Montréal – A Data Story on Ethnocultural Diversity and Inclusion in Canada

Release date: April 11, 2019

Map 3, entitled "2036 – Projected based on six scenarios", was replaced on August 27, 2019, as it was a duplicate of Map 2.

A Data Story: A discussion with Statistics Canada

Anil Arora
Chief Statistician of Canada

Montréal, April 11, 2019

Delivering insight through data for a better Canada.

Statistics Canada and measuring diversity and inclusion

Who are we

Statistics Canada has two primary objectives:

  1. To provide statistical information and analysis about Canada's economic and social structure;
  2. To promote sound statistical practices and standards.

Statistics Canada's modernization pillars

Forces at play in defining a measure on diversity and inclusion

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Measuring diversity and inclusion

Various data sources are used to measure and take into account the cultural, ethnic, linguistic and religious diversity and pluralism in Canada

Evolution of ethnocultural questions in the Canadian census

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Description for Figure 1 - Evolution of ethnocultural questions in the Canadian census
Evolution of the ethnocultural question in the Canadian census, 1871 to 2016
1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 2016
Place of birth X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Citizenship X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Year of immigration X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
(Year of naturalization) X X X X X
Immigrant status X X X X X X
Place of birth of parents X X X X X X X X
(Colour) X
Origin* X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Population groups/visible minorities X X X X X
Aboriginal groups (Aboriginal identity) X X X X X X
Registered or Treaty Indian status X X X X X X
Membership in a First Nation or Indian band X X X X X X
(French Canadian) X
Mother tongue X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Knowledge of official languages X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Knowledge of non-official languages X X X X X X
Language spoken most often at home X X X X X X X X X
Language spoken regularly at home X X X X
Language used most often at work X X X X
Language used regularly at work X X X X
Religion X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1871 to 2001, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Key concepts in immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada

Portrait of ethnocultural diversity in Quebec and Montréal

Net international migration is the main driver of population growth in Quebec

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Description for Chart 1 - Sources of population growth in Quebec, 1971-1972 to 2017-2018
Sources of population growth in Quebec, 1971-1972 to 2017-2018
  Natural increase Net international migration Net interprovincial migration
1971-1972 44,216 13,925 -21,637
1972-1973 41,400 16,881 -19,754
1973-1974 42,513 25,085 -12,581
1974-1975 45,406 26,281 -10,361
1975-1976 57,226 22,911 -13,354
1976-1977 50,578 20,657 -26,366
1977-1978 51,692 10,560 -46,429
1978-1979 53,356 11,561 -30,884
1979-1980 54,216 24,281 -29,976
1980-1981 53,957 18,766 -22,841
1981-1982 50,476 19,512 -25,790
1982-1983 43,637 14,161 -24,678
1983-1984 44,542 11,923 -17,417
1984-1985 41,557 11,820 -8,020
1985-1986 39,030 18,601 -5,349
1986-1987 38,151 38,942 -3,729
1987-1988 36,063 26,273 -7,693
1988-1989 41,519 53,701 -7,618
1989-1990 46,978 33,073 -8,642
1990-1991 49,949 32,852 -11,325
1991-1992 48,514 26,742 -12,552
1992-1993 43,102 31,881 -8,420
1993-1994 39,723 24,936 -8,758
1994-1995 36,888 18,911 -8,947
1995-1996 33,990 23,763 -12,626
1996-1997 28,709 16,397 -17,436
1997-1998 23,030 15,207 -16,958
1998-1999 19,827 20,509 -13,065
1999-2000 20,937 24,866 -12,146
2000-2001 17,808 31,646 -9,442
2001-2002 17,865 35,924 -4,350
2002-2003 17,377 32,788 -1,829
2003-2004 17,953 36,957 -822
2004-2005 19,565 35,523 -4,963
2005-2006 25,108 37,879 -9,411
2006-2007 26,691 42,217 -12,865
2007-2008 29,418 46,151 -11,682
2008-2009 31,367 52,802 -7,419
2009-2010 30,677 53,513 -3,258
2010-2011 28,279 50,598 -4,763
2011-2012 29,107 51,101 -6,915
2012-2013 27,241 50,203 -10,431
2013-2014 27,370 43,479 -14,312
2014-2015 22,052 36,413 -16,142
2015-2016 24,015 52,607 -11,118
2016-2017 19,330 60,564 -8,127
2017-2018 16,600 82,943 -6,761
Source: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates Program.

