atlantic provinces

Population growth composition, Canada and Atlantic provinces, 2017/2018
Description for chart 7 - Population growth composition, Canada and Atlantic provinces, 2017/2018
Population growth composition, Canada and Atlantic provinces, 2017/2018
  Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick
  percentage points
Population Growth 1.4 -0.6 1.8 1.0 0.5
Natural Increase (births minus deaths) 0.3 -0.2 0.2 -0.1 -0.1
Net International Migration 1.1 0.2 1.9 0.8 0.6
Net Internal Migration 0.0 -0.7 -0.3 0.3 0.0
Source: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates Program.

Recent trends in an evolving labour market

Above national annual Gross domestic product (GDP) growth for P.E.I. in the last 4 years

Annual GDP growth, Canada and Atlantic provinces
Description for chart 8 - Annual GDP growth, Canada and Atlantic provinces (percent)
Annual GDP growth, Canada and Atlantic provinces (percent)
  2016 2017 2018
Canada 1.1 3.2 2.0
Newfoundland and Labrador 1.7 0.9 -2.7
Prince Edward Island 1.7 3.4 2.6
Nova Scotia 1.5 1.5 1.2
New Brunswick 1.4 2.0 0.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by industry.

Recent Gross domestic product (GDP) growth in most Atlantic provinces driven by services-producing industries, while decline in Newfoundland and Labrador driven by goods-producing industries

In 2018, about 1 in 4 people in the Atlantic provinces worked in sales and service occupations.

Decomposition of annual GDP growth by industry, 2018
Description for chart 9 - Decomposition of annual GDP growth by industry, 2018
Decomposition of annual GDP growth by industry, 2018
  Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick
  percentage points
All industries -2.697 2.644 1.228 0.078
Goods -2.598 0.805 0.197 -0.707
Services -0.099 1.840 1.033 0.785
Source: Statistics Canada, Gross domestic product (GDP) by industry – provincial and territorial.

Distribution of employment within the goods-producing sector experienced trade-offs between 1976 and 2018 in most Atlantic provinces

Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sector in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1976 and 2018
Description for chart 10 - Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sector in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1976 and 2018 (percent)
Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sector in Newfoundland and Labrador, 1976 and 2018 (percent)
  Construction Manufacturing
1976 29.0 35.5
2018 43.4 19.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.
Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sectors in Prince Edward Island, 1976 and 2018
Description for chart 11 - Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sectors in Prince Edward Island, 1976 and 2018 (percent)
Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sectors in Prince Edward Island, 1976 and 2018 (percent)
  Agriculture Manufacturing
1976 40.4 19.9
2018 20.6 35.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.
Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sectors in Nova Scotia, 1976 and 2018
Description for chart 12 - Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sectors in Nova Scotia, 1976 and 2018 (percent)
Distribution of employment for selected industries within the goods-producing sectors in Nova Scotia, 1976 and 2018 (percent)
  Construction Manufacturing
1976 26.3 45.2
2018 40.0 38.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Exports from Newfoundland and Labrador and New Brunswick highly concentrated since the early 2000s

Domestic export concentration, Canada and Atlantic provinces, 1988 to 2018 (Herfindahl-Hirshman Index (HHI))
Description for chart 13 - Domestic export concentration, Canada and Atlantic provinces, 1988 to 2018 (Herfindahl-Hirshman Index (HHI))
Domestic export concentration, Canada and Atlantic provinces, 1988 to 2018 (Herfindahl-Hirshman Index (HHI))
  Canada New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island
1988 0.09 0.17 0.23 0.17 0.21
1989 0.09 0.16 0.23 0.15 0.21
1990 0.09 0.17 0.29 0.18 0.30
1991 0.09 0.19 0.28 0.17 0.27
1992 0.09 0.16 0.27 0.18 0.23
1993 0.10 0.17 0.24 0.17 0.21
1994 0.10 0.16 0.27 0.17 0.21
1995 0.09 0.17 0.25 0.16 0.20
1996 0.09 0.17 0.25 0.15 0.17
1997 0.09 0.17 0.25 0.15 0.17
1998 0.09 0.15 0.24 0.14 0.16
1999 0.10 0.15 0.24 0.13 0.19
2000 0.09 0.18 0.30 0.12 0.20
2001 0.09 0.23 0.27 0.13 0.24
2002 0.09 0.23 0.39 0.13 0.22
2003 0.10 0.26 0.35 0.14 0.21
2004 0.09 0.28 0.52 0.13 0.19
2005 0.10 0.39 0.51 0.13 0.16
2006 0.09 0.37 0.56 0.12 0.16
2007 0.09 0.41 0.57 0.13 0.20
2008 0.12 0.49 0.59 0.14 0.19
2009 0.09 0.45 0.49 0.12 0.20
2010 0.10 0.49 0.49 0.12 0.19
2011 0.11 0.53 0.50 0.13 0.17
2012 0.11 0.53 0.49 0.15 0.16
2013 0.11 0.52 0.50 0.14 0.17
2014 0.12 0.46 0.59 0.14 0.16
2015 0.08 0.38 0.50 0.16 0.14
2016 0.08 0.34 0.44 0.17 0.17
2017 0.09 0.40 0.45 0.18 0.18
2018 0.09 0.38 0.54 0.17 0.18
Source: Statistics Canada, Canadian domestic export concentration.

