Yukon: Beautiful, Complex, and Changing

Release date: October 2, 2018

Talking Stats: A discussion series with Statistics Canada

Anil Arora
Chief Statistician of Canada

Whitehorse, Yukon
October 2, 2018

Outline

Who we are

Local perspectives

The way forward

Who we are

Statistics Canada's objectives:

  1. To provide statistical information and analysis about Canada's economy and society
  2. To promote sound statistical standards and practices

Better data for the North
Data collection Research & analysis Data development Dissemination

Local perspectives

The high quality of the results would not have been possible without the participation of the people of Yukon in the Census, including First Nations people, Métis and Inuit.

A historical perspective of Yukon

Population of Yukon, 1901 to 2016
Description for Chart 1 - Population of Yukon, 1901 to 2016
Population of Yukon, 1901 to 2016
Year Population
1901 27,219
1911 8,512
1921 4,157
1931 4,230
1941 4,914
1951 9,096
1956 12,190
1961 14,628
1966 14,382
1971 18,388
1976 21,836
1981 23,153
1986 23,504
1991 27,797
1996 30,766
2001 28,674
2006 30,372
2011 33,897
2016 35,874

Whitehorse is the largest city in the territories

84% of the increase in the Yukon population between 2006 and 2016 was concentrated in Whitehorse

Population is stagnant or declining in other population centres in Yukon

Population of the 3 capital cities of the territories, 2016
Description for Chart 2 - Population of the 3 capital cities of the territories, 2016
Population of the 3 capital cities of the territories, 2016
City Population
Whitehorse 25085
Yellowknife 19569
Iqaluit 7740

Interprovincial migration is the main source of recent population growth in Yukon

Sources of population growth, provinces and territories, 2016-2017
Description for Chart 3 - Sources of population growth, provinces and territories, 2016-2017
Sources of population growth, provinces and territories, 2016-2017
Provinces and territories Natural increase (%) International migratory increase (%) Interprovincial migratory increase (%) Population growth (%)
Canada 0.3 0.9 0.0 1.2
N.L. -0.1 0.2 -0.3 -0.2
P.E.I. 0.2 1.9 0.3 2.4
N.S. -0.1 0.6 0.3 0.8
N.B. -0.1 0.5 0.1 0.5
Que. 0.2 0.7 -0.1 0.9
Ont. 0.3 1.0 0.1 1.4
Man. 0.5 1.5 -0.4 1.6
Sask. 0.5 1.3 -0.5 1.3
Alta. 0.7 0.8 -0.4 1.1
B.C. 0.1 0.8 0.4 1.3
Y.T. 0.6 0.7 1.5 2.8
N.W.T. 0.9 0.6 -0.8 0.6
Nvt. 1.9 0.0 -0.4 1.5

Yukon has the highest share of people who were born outside the territory or outside the country

Percent of population born in another province or territory or born outside of Canada, 2016
Description for Chart 4 - Percent of population born in another province or territory or born outside of Canada, 2016
Percent of population born in another province or territory or born outside of Canada, 2016
  Canada N.L. P.E.I. N.S. N.B. Qué. Ont. Man. Sask. Alb. B.C. Yukon N.W.T. Nunavut
Born outside of Canada 22.7 2.6 6.8 6.7 5.1 14.2 30.1 19.1 10.9 22.2 29.7 13.3 9.3 2.7
Born in another province or territory 11.4 8.4 21.9 18.5 15.9 3.5 7.2 11.3 14.4 25.4 21.2 49.6 37.1 51.4
Total 34.1 11.0 28.8 25.2 21.0 17.7 37.3 30.4 25.3 47.6 50.9 62.9 46.4 54.1

With 16% of children and 12% of seniors, Yukon has the lowest dependency ratio in Canada

Dependency ratio (% of population made up of children and seniors), 2017
Description for Chart 5 - Percentage of population made up of children and seniors, 2017
Percentage of population made up of children and seniors, 2017
  0 to 14 years (%) 65 years and over (%) Total
Canada 16 16.9 32.9
Newfoundland and Labrador 14.2 19.8 34
Prince Edward Island 16 19 35
Nova Scotia 13.9 19.8 33.7
New Brunswick 14.6 20.1 34.7
Quebec 15.6 18.5 34.1
Ontario 15.7 16.7 32.4
Manitoba 18.7 15.2 33.9
Saskatchewan 19.3 15 34.3
Alberta 18.5 12.4 30.9
British Columbia 14.5 18.3 32.8
Yukon 16.3 12.4 28.7
Northwest Territories 21.6 7.3 28.9
Nunavut 30.9 4 34.9

Yukon has a large number of one-person households

32% Percentage of one-person households in Yukon – 2nd largest percentage in Canada after Quebec (33%)

48% Percentage of couples in Yukon who have children – lower than in other territories, Western provinces, Ontario and Québec

27% Percentage of couples with children who are in common-law unions

A focus on Indigenous peoples: 23% of the population in Yukon reported an Aboriginal identity

The Aboriginal population in Yukon in 2016 was 8,195.