In 2016, immigrants represented nearly 14% of the total population in Quebec, compared with 29% in Ontario, 28% in British Columbia and 21% in Alberta

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Description for Chart 2 - Number of immigrants in Québec and demographic weight of the immigrant population within Quebec's population, 1971 to 2016
Number of immigrants in Québec and demographic weight of the immigrant population within Quebec's population, 1971 to 2016
  Thousands Percentage
1971 469 7.8
1981 522 8.2
1991 591 8.7
2001 705 9.9
2011 975 12.6
2016 1,091 13.7
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1971 to 2001; National Household Survey, 2011.

In Quebec, the proportion of immigrants is highest in the census metropolitan area of Montréal.

Number and proportion (%) of immigrants in the census metropolitan areas (CMA), Québec, 2016
  Number of immigrants Proportion (%)
Montréal 936,305 23.4
Québec 44,550 5.7
Ottawa-Gatineau (Québec part) 36,095 11.0
Sherbrooke 14,555 7.1
Trois-Rivières 4,820 3.2
Saguenay 2,035 1.3
Outside of the CMA 52,945 2.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016
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Description for Map 1 - Proportion of immigrants in Montréal CMA, by census subdivision, 2016
Proportion of immigrants in Montréal CMA, by census subdivision, 2016
Census Subdivision Proportion (in %)
Lavaltrie 2.1
Richelieu 4.0
Saint-Mathias-sur-Richelieu 3.9
Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu 3.4
Chambly 5.4
Carignan 6.8
Saint-Basile-le-Grand 5.4
McMasterville 4.0
Otterburn Park 4.7
Mont-Saint-Hilaire 5.0
Beloeil 4.3
Saint-Mathieu-de-Beloeil 2.6
Brossard 38.6
Saint-Lambert 15.1
Boucherville 7.6
Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville 8.5
Longueuil 17.7
Sainte-Julie 4.1
Saint-Amable 3.6
Varennes 3.8
Verchères 2.9
Charlemagne 4.4
Repentigny 8.9
Saint-Sulpice 1.9
L'Assomption 3.2
L'Épiphanie 2.3
L'Épiphanie 2.9
Saint-Lin--Laurentides 2.7
Terrebonne 9.0
Mascouche 5.2
Laval 28.5
Montréal-Est 9.0
Montréal 34.3
Westmount 26.6
Montréal-Ouest 23.4
Côte-Saint-Luc 44.5
Hampstead 28.9
Mont-Royal 34.2
Dorval 25.7
L'Île-Dorval 0.0
Pointe-Claire 25.9
Kirkland 29.5
Beaconsfield 23.7
Baie-D'Urfé 25.5
Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue 15.3
Senneville 25.6
Dollard-Des Ormeaux 40.4
Saint-Mathieu 1.9
Saint-Philippe 3.7
La Prairie 12.0
Candiac 12.0
Delson 7.7
Sainte-Catherine 7.4
Saint-Constant 8.8
Saint-Isidore 4.5
Mercier 7.4
Châteauguay 16.3
Léry 4.6
Beauharnois 1.9
Saint-Zotique 3.0
Les Coteaux 2.6
Coteau-du-Lac 3.7
Les Cèdres 4.7
Pointe-des-Cascades 7.7
L'Île-Perrot 16.0
Notre-Dame-de-l'Île-Perrot 14.1
Pincourt 16.1
Terrasse-Vaudreuil 16.3
Vaudreuil-Dorion 18.1
Vaudreuil-sur-le-Lac 11.7
L'Île-Cadieux 10.1
Hudson 16.0
Saint-Lazare 9.8
Saint-Eustache 6.8
Deux-Montagnes 10.4
Sainte-Marthe-sur-le-Lac 7.3
Pointe-Calumet 2.0
Saint-Joseph-du-Lac 2.6
Oka 3.1
Saint-Placide 3.1
Boisbriand 8.3
Sainte-Thérèse 7.1
Blainville 8.0
Rosemère 10.4
Lorraine 9.1
Bois-des-Filion 8.3
Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines 2.4
Mirabel 3.2
Saint-Colomban 2.8
Saint-Jérôme 4.3
Gore 4.8
Kahnawake 0.0
Kanesatake 0.0
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016