Recent trends in an evolving labour market

Wage growth in Canada is subject to regional and cyclical variations

In the 2000s wage growth was driven by the oil-sector

Indexed real hourly wage by region, employees aged 25 to 54, 2000-2018
Description for chart 14 - Indexed real hourly wage by region, employees aged 25 to 54, 2000-2018
Indexed real hourly wage by region, employees aged 25 to 54, 2000-2018
  Oil producing provinces Atlantic without Newfoundland and Labrador Ontario Other provinces
  2000=100
2000 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
2001 102.3 101.1 100.4 100.7
2002 104.0 99.8 100.5 101.2
2003 101.4 100.2 99.3 101.4
2004 102.3 100.9 100.5 101.7
2005 106.1 100.3 101.2 101.8
2006 108.3 101.8 102.9 102.4
2007 109.4 105.1 104.3 104.0
2008 112.0 106.7 105.9 105.6
2009 116.3 111.3 107.5 109.2
2010 116.6 112.7 106.5 109.8
2011 116.6 109.7 105.9 108.0
2012 120.6 111.5 106.3 109.2
2013 122.6 112.5 107.2 110.5
2014 122.2 113.9 106.1 111.6
2015 124.9 116.2 108.1 113.6
2016 124.8 116.7 108.1 114.6
2017 125.0 117.3 107.5 116.2
2018 124.5 117.4 108.2 115.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

…and workers with higher levels of education were the most affected by downturn in the industry.

Indexed real hourly wage by province and education level, core-age employees, 2000-2018
Description for chart 15 - Indexed real hourly wage by province and education level, core-age employees, 2000-2018
Indexed real hourly wage by province and education level, core-age employees, 2000-2018
N.L., Highschool or less N.L., Post-secondary, above Bachelor's degree N.L., Post-secondary, below Bachelor's degree P.E.I.-N.B.-N.S., Highschool or less P.E.I.-N.B.-N.S., Post-secondary, above Bachelor's degree P.E.I.-N.B.-N.S., Post-secondary, below Bachelor's degree
  2000=100
2000 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
2001 101.9 103.1 100.9 98.7 100.5 101.6
2002 100.6 103.1 105.6 97.5 98.3 101.2
2003 102.7 103.9 104.2 98.5 99.7 98.5
2004 100.2 102.1 106.6 98.8 99.5 101.4
2005 102.5 103.4 107.6 99.4 99.2 99.5
2006 102.0 103.7 107.6 98.9 100.2 101.9
2007 107.3 109.7 105.1 101.8 103.2 105.1
2008 109.1 112.4 112.6 103.2 104.3 106.6
2009 115.0 115.8 112.2 106.9 109.2 109.1
2010 116.3 118.8 119.6 107.1 110.1 109.6
2011 116.5 122.2 117.7 106.7 106.9 105.6
2012 118.1 126.3 125.3 107.5 109.2 105.6
2013 126.5 127.4 122.0 107.6 109.6 107.1
2014 130.0 127.3 126.0 110.5 110.7 106.5
2015 128.8 133.6 119.4 110.7 111.7 110.1
2016 123.8 126.9 116.9 109.9 110.4 110.2
2017 130.2 125.3 116.5 111.3 112.0 108.8
2018 125.5 125.2 117.6 110.2 111.8 108.2
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Temporary employment higher in the Atlantic provinces…