Aboriginal population count and distribution within provinces and territories, 2016
Description for Map - Aboriginal population count and distribution within provinces and territories, 2016
Aboriginal population count and distribution within provinces and territories, 2016
  Aboriginal population Aboriginal population percentage of total population (%)
Newfoundland and Labrador 45,725 9
Prince Edward Island 2,740 2
Nova Scotia 51,495 6
New Brunswick 29,385 4
Quebec 182,885 2
Ontario 374,395 3
Manitoba 223,310 18
Saskatchewan 175,020 16
Alberta 258,640 7
British Columbia 270,585 6
Yukon 8,195 23
Northwest Territories 20,860 51
Nunavut 30,555 86

The number of people who reported an Aboriginal identity increased by more than 6% in Yukon

Population growth (%), Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population, Canada and the territories, 2011 to 2016
Description for Chart 6 - Population growth (%), Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population, Canada and the territories, 2011 to 2016
Population growth (%), Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal population, Canada and the territories, 2011 to 2016
  Aboriginal population (%) Non-Aboriginal population (%)
Canada 18.9 4.2
Yukon 6.3 5.1
Northwest Territories -1.4 3.2
Nunavut 11.7 15.9

Yukon benefits from the richness of Indigenous languages and culture

725 Number of people in Yukon who are using an Aboriginal language at home

Ability to converse in an Aboriginal language and Aboriginal language as a mother tongue, 2016
Description for Chart 7 - Ability to converse in an Aboriginal language and Aboriginal language as a mother tongue, 2016
Ability to converse in an Aboriginal language and Aboriginal language as a mother tongue, 2016
  Total Aboriginal identity population First Nations single identity
Ability to conduct a conversation in an Aboriginal language (%) 13.7 16.9
Aboriginal language as a mother tongue (%) 9.6 11.2

In Yukon:

were participating in some form of traditional activity such as hunting, fishing, trapping.

Source: Aboriginal people survey, 2012

Indigenous people are more likely to face housing challenges, but indicators in Yukon are better than in other territories

% Aboriginal people living in unsuitable housing
Description for Chart 8 - % Aboriginal people living in unsuitable housing
% Aboriginal people living in unsuitable housing
  % in unsuitable housing
Canada 18.3
Yukon 11.5
Northwest Territories 27.1
Nunavut 55.9
% Aboriginal people living in dwelling requiring major repairs
Description for Chart 9 - % Aboriginal people living in dwelling requiring major repairs
% Aboriginal people living in dwelling requiring major repairs
  % in dwelling requiring major repairs
Canada 19.4
Yukon 20.4
Northwest Territories 29.3
Nunavut 34.0

Yukon has a well-educated workforce, but many obtained their credentials elsewhere

Proportion of adult population aged 25 to 64 who have postsecondary qualifications, 2016
Description for Chart 10 - Proportion of adult population aged 25 to 64 who have postsecondary qualifications, 2016
Proportion of adult population aged 25 to 64 who have postsecondary qualifications, 2016
  Proportion (%)
Canada 64.8
Newfoundland and Labrador 61.6
Prince Edward Island 62.8
Nova Scotia 64.3
New Brunswick 57.6
Quebec 68.1
Ontario 65.2
Manitoba 57.7
Saskatchewan 58
Alberta 64
British Columbia 63.8
Yukon 68.4
Northwest Territories 60.1
Nunavut 44.4

In Yukon, among those with a trades certificate, many obtained their certificate in British Columbia and in Alberta;

Among those with a university degree, most obtained their degree in Ontario and British Columbia

Proportion of adults aged 25 to 64 who obtained their highest postsecondary qualification in their territory of residence, 2016
Description for Chart 11 - Proportion of adults aged 25 to 64 who obtained their highest postsecondary qualification in their territory of residence, 2016
Proportion of adults aged 25 to 64 who obtained their highest postsecondary qualification in their territory of residence, 2016
  Apprenticeship or trades certificate (%) College diploma (%) University certificate or diploma (%)
Yukon 39.6 35.2 5.9
Northwest Territories 47.6 36.7 6.2
Nunavut 55 58.6 9.0

Yukon recorded strong gains in educational attainment, particularly among Indigenous peoples

"Yukon has the most developed infrastructure among the territories [...] Educational institutions, such as Yukon College, also have a physical presence in most Yukon communities and can take advantage of Yukon's developed infrastructure to deliver services beyond the capital of Whitehorse."