Source countries for immigration in Quebec have changed a lot over time

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Description for Chart 3 - Region of birth of recent immigrants in Quebec, 1971 to 2016
Region of birth of recent immigrants in Quebec, 1971 to 2016
  1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2016
Oceania and others 1.5 0.9 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
Asia (including Middle East) 11.1 33.1 44.1 36.0 24.3 24.9
Africa 9.3 7.5 10.5 22.5 31.8 34.5
Caribbean, Bermuda, Central America, and South America 10.0 24.2 23.8 14.6 22.9 20.3
United States 7.2 5.9 2.9 2.2 2.4 1.9
Europe 60.9 28.3 18.4 24.5 18.5 18.3
Note: "Recent immigrants" are immigrants who received landed immigrant or permanent resident status in Canada for the first time in the five years preceding a given census.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1971 to 2006; National Household Survey, 2011

Top country of birth reported by recent immigrants in Quebec, 2016

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

The share of immigrants from certain parts of the world could continue to grow, while those from earlier waves of immigration could continue to decline

2016

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Description for Map 2 - Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Quebec, by region of birth, 2016
Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Quebec, by region of birth, 2016
  Percentage
North America 2.4
Caribbean and Bermuda 10.1
Central America 3.5
South America 6.6
Northern Europe 1.4
Western Europe 10.1
Eastern Europe 7.6
Southern Europe 9.5
Northern Africa 14.2
Western Africa 2.9
Eastern Africa 2.1
Central Africa 2.7
Southern Africa 0.1
West Central Asia and the Middle-East 10.3
Southern Asia 4.4
Eastern Asia 5.8
Southeast Asia 6.1
Oceania and others 0.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016

2036 - Projected based on six scenarios

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Description for Map 3 - Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Quebec, by region of birth, 2036, projected based on 6 scenarios
Distribution (as a percentage) of immigrants living in Quebec, by region of birth, 2036, projected based on 6 scenarios
  Percentage
North America 2.0 to 2.2
Caribbean and Bermuda 7.6 to 9.8
Central America 3.5 to 4.0
South America 6.8 to 7.8
Northern Europe 0.9 to 1.0
Western Europe 8.6 to 9.0
Eastern Europe 6.5 to 8.3
Southern Europe 2.8 to 3.4
Northern Africa 17.3 to 18.9
Western Africa 4.4 to 5.6
Eastern Africa 2.2 to 3.0
Central Africa 3.2 to 3.7
Southern Africa 0.1
West Central Asia and the Middle-East 11.0 to 11.8
Southern Asia 4.1 to 4.6
Eastern Asia 7.0 to 8.2
Southeast Asia 4.5 to 5.3
Oceania and others 0.2 to 0.6
Source: Statistics Canada, Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551.

Although the diversity of the Quebec population has primarily been driven by various waves of international immigration, the population of people born in Canada to at least one immigrant parent is growing

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Description for Chart 4 - Proportion of immigrants and second-generation individuals in Quebec, 2016 (census) and 2036 (projection based on six scenarios)
Proportion of immigrants and second-generation individuals in Quebec, 2016 (census) and 2036 (projection based on six scenarios)
  2016 2036
Immigrants 13.7 9.9
Second generation 20.8 14.3
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016; Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, no. 91-551 in the Statistics Canada catalog.

In the Montréal CMA, immigrants and second-generation individuals represented 41.8% of the population in 2016.

This proportion could rise to between 49.7% and 55.6% in 2036.

Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016; Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551. (Based on six scenarios)

Linguistic diversity in Montréal: more than 160 languages, including Indigenous and immigrant languages

Mother tongue of the Montréal population (CMA)

Mother tongue of immigrants in Montréal (CMA)

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016

Relative proportion of the Montréal CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016