…but the share has declined over the years

Proportion of temporary employees in Canada, 1998-2018
Description for map 1 - Proportion of temporary employees in Canada, 1998-2018
Proportion of temporary employees in Canada, 1998-2018
Proportion of temporary employees in 2018 (percent) 20-year change in the proportion of temporary employees (percentage points)
Newfoundland and Labrador 23 -1.6
Prince Edward Island 21 -6.2
Nova Scotia 16 -1.1
New Brunswick 17 -1.7
Quebec 13 -0.1
Ontario 13 3.1
Manitoba 12 0.1
Saskatchewan 13 -0.7
Alberta 13 2.0
British Columbia 13 2.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Involuntary part-time converging towards the national average, except in Newfoundland and Labrador

Proportion of total part-time workers who are involuntary part-time workers, 1997 to 2018
Description for chart 16 - Proportion of total part-time workers who are involuntary part-time workers, 1997 to 2018 (percent)
Proportion of total part-time workers who are involuntary part-time workers, 1997 to 2018 (percent)
  Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick
1997 31.2 56.6 37.3 41.8 42.6
1998 29.2 55.3 36.2 38.4 39.0
1999 26.8 50.0 33.3 34.9 36.0
2000 25.3 47.1 30.8 33.2 32.7
2001 25.8 49.7 29.4 31.0 32.6
2002 26.9 48.8 30.5 33.1 29.0
2003 27.5 49.4 30.6 31.3 31.8
2004 26.6 48.3 31.8 30.3 31.3
2005 25.5 43.7 29.8 30.5 30.2
2006 23.9 41.4 31.8 28.4 30.4
2007 22.0 40.1 27.6 28.3 26.7
2008 22.5 36.5 27.4 27.1 26.0
2009 27.4 40.1 29.3 30.2 27.6
2010 27.8 37.9 29.4 30.0 30.0
2011 27.2 37.0 30.8 32.9 31.7
2012 27.0 35.6 32.3 32.5 30.3
2013 27.1 33.6 32.6 32.5 32.0
2014 27.3 31.8 34.5 31.5 33.0
2015 26.2 33.7 31.5 30.7 30.2
2016 25.0 33.5 27.9 27.6 26.5
2017 24.2 37.3 26.1 25.8 24.5
2018 21.8 34.3 26.1 24.8 23.0
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Forms of employment associated with the digital economy may increase precarity

In 2016, forms of employment which may be associated with gig employment were less common in Canada than in other OECD countries.

Contribution of unincorporated self-employment (without emloyees) to total employment, OECD countries, 2016
Description for chart 17 - Contribution of unincorporated self-employment (without emloyees) to total employment, OECD countries, 2016
Contribution of unincorporated self-employment (without emloyees) to total employment, OECD countries, 2016
  percent
Greece 34.1
Turkey 32.4
Mexico 31.5
Chile 26.5
Korea 25.5
Italy 23.9
Poland 20.7
New Zealand 17.9
Portugal 17.8
Czech Republic 17.2
Spain 16.9
Ireland 16.9
Netherlands 16.8
United Kingdom 15.4
Switzerland 15.1
Belgium 14.8
Slovenia 14.2
Finland 14.0
Israel 12.8
Austria 12.7
France 11.8
Hungary 10.7
Japan 10.6
Germany 10.4
Australia 10.1
Sweden 10.0
Denmark 9.1
Canada 8.6
Norway 7.0
United States 6.4
Source: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Labour Force Statistics: Summary tables

Recent trends in an evolving labour market

Core-aged and older women account for most of the labour force increase in the Atlantic provinces between 1976 and 2018