Conference Board of Canada

Percent of Aboriginal population aged 25 to 54 with at least a high school diploma, 2006 and 2016
Description for Chart 12 - Percent of Aboriginal population aged 25 to 54 with at least a high school diploma, 2006 and 2016
Percent of Aboriginal population aged 25 to 54 with at least a high school diploma, 2006 and 2016
  Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut
2006 65.8 58.3 42.4
2016 78.1 61.4 47.8

Knowledge of French as a second language is a key feature of the Yukon educational system

Educational statistics from the Yukon
Description for Figure 1 - Educational statistics from the Yukon

765 (15%*) of students are enrolled in French Immersion (2017-2018)

French immersion enrolment has increased by 89% since 2004

1,689 (32%*) students are enrolled in core French (2017-2018)

* of eligible enrollment

English French bilingualism rates, selected provinces and territories, 2016
Description for Chart 13 - English French bilingualism rates, selected provinces and territories, 2016
English French bilingualism rates, selected provinces and territories, 2016
  2016
Manitoba 8.6
Saskatchewan 4.7
Alberta 6.6
British Columbia 6.8
Yukon 13.8
Northwest Territories 10.3
Nunavut 4.3
Canada outside Quebec 9.8

Three-quarters of Yukon residents have a regular health care provider – and majority consider themselves in good health

Proportion of population, 12 years of age and over, who has a regular health care provider, 2015/2016
Description for Chart 14 - Proportion of population, 12 years of age and over, who has a regular health care provider, 2015/2016
Proportion of population, 12 years of age and over, who has a regular health care provider, 2015/2016
  Proportion of population (%)
Canada 83.6
Yukon 75.1
Northwest Territories 44.2
Nunavut 23.8
Self-perceived health, 12 years of age and above, 2015/2016
Description for Chart 15 - Self-perceived health, 12 years of age and above, 2015/2016
Self-perceived health, 12 years of age and above, 2015/2016
  Perceived health, very good or excellent (%) Perceived mental health, very good or excellent (%)
Canada 61.5 71.6
Yukon 60.1 68.6
Northwest Territories 54.3 66.4
Nunavut 43.9 51.8

Youth are healthier and do more physical activity than in the rest of Canada

Body mass index and physical activity, 12 to 17 years old, 2015/2016
Description for Chart 16 - Body mass index and physical activity, 12 to 17 years old, 2015/2016
Body mass index and physical activity, 12 to 17 years old, 2015/2016
  Overweight or Obese (%)
Canada 25.7
Yukon  20.8
NWT 39.1
Nunavut 40.3
Physical activity, average 60 minutes per day
  Physical activity, average 60 minutes per day (%)
Canada 59.8
Yukon  65.3
NWT 55.6
Nunavut 38.6

Rates of daily smoking and heavy drinking were similar to the Canadian average

Selected health behaviours of population aged 12 and over, 2015/2016 (%)
Description for Chart 17 - Selected health behaviours of population aged 12 and over, 2015/2016 (%)
Selected health behaviours of population aged 12 and over, 2015/2016 (%)
  Canada (%) Yukon (%) Northwest Territories (%) Nunavut (%)
Daily smoking 12.4 17.3 25.6 53.6
Heavy drinking 19.1 23.2 31.8 21.6

Yukon has a higher rate of firearm-related violence than Canada as a whole, but lower than in the other two territories

Rates of firearm-related violent crime per 100,000 population, 2016
Description for Map - Rates of firearm-related violent crime per 100,000 population, 2016
Rates of firearm-related violent crime per 100,000 population, 2016 
  Rates of firearm-related violent crime per 100,000 population, 2016
Newfoundland and Labrador 12.9
Prince Edward Island 10.1
Nova Scotia 12.3
New Brunswick 21.9
Quebec NA
Ontario 21.9
Manitoba 48.5
Saskatchewan 55.9
Alberta 34.8
British Columbia 18.2
Yukon 50.7
Northwest Territories 67.5
Nunavut 89.0