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Description for Figure 2 - Relative proportion of the Montréal CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016
Relative proportion of the Montréal CMA population who reported a language other than English or French as their mother tongue, 2016
Immigrant languages Total number of people Percentage in category Percentage of the total population
Arabic 181,435 18.0 4.5
Spanish 129,865 12.9 3.2
Italian 109,300 10.9 2.7
Creole, n.o.s. 62,125 6.2 1.5
Mandarin 41,840 4.2 1.0
Greek 40,900 4.1 1.0
Romanian 34,325 3.4 0.8
Portuguese 33,110 3.3 0.8
Russian 27,640 2.7 0.7
Vietnamese 26,990 2.7 0.7
Persian (Farsi) 25,945 2.6 0.6
Cantonese 24,560 2.4 0.6
Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 18,600 1.8 0.5
Armenian 17,180 1.7 0.4
Tamil 14,885 1.5 0.4
Punjabi (Panjabi) 13,200 1.3 0.3
Kabyle 12,985 1.3 0.3
Polish 12,905 1.3 0.3
Bengali 11,770 1.2 0.3
Urdu 11,525 1.1 0.3
German 10,235 1.0 0.3
Yiddish 9,440 0.9 0.2
Berber languages, n.i.e. 8,765 0.9 0.2
Khmer (Cambodian) 8,705 0.9 0.2
Turkish 7,085 0.7 0.2
Niger-Congo languages, n.i.e. 6,960 0.7 0.2
Gujarati 6,710 0.7 0.2
Bulgarian 6,630 0.7 0.2
Hungarian 5,470 0.5 0.1
Korean 5,115 0.5 0.1
Ukrainian 4,920 0.5 0.1
Hebrew 4,315 0.4 0.1
Lao 3,910 0.4 < 0.1
Hindi 3,575 0.4 < 0.1
Chinese, n.o.s. 3,330 0.3 < 0.1
Min Nan (Chaochow, Teochow, Fukien, Taiwanese) 3,230 0.3 < 0.1
Wolof 2,905 0.3 < 0.1
Lingala 2,715 0.3 < 0.1
Albanian 2,645 0.3 < 0.1
Haitian Creole 2,390 0.2 < 0.1
Japanese 2,360 0.2 < 0.1
Ilocano 2,230 0.2 < 0.1
Serbian 2,005 0.2 < 0.1
Dutch 2,005 0.2 < 0.1
Croatian 1,995 0.2 < 0.1
Fulah (Pular, Pulaar, Fulfulde) 1,955 0.2 < 0.1
Rundi (Kirundi) 1,865 0.2 < 0.1
Swahili 1,605 0.2 < 0.1
Kinyarwanda (Rwanda) 1,540 0.2 < 0.1
Akan (Twi) 1,305 0.1 < 0.1
Pashto 1,270 0.1 < 0.1
Czech 1,240 0.1 < 0.1
Bamanankan 1,170 0.1 < 0.1
Creole languages, n.i.e. 1,150 0.1 < 0.1
Wu (Shanghainese) 1,040 0.1 < 0.1
Malagasy 985 < 0.1 < 0.1
Slovak 950 < 0.1 < 0.1
Cebuano 860 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kurdish 825 < 0.1 < 0.1
Somali 800 < 0.1 < 0.1
Amharic 725 < 0.1 < 0.1
Slovene (Slovenian) 715 < 0.1 < 0.1
Sinhala (Sinhalese) 700 < 0.1 < 0.1
Serbo-Croatian 685 < 0.1 < 0.1
Telugu 655 < 0.1 < 0.1
Malay 650 < 0.1 < 0.1
Other languages, n.i.e. 615 < 0.1 < 0.1
Thai 575 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ewe 565 < 0.1 < 0.1
Swedish 520 < 0.1 < 0.1
Lithuanian 515 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bosnian 475 < 0.1 < 0.1
Hakka 475 < 0.1 < 0.1
Hiligaynon 470 < 0.1 < 0.1
Malayalam 470 < 0.1 < 0.1
Nepali 385 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tigrigna 365 < 0.1 < 0.1
Sindhi 355 < 0.1 < 0.1
Indo-Iranian languages, n.i.e. 355 < 0.1 < 0.1
Vlaams (Flemish) 345 < 0.1 < 0.1
Danish 340 < 0.1 < 0.1
Finnish 330 < 0.1 < 0.1
Austronesian languages, n.i.e. 305 < 0.1 < 0.1
Yoruba 295 < 0.1 < 0.1
Afro-Asiatic languages, n.i.e. 290 < 0.1 < 0.1
Catalan 290 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kannada 280 < 0.1 < 0.1
Azerbaijani 270 < 0.1 < 0.1
Marathi 265 < 0.1 < 0.1
Latvian 250 < 0.1 < 0.1
Pampangan (Kapampangan, Pampango) 220 < 0.1 < 0.1
Uyghur 210 < 0.1 < 0.1
Mongolian 200 < 0.1 < 0.1
Nilo-Saharan languages, n.i.e. 200 < 0.1 < 0.1
Macedonian 185 < 0.1 < 0.1
Turkic languages, n.i.e. 170 < 0.1 < 0.1
Estonian 170 < 0.1 < 0.1
Norwegian 165 < 0.1 < 0.1
Georgian 165 < 0.1 < 0.1
Igbo 160 < 0.1 < 0.1
Slavic languages, n.i.e. 140 < 0.1 < 0.1
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bikol 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Germanic languages, n.i.e. 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Konkani 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Uzbek 130 < 0.1 < 0.1
Afrikaans 115 < 0.1 < 0.1
Italic (Romance) languages, n.i.e. 105 < 0.1 < 0.1
Pangasinan 100 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ga 95 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tibetan 95 < 0.1 < 0.1
Semitic languages, n.i.e. 90 < 0.1 < 0.1
Shona 90 < 0.1 < 0.1
Celtic languages, n.i.e. 85 < 0.1 < 0.1
Chinese languages, n.i.e. 85 < 0.1 < 0.1
Edo 80 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tibeto-Burman languages, n.i.e. 80 < 0.1 < 0.1
Belarusan 70 < 0.1 < 0.1
Burmese 70 < 0.1 < 0.1
Icelandic 60 < 0.1 < 0.1
Waray-Waray 55 < 0.1 < 0.1
Oriya (Odia) 40 < 0.1 < 0.1
Welsh 35 < 0.1 < 0.1
Cushitic languages, n.i.e. 25 < 0.1 < 0.1
Scottish Gaelic 25 < 0.1 < 0.1
Min Dong 25 < 0.1 < 0.1
Hmong-Mien languages 20 < 0.1 < 0.1
Kashmiri 20 < 0.1 < 0.1
Ganda 20 < 0.1 < 0.1
Bilen 15 < 0.1 < 0.1
Chaldean Neo-Aramaic 15 < 0.1 < 0.1
Maltese 15 < 0.1 < 0.1
Austro-Asiatic languages, n.i.e. 15 < 0.1 < 0.1
Dravidian languages, n.i.e. 15 < 0.1 < 0.1
Frisian 10 < 0.1 < 0.1
Tai-Kadai languages, n.i.e. 10 < 0.1 < 0.1
Oromo 5 < 0.1 < 0.1
Fijian 5 < 0.1 < 0.1
Dinka 5 < 0.1 < 0.1
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016 (see interactive bubble chart)