Labour force, by sex and age group, Atlantic provinces, 1976 to 2018
Description for chart 18 - Labour force, by sex and age group, Atlantic provinces, 1976 to 2018 (thousands)
Labour force, by sex and age group, Atlantic provinces, 1976 to 2018 (thousands)
  Men, 15 to 24 years Men, 25 to 54 years Men, 55 years and over Women, 15 to 24 years Women, 25 to 54 years Women, 55 years and over
1976 139.2 320.6 68.0 105.6 159.4 25.7
1977 139.1 327.6 66.0 110.2 165.6 25.9
1978 139.9 336.2 65.0 114.4 181.2 26.0
1979 144.8 345.9 66.2 116.3 191.8 28.2
1980 141.2 353.5 64.6 117.5 206.3 25.9
1981 136.8 358.7 63.5 120.2 219.4 26.0
1982 129.7 363.4 62.9 115.9 227.3 27.1
1983 131.3 370.8 62.2 115.5 240.1 27.0
1984 131.0 379.6 61.5 115.8 254.3 28.1
1985 129.4 389.4 62.0 115.8 268.7 27.6
1986 126.8 398.1 59.8 116.1 284.1 26.2
1987 125.3 404.6 56.7 114.6 295.4 26.8
1988 121.6 414.6 58.7 112.6 311.8 26.7
1989 121.2 422.2 57.5 111.7 328.7 27.6
1990 118.0 430.3 56.7 108.2 344.7 28.3
1991 114.1 430.8 56.9 103.8 351.6 27.8
1992 109.2 427.2 54.7 101.4 355.1 27.1
1993 106.4 431.0 53.6 98.4 360.6 29.3
1994 105.2 434.0 54.2 95.3 361.4 30.7
1995 102.5 433.7 54.6 92.8 366.4 29.6
1996 99.4 432.4 55.2 90.3 370.2 30.3
1997 96.1 440.2 56.2 85.6 380.4 32.1
1998 95.9 443.3 57.8 88.0 385.5 36.1
1999 96.9 445.8 60.5 90.1 390.3 38.3
2000 95.4 443.5 63.5 91.5 397.9 38.8
2001 98.7 441.1 67.7 94.0 402.6 42.0
2002 99.6 442.0 73.2 96.4 409.2 48.9
2003 101.1 437.3 81.7 97.1 408.9 55.3
2004 100.3 436.9 89.0 97.0 411.5 62.9
2005 97.5 431.0 92.3 95.7 408.8 67.0
2006 97.2 421.7 96.9 94.9 409.5 70.7
2007 95.0 417.9 105.3 95.3 409.6 76.9
2008 97.4 417.1 112.8 96.2 407.0 85.2
2009 96.6 417.0 118.2 92.5 406.7 90.2
2010 95.0 416.2 126.3 90.4 407.2 98.0
2011 93.8 415.5 129.3 91.0 403.2 104.0
2012 93.8 413.4 138.7 90.6 404.6 112.7
2013 91.9 408.4 144.7 87.6 402.4 116.3
2014 89.1 402.8 148.3 87.8 393.1 117.5
2015 89.3 397.9 148.0 86.8 389.9 120.8
2016 86.6 391.3 153.3 83.4 386.2 123.4
2017 84.4 388.1 153.8 81.9 382.1 128.5
2018 87.0 388.2 156.1 82.0 380.2 129.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Unemployment rates historically above the national average