In recent years, crime severity has remained stable in Yukon

Crime severity index, 2015 to 2017
Description for Chart 18 - Crime severity index, 2015 to 2017
Crime severity index, 2015 to 2017
  Canada Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut
2015 70.1 184.9 322.1 274.3
2016 71.7 188.1 297.6 293.3
2017 72.9 189.3 303.8 297.6

Perception of police performance is lower in the territories, except for "being approachable and easy to talk to"

Perception of police performance in the territories, 2014
Description for Chart 19 - Perception of police performance in the territories, 2014
Perception of police performance in the territories, 2014
  Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut Provinces
Being approachable and easy to talk to 70 69 65 73
Treating people fairly 54 56 55 68
Promptly responding to calls 56 46 45 68

After a few years of weak GDP growth, strong growth expected for 2018

Economic growth 2017
Description for Chart 20 - Economic growth 2017
Economic growth 2017
  Economic growth 2017 (%) Cumulative growth, 2014 to 2017 (%)
Nunavut 13.3 14.8
Northwest Territories 5.2 7.4
Yukon -1.4 -1.7
Canada 3 5.6
Non-residential capital expenditures by businesses, index 2007=100
Description for Chart 21 - Non-residential capital expenditures by businesses, index 2007=100
Non-residential capital expenditures by businesses, index 2007=100
  Canada Yukon
2007 100 100
2008 102 62.5
2009 80.5 88.1
2010 91.7 167.2
2011 103.8 133.5
2012 111.8 104.9
2013 117.3 128.2
2014 127.2 91.1
2015 110.9 96.1
2016 98.4 84.1
2017 96 95.9
2018 94.9 220.7
Annual growth of real GDP by province (%)
Description for Chart 22 - Annual growth of real GDP by province (%)
Annual growth of real GDP by province (%)
  Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut
2015 -7.9 1.2 -0.6
2016 8.3 0.8 1.9
2017 -1.4 5.2 13.3
2018 4.4 0.1 4.4

Lower economic activity in Yukon reflected a decline in metallic ore mining (-38.5%), moderated by higher engineering construction (+145.6%).

Yukon has the lowest unemployment rate and highest participation rate in Canada…

76%: Participation rate in Yukon, higher than any other province or territory (66% in Canada)

Unemployment rate, 2010 to 2018 (average to date)
Description for Chart 23 - Unemployment rate, 2010 to 2018 (average to date)
Unemployment rate, 2010 to 2018 (average to date)
  Yukon Nunavut Northwest Territories
2010 7.5 15.2 7.0
2011 5.4 17.2 7.5
2012 7.0 15.7 8.2
2013 5.7 14.2 7.8
2014 4.3 13.7 8.1
2015 6.3 15.7 8.3
2016 5.9 15.0 7.5
2017 3.9 14.7 6.5
2018 2.7 13.1 8.4

2016 Census data indicates that the unemployment rate among the Indigenous population was 22.3% in Yukon, compared with 19.1% in the Northwest Territories and 27.6% in Nunavut.

Work activity of seniors, 2016 Census of Population
Description for Chart 24 - Work activity of seniors, 2016 Census of Population
Work activity of seniors, 2016 Census of Population
  Full year, full time Part year or part time
Alberta 9.3 18.7
Saskatchewan 9.8 18.8
Northwest Territories 17.0 20.0
Yukon 10.2 28.1
Nunavut 20.2 21.9
Canada 5.9 13.8

…which results in a tight labour market

The six economic regions with the highest job vacancy rates in Canada, first quarter of 2018
Location %
Lower Mainland–Southwest, British Columbia 4.4
Northeast, British Columbia 4.3
Yukon 4.3
Thompson–Okanagan, British Columbia 4.3
Stratford–Bruce Peninsula, Ontario 3.8
Banff–Jasper–Rocky Mountain House and Athabasca–Grande Prairie–Peace River, Alberta 3.8

Source: Statistics Canada, Job Vacancy and Wage Survey, 2018

725: Total number of job vacancies reported by businesses in Yukon

Sectors with the most job vacancies:

Economic outcomes are not the same for all communities

Employment rates for…

Geographical averages can mask important local differences

Employment rates in Yukon cities outside of Whitehorse
Description for Chart 25 - Employment rates in Yukon cities outside of Whitehorse
Employment rates in Yukon cities outside of Whitehorse
  Employment Rate (%)
Carmacks 51.4
Faro 51.7
Watson Lake 58.1
Haines Junction 58.2
Mayo 66.7
Dawson 71.0
Teslin 72.2

Relative to other territories, Yukon's infrastructure is well-developed

Source: National Aboriginal Economic Development Board

Did you know? Yukon's emissions per capita are the lowest in Canada, and Yukon's emissions have decreased by half since 1990

GHG by sector (2015)
Description for Chart 26 - GHG by sector (2015)
GHG emissions by sector (2015)
  1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
Oil and Gas 0.0003 0.1010 0.1349 0.0784 0.0305 0.0001
Electricity 0.0944 0.0538 0.0223 0.0231 0.0188 0.0183
Transportation 0.2959 0.2845 0.2308 0.2356 0.1874 0.1606
Industries and Manufacturing 0.0329 0.0223 0.0193 0.0119 0.0239 0.0203
Buildings 0.1090 0.0856 0.0926 0.0873 0.0866 0.0485
Agriculture 0.0011 0.0080 0.0011 0.0083 0.0000 0.0000
Waste and Other 0.0032 0.0037 0.0040 0.0042 0.0064 0.0070

Connectivity and digital divide remain important issues in Yukon

In 2016, the price of a residential broadband Internet access service (25/3 Mbps, 100GB/month) was $140 per month in Whitehorse, compared with $40 to $75 a month in Ottawa-Gatineau

Broadband service availability, by speed (% of households), 2016
Description for Chart 27 - Broadband service availability, by speed (% of households), 2016
Broadband service availability, by speed (% of households), 2016
Province/territory 5-9.9 Mbps 50 Mbps or higher
B.C. 97 92
Alb. 99 83
Sask. 90 52
Man. 95 70
Ont. 98 88
Qué. 98 90
N.B. 96 83
N.S. 89 81
P.E.I. 83 67
N.L. 87 72
Yukon 97 62
N.T. 95 54
Nunavut 30 0

Median income levels are relatively high in Yukon, but not as high as in the other territories

Median after-tax income of households with two earners, 2015
Description for Chart 28 - Median after-tax income of households with two earners, 2015
Median after-tax income of households with two earners, 2015
  Median after-tax income of households with two earners, 2015 ($)
Newfoundland and Labrador 85 473
Prince Edward Island 70 573
Nova Scotia 75 699
New Brunswick 73 697
Quebec 76 582
Ontario 87 450
Manitoba 79 222
Saskatchewan 89 605
Alberta 100 060
British Columbia 84 751
Yukon 101 658
Northwest Territories 124 912
Nunavut 102 796
Median after-tax income of one person households with one earner, 2015
Description for Chart 29 - Median after-tax income of one person households with one earner, 2015
Median after-tax income of one person households with one earner, 2015
  Median after-tax income of one person households with one earner, 2015 ($)
Newfoundland and Labrador 39 009
Prince Edward Island 32 827
Nova Scotia 35 044
New Brunswick 33 503
Quebec 35 260
Ontario 42 387
Manitoba 39 191
Saskatchewan 42 881
Alberta 50 247
British Columbia 39 970
Yukon 46 464
Northwest Territories 68 224
Nunavut 76 986

Yukon has higher levels of life satisfaction than other territories

Sense of belonging to local community is also typically higher in the territories, especially in Nunavut

Sense of belonging to the community and life satisfaction, 12 years of age and older, 2015/2016
Description for Chart 30 - Sense of belonging to the community and life satisfaction, 12 years of age and older, 2015/2016
Sense of belonging to the community and life satisfaction, 12 years of age and older, 2015/2016
  Canada Yukon Northwest Territories Nunavut
Sense of belonging to local community, somewhat strong or very strong 68.4 81.5 79.4 86.0
Life satisfaction, satisfied or very satisfied 92.9 93.8 90.0 85.6

Key messages

Aboriginal Data Framework

Other partnership initiatives include:

Modernization

Statistics Canada has always fostered a culture of innovation. We are working to adapt, develop new skills and knowledge and find new ways to modernize our work.

A modernization initiative in Yukon: The Tourism North Initiative

Launched in October 2017 to produce quarterly and annual tourism data for the territories, as well as Tourism Satellite Account every three years.

Objectives of the program:

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