Growing multilingualism in the home

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Description for Chart 5 - Languages spoken most often or regularly at home, Montréal CMA, 2001 to 2016
Languages spoken most often or regularly at home, Montréal CMA, 2001 to 2016
  2001 2006 2011 2016
French only 63.2 60.7 57.5 55.6
English only 10.8 10.6 9.7 9.4
Other only 6.0 6.7 6.6 6.4
French and other 5.1 6.5 8.5 9.5
English and other 4.3 4.4 5.1 5.2
French and English 8.7 9.0 9.5 10.1
Other combinations 2.0 2.1 3.2 3.7
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2001 to 2016.

More than 250 ethnic or cultural origins were reported by the Quebec population

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Description for Chart 6 - Top 20 ethnic origins reported in Quebec, 2016
Top 20 ethnic origins reported in Quebec, 2016
  Single responses Multiple responses
Russian 15,800 39,435
Algerian 45,570 14,810
Métis 17,585 43,675
Portuguese 38,595 31,215
Greek 45,305 26,025
Lebanese 51,370 26,775
Polish 22,100 56,940
Spanish 18,750 66,610
Moroccan 64,635 21,305
Chinese 92,510 28,940
German 22,085 120,145
Haïtian 111,250 31,920
Québécois 117,935 66,070
Scottish 25,570 189,455
English 30,120 198,400
First Nations (Noth American Indian) 83,080 206,525
Italian 163,575 163,125
Irish 78,045 368,170
French 705,070 1,165,480
Canadian 3,501,850 1,145,985
Note: The total responses in this graph is greater than the total population, since a person can report more than one origin.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

In 2016, 25% of the Quebec population reported more than one origin in the census.

Ethnic origin refers to the ethnic or cultural origins of the person's ancestors. An ancestor is usually more distant than a grandparent.