Unemployment rates for people aged 25 to 54, 1976 to 2018
Description for chart 19 - Unemployment rates for people aged 25 to 54, 1976 to 2018
Unemployment rates for people aged 25 to 54, 1976 to 2018
  Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Moncton, N.B.
  percent
1976 5.3 10.6 7.2 6.6 8.9 ..
1977 6.0 11.7 8.3 8.3 10.6 ..
1978 6.4 12.9 7.9 8.2 9.8 ..
1979 5.8 11.4 10.1 7.3 8.6 ..
1980 5.8 10.5 9.2 7.5 9.1 ..
1981 6.0 10.0 8.9 7.9 9.3 ..
1982 8.9 12.5 10.3 10.2 11.3 ..
1983 10.0 14.3 10.4 11.1 12.1 ..
1984 9.8 16.3 10.4 10.9 12.7 ..
1985 9.1 16.9 11.7 11.4 13.3 ..
1986 8.3 15.8 11.9 11.5 12.4 ..
1987 7.7 15.1 11.4 10.5 11.7 ..
1988 6.9 13.8 11.9 9.0 10.2 ..
1989 6.8 13.5 13.0 8.7 10.5 ..
1990 7.3 14.9 13.9 9.7 10.5 ..
1991 9.2 15.7 16.0 10.4 11.2 ..
1992 10.0 17.6 16.8 11.7 11.5 ..
1993 10.3 17.7 16.4 13.0 11.0 ..
1994 9.4 18.0 15.8 11.7 11.4 ..
1995 8.5 16.2 14.2 10.8 10.3 ..
1996 8.6 17.0 14.0 11.3 10.1 ..
1997 7.8 16.8 15.2 10.5 11.2 ..
1998 7.1 16.1 13.3 8.7 10.9 ..
1999 6.4 15.0 13.3 7.9 9.0 ..
2000 5.7 15.0 11.6 7.8 8.8 ..
2001 6.2 14.3 10.8 8.3 9.7 6.2
2002 6.6 15.6 11.2 8.0 9.0 5.9
2003 6.4 14.9 10.0 7.7 9.0 5.4
2004 6.0 14.6 10.0 7.6 8.8 5.1
2005 5.8 14.0 9.3 7.1 8.6 4.7
2006 5.3 13.4 10.2 6.7 7.7 4.9
2007 5.1 12.1 9.3 7.0 6.6 3.8
2008 5.1 11.8 9.0 6.5 7.2 3.7
2009 7.1 13.2 10.4 7.9 7.2 4.5
2010 6.9 12.7 10.0 8.7 7.5 4.8
2011 6.3 10.5 10.1 7.6 7.7 5.1
2012 6.0 10.4 9.2 7.4 8.7 5.6
2013 5.9 9.7 9.6 7.4 8.9 6.0
2014 5.8 10.2 8.4 7.3 8.3 5.7
2015 5.8 11.0 8.8 7.2 8.0 5.4
2016 6.0 11.9 8.9 7.2 7.7 5.2
2017 5.4 13.1 8.7 6.9 6.6 4.5
2018 4.9 11.8 8.0 6.1 6.7 4.5
.. not available for a specific reference period
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Employment rates converging towards the national average in most Atlantic provinces

Employment rates for people aged 25 to 54, 1976 to 2018
Description for chart 20 - Employment rates for people aged 25 to 54, 1976 to 2018 (percent)
Employment rates for people aged 25 to 54, 1976 to 2018 (percent)
  Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Moncton, N.B.
1976 69.6 54.4 65.3 64.0 60.8 ..
1977 69.6 54.6 65.4 63.2 59.2 ..
1978 70.7 55.2 67.3 64.7 61.7 ..
1979 72.0 58.5 67.7 65.9 62.5 ..
1980 72.9 59.6 68.7 67.1 63.6 ..
1981 74.0 60.3 69.3 67.8 64.6 ..
1982 71.6 59.5 67.7 66.5 62.1 ..
1983 71.5 58.1 69.1 66.4 62.3 ..
1984 72.2 58.1 69.1 67.9 61.7 ..
1985 73.7 58.7 69.9 67.8 62.6 ..
1986 75.2 60.0 70.8 68.5 65.4 ..
1987 76.2 60.9 72.7 69.6 66.3 ..
1988 77.6 62.8 73.7 71.6 68.7 ..
1989 78.3 63.7 73.2 72.6 69.3 ..
1990 78.1 63.2 73.4 73.0 69.8 ..
1991 76.4 62.3 71.0 72.4 68.3 ..
1992 75.0 58.5 71.1 70.3 68.0 ..
1993 74.9 58.6 71.1 69.2 68.7 ..
1994 75.5 58.2 72.1 69.9 68.2 ..
1995 76.2 59.6 73.0 70.0 69.6 ..
1996 76.2 58.0 73.8 70.0 69.6 ..
1997 77.3 59.8 72.5 71.3 70.6 ..
1998 78.4 61.6 74.2 73.6 71.2 ..
1999 79.2 64.5 74.6 74.5 73.0 ..
2000 79.9 64.0 77.2 75.4 74.1 ..
2001 79.8 66.0 78.0 75.7 73.5 80.4
2002 80.3 66.2 78.1 76.9 75.7 82.7
2003 80.8 66.9 79.3 77.2 75.9 84.1
2004 81.3 67.5 79.7 78.4 76.9 84.9
2005 81.3 68.2 80.2 78.6 77.1 84.8
2006 81.6 69.8 80.3 78.2 78.3 84.5
2007 82.2 70.8 80.0 79.3 79.1 84.7
2008 82.3 71.4 80.5 79.4 79.4 86.0
2009 80.3 70.4 79.6 78.7 79.8 85.5
2010 80.5 71.4 79.4 78.6 79.3 85.0
2011 81.0 73.8 79.6 79.6 78.8 85.6
2012 81.4 75.5 81.8 80.0 78.5 84.9
2013 81.6 76.3 81.2 80.1 79.3 84.9
2014 81.2 75.8 82.2 79.8 79.1 84.7
2015 81.4 74.6 82.2 80.2 79.7 84.4
2016 81.4 74.3 79.5 79.3 80.1 84.9
2017 82.3 72.6 80.5 80.3 80.3 83.0
2018 82.7 74.1 81.5 81.2 80.7 84.6
.. not available for a specific reference period
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Lower projected labour force participation in Atlantic Canada outside CMAs