According to the demographic projections, the proportion of the population in Montréal who report being Catholic may continue to decline, while the proportions who report having no religious affiliation or being Muslim could keep growing

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Description for Chart 7 - Proportion of the population, by religious group, Montréal CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projected based on seven scenarios)
Proportion of the population, by religious group, Montréal CMA, 2011 (estimated) and 2036 (projeted based on seven scenarios)
    2011 2016 2021 2026 2031 2036
Catholic maximum 63.4 58.7 54.8 51.4 48.4 45.4
minimum 63.4 58.3 54.0 50.1 46.3 42.8
No religious affiliation maximum 14.9 17.6 20.0 22.0 24.0 25.9
minimum 14.9 17.6 19.9 21.9 23.7 25.3
Other Christian religions maximum 11.1 11.8 12.4 13.0 13.6 14.2
minimum 11.1 11.6 12.0 12.5 12.9 13.3
Muslim maximum 5.8 7.5 8.9 10.3 11.6 12.8
minimum 5.8 7.4 8.6 9.3 10.0 10.8
Other non-Christian religions maximum 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
minimum 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
Note: The shaded area indicates the interval between the minimum and maximum values projected by the seven scenarios considered.
Source: Statistics Canada. 2017. Immigration and Diversity: Population Projections for Canada and its Regions, 2011 and 2036, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 91-551.

In 2017, 44% of Catholics in Montréal attended religious ceremonies at least once a year.

Source: Statistics Canada, General Social Survey, 2017.

In Quebec, the three largest visible minority groups as defined by the Employment Equity Act are Black, Arab and Latin American

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Description for Chart 8 - Main groups defined as visible minorities in Quebec, 2001 to 2016
Main groups defined as visible minorities in Quebec, 2001 to 2016
  2001 2006 2011 2016
Black 152,195 188,070 243,625 319,230
Arab 73,345 109,020 166,260 213,740
Latin American 59,520 89,510 116,380 133,915
Chinese 56,830 79,825 82,850 99,505
South Asian 59,505 72,850 83,320 90,330
Southeast Asian 44,115 50,460 65,855 62,820
Filipino 18,550 24,200 31,490 34,910
West Asian 12,420 16,115 23,450 32,405
Korean 4,410 5,310 6,660 8,050
Japanese 2,830 3,540 4,025 4,570
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011

Inclusion and integration: Challenges and issues

In Quebec, the proportion of recent immigrants who know French has increased over the decades

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Description for Chart 9 - Self-reported ability of recent immigrants to conduct a conversation in English or French, Quebec, 1971 to 2016
Self-reported ability of recent immigrants to conduct a conversation in English or French, Quebec, 1971 to 2016
  1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 2016
French only 22.5 39.4 33.4 33.0 38.9 39.7
French and English 26.5 27.7 33.5 38.7 41.9 41.0
English only 36.8 21.2 22.2 21.7 14.2 13.3
Neither French nor English 14.2 11.7 10.9 6.6 5.0 6.0
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2001 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

Ability to have a conversation in at least three languages

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016

Between 2006 and 2016, there was an increase in the equal use of French and English at work by the population with an "other" mother tongue and a decrease in the predominant use of English

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Description for Chart 10 - Use of English and French at work by the population with a mother tongue other than English or French who worked in Montréal CMA, 2006 and 2016.
Use of English at work by the population with a mother tongue other than English or French who worked in Montréal CMA, 2006 and 2016.
  2006 2016
Predominant use 36.2 28.8
Equally with another language 13.9 20.5
Regularly (secondary use) 25.0 23.3
Use of French at work by the population with a mother tongue other than English or French who worked in Montréal CMA, 2006 and 2016.
  2006 2016
Predominant use 45.7 47.2
Equally with another language 13.8 20.4
Regularly (secondary use) 19.6 15.2

Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2006 and 2016

Although the situation has improved recently, employment rates for immigrants remain lower than for the Canadian-born. However, this gap is smaller for established immigrants than for recent immigrants

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Description for Chart 11 - Employment rate for the core-aged group women (25 to 54 years), by immigrant status and immigration period, Montréal CMA, 2006 to 2018
Employment rate for the core-aged group women (25 to 54 years), by immigrant status and immigration period, Montréal CMA, 2006 to 2018
  All immigrants Recent immigrants (less than 5 years in Canada) Established immigrants (at least 10 years in Canada) Canadian-born women
2006 62.8 49.6 70.1 80.1
2007 65.0 46.8 73.5 83.9
2008 64.3 46.8 74.4 82.4
2009 65.1 46.6 72.4 82.1
2010 64.2 50.2 71.3 82.2
2011 63.0 47.6 69.1 83.7
2012 66.0 49.5 74.6 83.9
2013 64.3 50.7 72.1 84.5
2014 65.9 46.5 73.6 83.8
2015 63.6 43.4 74.6 84.1
2016 69.3 49.2 77.0 83.9
2017 71.1 54.1 77.8 86.1
2018 72.9 56.0 79.4 86.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.
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Description for Chart 12 - Employment rate for the core-aged group men (25 to 54 years), by immigrant status and immigration period, Montréal CMA, 2006 to 2018
Employment rate for the core-aged group men (25 to 54 years), by immigrant status and immigration period, Montréal CMA, 2006 to 2018
  All immigrants Recent immigrants (less than 5 years in Canada) Established immigrants (at least 10 years in Canada) Canadian-born men
2006 78.2 67.4 82.1 86.4
2007 78.8 67.3 83.4 87.9
2008 79.9 70.5 82.7 86.9
2009 74.8 60.1 81.9 84.1
2010 77.9 65.4 83.2 85.5
2011 76.7 65.9 80.7 85.1
2012 77.4 63.4 85.9 86.0
2013 80.1 74.7 82.0 86.0
2014 78.3 65.9 82.3 84.7
2015 81.2 73.7 82.6 84.9
2016 82.7 77.8 83.1 85.3
2017 84.3 77.3 85.2 87.0
2018 84.8 78.9 86.5 87.5
Source: Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey.

The unemployment rates of immigrants are much higher than for the Canadian-born. These gaps narrow when isolating the influence of key social and ethnocultural characteristics

Observed unemployment rates (percentage) of core-aged group women, by immigrant status and sex, Montréal CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Non-immigrants Immigrants
1996 7.8 17.7
2001 5.0 12.8
2006 4.2 12.2
2011 4.2 12.3
2016 4.1 10.7
Observed unemployment rates (percentage) of core-aged group men, by immigrant status and sex, Montréal CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Non-immigrants Immigrants
1996 8.8 16
2001 5.3 11.4
2006 4.8 10.7
2011 5.2 10.6
2016 5.5 8.8

Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996 to 2006, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011

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Description for Chart 13 - Unemployment rate ratio (observed and adjusted1) of immigrants to the Canadian-born, by sex, Montréal CMA, 1996 to 2016
Unemployment rate ratio (observed and adjusted1) of immigrants to the Canadian-born, by sex, Montréal CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Women - observed Women - adjusted1 Men - observed Men - adjusted1
1996 2.3 1.6 1.8 1.4
2001 2.6 1.7 2.1 1.7
2006 2.9 1.9 2.2 1.8
2011 2.9 1.9 2.0 1.7
2016 2.6 1.7 1.6 1.3
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of work and language experience, marital status, education and visible minority status.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016, National Household Survey, 2011.

Among women and men, the significant gap between the annual median salaries of immigrants and the Canadian-born is mostly due to a range of ethnocultural and socioeconomic characteristics and work experience.

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Description for Chart 14 - Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged immigrant woman workers and Canadian-born women workers, Montréal CMA, 1996 to 2016
Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged immigrant woman workers and Canadian-born women workers, Montréal CMA, 1996 to 2016
  Women - observed Women - adjusted1
1995 0.69 0.96
2000 0.71 0.96
2005 0.68 0.92
2010 0.73 0.91
2015 0.72 0.91
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of age, marital status, education, knowledge of official languages, visible minority status, full-time or part-time work, the number ok weeks worked in a year, and the major occupation.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.
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Description for Chart 15 - Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged immigrant men workers and Canadian-born men workers, Montréal, 1996 to 2016
Annual median salary ratio (observed and adjusted1) of core-aged immigrant men workers and Canadian-born men workers, Montréal, 1996 to 2016
  Men - Observed Men - adjusted1
1995 0.73 0.92
2000 0.72 0.91
2005 0.69 0.87
2010 0.72 0.89
2015 0.73 0.89
1 The adjusted rates isolate the influence of age, marital status, education, knowledge of officials, visible minority status, full-time or part-time work, the number ok weeks worked in a year, and the major occupation group.
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 1996, 2001, 2006 and 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

The proportion of immigrants in a low-income situation is much higher than the proportion of Canadian-born.

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Description for Chart 16 - Proportion of persons aged 25 to 54 years who were in-low income situation based on Market Basket Measure, by immigrant status, Montréal CMA, 2011 and 2016
Proportion of persons aged 25 to 54 years who were in-low income situation based on Market Basket Measure, by immigrant status, Montréal CMA, 2011 and 2016
  2011 2016
Non-immigrants 11.4 9.2
Immigrants 19.7 15.4
Sources: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016; National Household Survey, 2011.