Lower projected labour force participation rate in Atlantic Canada outside CMAs
Description for chart 21 - Lower projected labour force participation rate in Atlantic Canada outside CMAs
Lower projected labour force participation rate in Atlantic Canada outside CMAs
  2017 2036
  percent
Atlantic Canada CMAs 65.9 60.4
Atlantic Canada outside CMAs 58.4 53.2
Canada 65.7 63.2
Notes: Reference scenario. Census Metropolitan Area (CMA).
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey and Demosim 2017 (2036).

Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio higher in Atlantic Canada

Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio by province, 2018
Description for chart 22 - Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio by province, 2018
Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio by province, 2018
  ratio
Newfoundland and Labrador 9.3
Saskatchewan 3.7
Prince Edward Island 3.6
Nova Scotia 3.4
New Brunswick 3.3
Alberta 2.9
Manitoba 2.8
Quebec 2.2
Canada 2.2
Ontario 2.1
British Columbia 1.2
Sources: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey and Job Vacancy and Wage Survey.

Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio in the Atlantic provinces varies considerably by occupation

Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio, Business, finance and administration occupations, 2018
Description for chart 23 - Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio, Business, finance and administration occupations, 2018
Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio, Business, finance and administration occupations, 2018
  Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick
  Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio
Business, finance and administration occupations 1.5 4.9 2.9 2.1 1.9
Sources: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey and Job Vacancy and Wage Survey.
Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio, Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations, 2018
Description for chart 24 - Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio, Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations, 2018
Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio, Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations, 2018
  Canada Newfoundland and Labrador Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick
  Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio
Natural resources, agriculture and related production occupations 2.0 34.3 9.4 7.2 8.7
Sources: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey and Job Vacancy and Wage Survey.

Recent trends in an evolving labour market

Regional labour markets in the Atlantic provinces

Unemployment rates ranging from 6.0% in Halifax, N.S. to 18.6% in South Coast-Burin Peninsula, N.L.

Unemployment rates by economic regions in the Atlantic provinces, 2018
Description for map 2 - Unemployment rates by economic regions in the Atlantic provinces, 2018
Unemployment rates by economic regions in the Atlantic provinces, 2018
Economic region (perce Unemployment rate (percent)
South Coast-Burin Peninsula, N.L. 18.6
Notre Dame-Central Bonavista Bay, N.L. 18.2
West Coast-Northern Peninsula-Labrador, N.L. 16.1
Cape Breton, N.S. 15.1
Campbellton-Miramichi, N.B. 12.3
Avalon Peninsula, N.L. 11.1
Prince Edward Island 9.4
North Shore, N.S. 8.5
Fredericton-Oromocto, N.B. 7.5
Annapolis Valley, N.S. 7.1
Saint John-St. Stephen, N.B. 7.0
Moncton-Richibucto, N.B. 6.8
Southern, N.S. 6.5
Edmundston-Woodstock, N.B. 6.5
Halifax, N.S. 6.0
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Regional labour markets in the Atlantic provinces

Unemployment rates ranging from 4.1% in Madawaska, N.B. to 24.2% in Division No. 4, N.L.