The proportion of immigrants who earned a university degree outside Canada and the United States and who have a job that requires a high school diploma or less is much higher than the proportion of Canadian-born.

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Description for Chart 17 - Overqualification rate among female workers aged 25 or older with a university diploma, by main field of study and immigrant status, Montréal CMA, 2016
Overqualification rate among female workers aged 25 or older with a university diploma, by main field of study and immigrant status, Montréal CMA, 2016
  Canada-born Immigrant with university degree from outside Canada and the U.S.
Science and science technology 10.0 27.1
Engineering and engineering technology 5.3 24.2
Mathematics and computer and information science 9.3 24.7
Business and administration 10.4 35.6
Arts and humanities 17.8 28.7
Social and behavioural sciences 14.1 29.7
Legal professions and studies 5.0 31.4
Health care 2.9 29.8
Education and teaching 4.5 25.2
Trades, services, natural resources and conservation 9.8 29.6
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.
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Description for Chart 18 - Overqualification rate among male workers aged 25 or older with a university diploma, by main field of study and immigrant status, Montréal CMA, 2016
Overqualification rate among male workers aged 25 or older with a university diploma, by main field of study and immigrant status, Montréal CMA, 2016
  Canadian-born Immigrant with university degree from outside Canada and the U.S.
Science and science technology 9.8 27.8
Engineering and engineering technology 4.0 22.3
Mathematics and computer and information science 4.7 13.9
Business and administration 10.1 32.6
Arts and humanities 19.1 31.3
Social and behavioural sciences 17.3 37.7
Legal professions and studies 4.0 43.6
Health care 3.1 28.1
Education and teaching 7.2 37.6
Trades, services, natural resources and conservation 11.8 31.8
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

Housing conditions for immigrants residing in Montréal

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Description for Chart 19 - Housing characteristics in Montréal CMA, by immigrant status and immigration period, 2016
Housing characteristics in Montréal CMA, by immigrant status and immigration period, 2016
  Non-immigrants Total immigrants Recent immigrants Established immigrants (5+ years)
Rental rate 33.2 46.8 77.7 39.5
Unaffordability* rate 16.0 26.0 35.4 23.8
Too small 6.8 18.8 33.1 15.4
Major repairs required 6.5 7.5 7.4 7.6
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

In Montréal, 1 in 5 immigrants reported experiencing discrimination or being treated unfairly in the last five years

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Description for Chart 20 - Reasons for discrimination mentioned by immigrants, by selected CMA, 2014
Reasons for discrimination mentioned by immigrants, by selected CMA, 2014
  Montréal Toronto Vancouver
Ethnic or cultural affiliation 11.5 9.7 8.2
Race or skin colour 7.7 8.4 7.2
Language 8.9 3.6 5.4
Religion 5.2 3.2 2.5
Source: Statistics Canada, General Social Survey (victimization), 2014.
The likelihood of reporting discrimination is similar among the second generation in the Montréal CMA
  Immigrants Second generation
Total 20% 22%
Ethnic or cultural affiliation 11% 12%
Language 9% 10%
Source: Statistic Canada, General Social Survey (victimization), 2014.

The number of police-reported hate crimes—particularly crimes motivated by hatred of religion, race or ethnic origin—has been on the rise since 2014

Number of police-reported hate crimes in Montréal CMA from the year 2014 to 2017
  2014 2015 2016 2017
Number of police-reported hate crimes in Montréal CMA 130 169 194 311
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Description for Chart 21 - Reason reported by police: Religion
Reason reported by police: Religion
  2016 2017
Montréal 81 148
Source: Statistics Canada, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.
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Description for Chart 22 - Reason reported by police: Race or ethnic origin
Reason reported by police: Race or ethnic origin
  2016 2017
Montréal 67 91
Source: Statistics Canada, Uniform Crime Reporting Survey.

Multiple dimensions or facets of inclusion and integration

Looking to the future

Ongoing identification of data needs

Ongoing consultation on:

With:

How to measure diversity and inclusion?

How to take into account the fluidity and complexity of identities, ethnicities and multiple background of the population?

What are the current needs and emerging issues?

Developing and collecting new data and statistics

Census of the population

Alternative collection methods

New dissemination strategy of data

Dissemination of new data, analytical and reference products

Development of visualization tools

New Centre for Gender, diversity and inclusion statistics

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