Unemployment rates by Census subdivision, Atlantic provinces, 2018
Description for map 3 - Unemployment rates by Census subdivision, Atlantic provinces, 2018
Unemployment rates by Census subdivision, Atlantic provinces, 2018
Census subdivision Unemployment rate (percent)
Division No. 4, N.L. 24.2
Division No. 2, N.L. 23.4
Division No. 7, N.L. 23.2
Division No. 9, N.L. 21.4
Division No. 8, N.L. 20.9
Victoria County, N.S. 18.7
Kings County, P.E.I. 16.6
Cape Breton County, N.S. 15.3
Queens County, N.B. 15.3
Division No. 3, N.L. 15.0
Division No. 5, N.L. 14.3
Richmond County, N.S. 13.9
Inverness County, N.S. 13.4
Gloucester County, N.B. 13.1
Northumberland County, N.B. 12.4
Prince County, P.E.I. 11.3
Division No. 1, N.L. 11.1
Division No. 6, N.L. 10.7
Division No. 10, N.L. 10.7
Pictou County, N.S. 10.5
Antigonish County, N.S. 10.5
Kent County, N.B. 10.3
Restigouche County, N.B. 10.2
Digby County, N.S. 9.5
Shelburne County, N.S. 9.4
Charlotte County, N.B. 9.3
Sunbury County, N.B. 9.2
Annapolis County, N.S. 8.0
Carleton County, N.B. 8.0
Saint John County, N.B. 7.9
Hants County, N.S. 7.4
Cumberland County, N.S. 7.4
Queens County, P.E.I. 7.1
Victoria County, N.B. 7.1
York County, N.B. 6.7
Westmorland County, N.B. 6.5
Kings County, N.S. 6.4
Colchester County, N.S. 6.2
Halifax County, N.S. 6.0
Kings County, N.B. 5.7
Yarmouth County, N.S. 5.4
Lunenburg County, N.S. 5.4
Albert County, N.B. 5.0
Madawaska County, N.B. 4.1
Division No. 11, N.L. x
Guysborough County, N.S. x
Queens County, N.S. x
x  suppressed to meet the confidentiality requirements of the Statistics Act
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

In economic regions with high unemployment, jobs are more likely to be temporary

Unemployment rate and percentage of employees in temporary positions, Atlantic Canada by economic region, 2018
Description for chart 25 - Unemployment rate and percentage of employees in temporary positions, Atlantic Canada by economic region, 2018 (percentage)
Unemployment rate and percentage of employees in temporary positions, Atlantic Canada by economic region, 2018 (percent)
Economic region Tempory employees rate Unemployment rate
Avalon Peninsula, N.L. 20.5 11.1
West Coast-Northern Peninsula-Labrador, N.L. 24.0 16.2
South Coast-Burin Peninsula and Notre Dame-Central Bonavista Bay, N.L. 27.1 18.2
Prince Edward Island 21.0 9.4
Cape Breton, N.S. 21.8 15.1
North Shore, N.S. 15.7 8.5
Annapolis Valley, N.S. 14.3 7.1
Southern, N.S. 16.4 6.5
Halifax, N.S. 25.0 5.9
Campbellton-Miramichi, N.B. 25.0 12.4
Moncton-Richibucto, N.B. 14.9 6.8
Saint John-St. Stephen, N.B. 13.9 7.0
Fredericton-Oromocto, N.B. 16.9 7.5
Edmundston-Woodstock, N.B. 14.7 6.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Population aging and its impact on participation rates

Participation rates by economic region, Atlantic provinces, 2018
Description for map 4 - Participation rates by economic region, Atlantic provinces, 2018
Participation rates by economic region, Atlantic provinces, 2018
Economic regions Participation rate (percent)
Halifax, N.S. 68.1
Prince Edward Island 66.7
Moncton-Richibucto, N.B. 63.5
Fredericton-Oromocto, N.B. 62.7
Avalon Peninsula, N.L. 62.1
Edmundston-Woodstock, N.B. 62.0
Saint John-St. Stephen, N.B. 61.8
Annapolis Valley, N.S. 58.9
West Coast-Northern Peninsula-Labrador, N.L. 57.8
North Shore, N.S. 57.1
Southern, N.S. 56.7
South Coast-Burin Peninsula, N.L. 56.4
Campbellton-Miramichi, N.B. 55.9
Cape Breton, N.S. 52.7
Notre Dame-Central Bonavista Bay, N.L. 52.4
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Immigration lower in regions with older workforce

Proportion of immigrants in total population and proportion of workers 55 years and over by economic region, 2018
Description for chart 26 - Proportion of immigrants in total population and proportion of workers 55 years and over by economic region, 2018
Proportion of immigrants in total population and proportion of workers 55 years and over by economic region, 2018
Economic region Proportion of workers 55 years and over Proportion of immigrants in total population
Annapolis Valley, N.S. 24.8 0.17
Avalon Peninsula, N.L. 19.6 0.33
Campbellton-Miramichi, N.B. 27.4 0.09
Cape Breton, N.S. 27.4 0.16
Edmundston-Woodstock, N.B. 26.3 0.25
Fredericton-Oromocto, N.B. 23.4 1.03
Halifax, N.S. 19.8 1.01
Moncton-Richibucto, N.B. 20.8 0.62
North Shore, N.S. 28.6 0.14
Notre Dame-Central Bonavista Bay, N.L. 24.6 0.08
Prince Edward Island 25.1 1.37
Saint John-St. Stephen, N.B. 22.2 0.54
South Coast-Burin Peninsula, N.L. 27.6 0.03
Southern, N.S. 28.4 0.12
West Coast-Northern Peninsula-Labrador, N.L. 25.7 0.25
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio by economic region

Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio by economic region, 2018
Description for chart 27 - Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio by economic region, 2018
Unemployed-to-job vacancy ratio by economic region, 2018
  ratio
South Coast-Burin Peninsula and Notre Dame-Central Bonavista Bay, N.L. 18.7
West Coast-Northern Peninsula-Labrador, N.L. 9.3
Cape Breton, N.S. 8.0
Avalon Peninsula, N.L. 6.8
Campbellton-Miramichi, N.B. 6.8
Annapolis Valley, N.S. 4.3
North Shore, N.S. 4.1
Fredericton-Oromocto, N.B. 3.7
Prince Edward Island 3.6
Southern, N.S. 3.0
Saint John-St. Stephen, N.B. 2.9
Edmundston-Woodstock, N.B. 2.7
Halifax, N.S. 2.4
Moncton-Richibucto, N.B. 2.3
Canada 2.2
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey and Job Vacancy and Wage Survey.

Opportunities in the Atlantic region

In 2017, 116 instances for which the average wage paid for an occupation was higher in an Atlantic economic region than the national average wage paid for that same occupation.

Difference between the regional average full-time wage paid for an occcupation and the national average full-time wage paid for the same occupation, by select occupations and economic regions, 2018
Description for map 5 - Difference between the regional average full-time wage paid for an occcupation and the national average full-time wage paid for the same occupation, by select occupations and economic regions, 2018
Difference between the regional average full-time wage paid for an occcupation and the national average full-time wage paid for the same occupation, by select occupations and economic regions, 2018
Economic region Occupation Wage differential (percent)
West Coast-Northern Peninsula-Labrador, N.L. Machining, metal forming, shaping and erecting trade 47
Campbellton-Miramichi, N.B. Specialized occupations in personal and customer services 43
Cape Breton, N.S. Administrative services supervisors 36
Annapolis Valley, N.S. Managers in agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture 25
Prince Edward Island Human resources and business service professionals 12
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

Vision for analyzing tomorrow's labour market

Modernizing every step of the cycle to improve our products…

Creating the foundation for a digital government, society and economy.

Generation and Collection

From survey-first segregated collection to maximizing the use of administrative/big data.

User Centric Service Delivery

Integration

From fragmented to modern methodologies to better integrate data from a variety of sources.

Statistical Capacity Building & Leadership

Dissemination

From limited to significantly expanded access and responsive, high value products and services.

Sharing & Collaboration

Analysis and visualization

From static data tables and analysis to provision of tools to evaluate and support responsible data use.

Leading Edge Methods & Data Integration

Consumption

Supporting quality decisions by citizens, their governments and businesses based on evidence.

Flexible & Modern Workplace

Vision for analyzing tomorrow's labour market

Statistics Canada is committed to modernizing and building on existing labour market measures by:

Continuing to build and foster relationships with our partners and stakeholders

Ongoing consultation on …

With...

Going forward: Measuring new forms of employment

Small Area Estimation: Increasing precision of sub-provincial labour market indicators

Dissemination of new data, analytical and reference products

Innovative tools for a comprehensive picture of regional labour markets.

Labour Force Survey in Brief: Interactive App

Report a problem on this page

Is something not working? Is there information outdated? Can't find what you're looking for?

Please contact us and let us know how we can help you.

Privacy notice

Date modified: