Research Highlights on Health and Aging

Release date: July 28, 2016

Presentation to the National Statistics Council
October 30, 2015

Claudia Sanmartin
Health Analysis Division
Analytical Studies Branch

The following presentation was given by Statistics Canada's Health Analysis Division (HAD) at the National Statistics Council Meeting in October 2015 to highlight recent research findings related to aging and health. Canada, like other countries, has an aging population. This has significant implications for the health of Canadians and the health care services they will need in the future. Over the past several years, health research related to aging has focused on key areas such as chronic diseases, social isolation and more recently, transitions to institutional care. Through its health research program, Statistics Canada will continue to address important information gaps related to aging and institutional care, including a better understanding of long-term care needs and the mental health of seniors.

Outline

Population profile

People aged 65 and over represent a large and growing proportion of the population

Proportion of population aged 65 years and over, Canada, 1971 to 2061
Description for Chart 1
Proportion of population aged 65 years and over, Canada, 1971 to 2061
Year Proportion of population 65+ years of age (%)
1971 8.0
1981 9.6
1991 11.5
2001 12.6
2011 14.4
2021 18.7
2031 23.1
2041 24.2
2051 24.8
2061 25.5

People aged 80 and over also represent a large and growing proportion of seniors

Observed (1971 to 2011) and projected (2021 to 2061) number of people aged 65 to 79 years and 80 years and over, Canada
Description for Chart 2
Observed (1971 to 2011) and projected (2016 to 2061) number of people aged 65 to 79 years and 80 years and over, Canada (in thousands)
Year 65 to 79 80 and over
1971 1,417.169 345.241
1981 1,922.934 454.029
1991 2,543.265 669.223
2001 2,981.084 931.206
2011 3,606.100 1,344.210
2021 5,359.199 1,738.223
2031 6,853.506 2,685.574
2041 6,786.329 3,951.490
2051 7,146.060 4,547.040
2061 8,003.698 4,815.046

Growing number of seniors living in the community

Community-dwelling seniors aged 80 and over, Canada, 1981 to 2031
Description for Chart 3
Community-dwelling seniors aged 80 and over, Canada, 1981 to 2031 - Male
Year Male population
1981 126,835
1991 182,505
2001 269,405
2011 426,165
2021 617,528
2031 948,141
Community-dwelling seniors aged 80 and over, Canada, 1981 to 2031 - Female
Year Female population
1981 204,480
1991 308,615
2001 464,060
2011 634,405
2021 878,052
2031 1,293,201

Majority of those aged 65 and over live in the community, but 7% live in special care facilities—long-term and residential care facilities

Flowchart - Majority of those aged 65 and over live in the community
Description for Chart 4
  • Population aged 65 and over 4,945,000 (100%)
    • Living in private dwellings 4,551,905 (92.1%)
    • Living in collective dwellings 393,095 (7.9%)
      • Living in special facilities 352,205 (7.1%)
        • Living in nursing homes, or chronic care or long-term care hospitals 224,280 (4.5%)
        • Living in residences for senior citizens 127,925 (2.6%)
      • Living in other collectives 40,890 (0.8%)

Source: Statistics Canada, Census in Brief, 98-312-X2011003, no. 4, September 2012
Data Source: 2011 Census of Population

Chronic conditions

Eight chronic conditions are prevalent in more than 10% of the population aged 65 and over

Proportion of individuals 45 years of age and over with selected chronic conditions, Canada, 2008/2009
Description for Chart 5
Proportion of individuals 45 years of age and over with selected chronic conditions, Canada, 2008/2009
Chronic conditions 45 to 64 65 or older
High blood pressure 24.0% 52.9%
Arthritis 20.3% 43.4%
Back problems 25.0% 28.6%
Eye problems 4.6% 27.9%
Heart disease 6.9% 22.6%
Osteoporosis 6.1% 18.1%
Diabetes 8.6% 17.2%
Urinary incontinence 3.3% 11.7%

Many of those over 50 years of age are living with multiple chronic conditions

Proportion of individuals over 50 years of age with at least one high-impact, high-prevalence chronic condition, Canada, 2009/2010
Description for Chart 6
Proportion of individuals over 50 years of age with at least one high-impact, high prevalence chronic condition, Canada, 2009/2010
Number of chronic conditions 51 to 60 61 to 70 71 and over
One only 31% 34% 32%
Two 13% 22% 29%
Three or more 6% 12% 21%

Urinary incontinence associated with higher levels of loneliness

Prevalence of urinary incontinence and loneliness, by age group and sex, household population aged 65 and over, Canada (excluding territories), 2008/2009
Description for Chart 7
Prevalence of urinary incontinence and loneliness, by age group and sex, household population aged 65 and over, Canada (excluding territories), 2008/2009, proportion (%)
Age Group Men Women
Urinary Incontinence
65 to 74 6.4 9.8
75 to 84 11.6 16.6
85 and over 18.7 22.3
Loneliness
65 to 74 24.0 38.2
75 to 84 25.8 40.8
85 and over 31.7 45.0

Lifestyle factors

Four or more healthy behaviours associated with higher rates of good health among those aged 65 and over

Proportion of individuals 65 years of age and over in good health, by number of health-promoting behaviours, Canada, 2008/2009
Description for Chart 8
Proportion of individuals 65 years of age and over in good health, by number of health-promoting behaviours, Canada, 2008/2009
Number of health-promoting factors Proportion of those aged 65 and over in good health (%)
0 to 2 17
3 29
4 42
5 54
6 65
7 71
8 77

Nutrition

Omega-3 levels highest among older Canadians—less likely to be at high risk for coronary heart disease (CHD)

Prevalence of CHD risk according to omega-3 index cut-offs, household population aged 20 to 79 years, Canada (excluding territories), 2012/2013
Description for Chart 9
Prevalence of CHD risk according to omega-3 index cut-offs, household population aged 20 to 79 years, Canada (excluding territories), 2012/2013, proportion at risk of CHD (%)
Age Group High risk of CHD < 4% Moderate risk of CHD 4 to 8%
20 to 39 50.09 49.21
40 to 59 45.35 52.21
60 to 79 26.30 67.56

Environment

No association of blood lead level with hypertension

Model-adjusted geometric mean blood lead level, by hypertension status, age group and sex, household population aged 40 to 79, Canada, 2007 to 2011
Description for Chart 10
Model-adjusted geometric mean blood lead level, by hypertension status, age group and sex, household population aged 40 to 79, Canada, 2007 to 2011, blood lead level (ug/dL)
Age Group Hypertensive Non-hypertensive
Total 40 to 79 1.61 1.65
40 to 54 1.35 1.46
55 to 79 1.91 1.86
Male, 40 to 79 1.78 1.84
Female, 40 to 79 1.47 1.49

Modest link between blood lead levels and blood pressure

Model-adjusted systolic blood pressure across blood lead levels, household population aged 40 to 79, Canada, 2007 to 2011
Description for Chart 11
Model-adjusted systolic blood pressure across blood lead levels, household population aged 40 to 54, Canada, 2007 to 2011
Blood lead level (ug/dL) Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)
0.00 110.60
0.05 110.73
0.10 110.86
0.15 110.99
0.20 111.13
0.25 111.26
0.30 111.39
0.35 111.52
0.40 111.65
0.45 111.78
0.50 111.91
0.51 111.94
0.52 111.97
0.53 111.99
0.54 112.02
0.55 112.05
0.56 112.07
0.57 112.10
0.58 112.12
0.59 112.15
0.60 112.18
0.61 112.20
0.62 112.23
0.63 112.26
0.64 112.28
0.65 112.31
0.66 112.33
0.67 112.36
0.68 112.39
0.69 112.41
0.70 112.44
0.71 112.47
0.72 112.49
0.73 112.52
0.74 112.54
0.75 112.57
0.76 112.60
0.77 112.62
0.78 112.65
0.79 112.68
0.80 112.70
0.81 112.73
0.82 112.75
0.83 112.78
0.84 112.81
0.85 112.83
0.86 112.86
0.87 112.88
0.88 112.91
0.89 112.93
0.90 112.96
0.91 112.99
0.92 113.01
0.93 113.04
0.94 113.06
0.95 113.09
0.96 113.11
0.97 113.14
0.98 113.16
0.99 113.19
1.00 113.21
1.01 113.24
1.02 113.26
1.03 113.29
1.04 113.31
1.05 113.34
1.06 113.36
1.07 113.39
1.08 113.41
1.09 113.44
1.10 113.46
1.11 113.49
1.12 113.51
1.13 113.54
1.14 113.56
1.15 113.58
1.16 113.61
1.17 113.63
1.18 113.65
1.19 113.68
1.20 113.70
1.21 113.73
1.22 113.75
1.23 113.77
1.24 113.80
1.25 113.82
1.26 113.84
1.27 113.86
1.28 113.89
1.29 113.91
1.30 113.93
1.31 113.95
1.32 113.98
1.33 114.00
1.34 114.02
1.35 114.04
1.36 114.06
1.37 114.08
1.38 114.11
1.39 114.13
1.40 114.15
1.41 114.17
1.42 114.19
1.43 114.21
1.44 114.23
1.45 114.25
1.46 114.27
1.47 114.29
1.48 114.31
1.49 114.33
1.50 114.35
1.51 114.37
1.52 114.39
1.53 114.41
1.54 114.43
1.55 114.45
1.56 114.47
1.57 114.48
1.58 114.50
1.59 114.52
1.60 114.54
1.61 114.56
1.62 114.57
1.63 114.59
1.64 114.61
1.65 114.63
1.66 114.64
1.67 114.66
1.68 114.68
1.69 114.69
1.70 114.71
1.71 114.73
1.72 114.74
1.73 114.76
1.74 114.77
1.75 114.79
1.76 114.80
1.77 114.82
1.78 114.83
1.79 114.85
1.80 114.86
1.81 114.88
1.82 114.89
1.83 114.91
1.84 114.92
1.85 114.93
1.86 114.95
1.87 114.96
1.88 114.97
1.89 114.99
1.90 115.00
1.91 115.01
1.92 115.03
1.93 115.04
1.94 115.05
1.95 115.06
1.96 115.07
1.97 115.09
1.98 115.10
1.99 115.11
2.00 115.12
2.01 115.13
2.02 115.14
2.03 115.15
2.04 115.17
2.05 115.18
2.06 115.19
2.07 115.20
2.08 115.21
2.09 115.22
2.10 115.23
2.11 115.24
2.12 115.25
2.13 115.26
2.14 115.27
2.15 115.28
2.16 115.29
2.17 115.29
2.18 115.30
2.19 115.31
2.20 115.32
2.21 115.33
2.22 115.34
2.23 115.35
2.24 115.35
2.25 115.36
2.26 115.37
2.27 115.38
2.28 115.38
2.29 115.39
2.30 115.40
2.31 115.41
2.32 115.41
2.33 115.42
2.34 115.43
2.35 115.43
2.36 115.44
2.37 115.45
2.38 115.45
2.39 115.46
2.40 115.47
2.41 115.47
2.42 115.48
2.43 115.48
2.44 115.49
2.45 115.49
2.46 115.50
2.47 115.51
2.48 115.51
2.49 115.52
2.50 115.52
2.51 115.53
2.52 115.53
2.53 115.53
2.54 115.54
2.55 115.54
2.56 115.55
2.57 115.55
2.58 115.56
2.59 115.56
2.60 115.56
2.61 115.57
2.62 115.57
2.63 115.57
2.64 115.58
2.65 115.58
2.66 115.58
2.67 115.59
2.68 115.59
2.69 115.59
2.70 115.60
2.71 115.60
2.72 115.60
2.73 115.60
2.74 115.61
2.75 115.61
2.76 115.61
2.77 115.61
2.78 115.61
2.79 115.62
2.80 115.62
2.81 115.62
2.82 115.62
2.83 115.62
2.84 115.62
2.85 115.63
2.86 115.63
2.87 115.63
2.88 115.63
2.89 115.63
2.90 115.63
2.91 115.63
2.92 115.63
2.93 115.63
2.94 115.63
2.95 115.64
2.96 115.64
2.97 115.64
2.98 115.64
2.99 115.64
3.00 115.64
3.01 115.64
3.02 115.64
3.03 115.64
3.04 115.64
3.05 115.64
3.06 115.64
3.07 115.64
3.08 115.64
3.09 115.63
3.10 115.63
3.11 115.63
3.12 115.63
3.13 115.63
3.14 115.63
3.15 115.63
3.16 115.63
3.17 115.63
3.18 115.63
3.19 115.63
3.20 115.62
3.21 115.62
3.22 115.62
3.23 115.62
3.24 115.62
3.25 115.62
3.26 115.62
3.27 115.61
3.28 115.61
3.29 115.61
3.30 115.61
3.31 115.61
3.32 115.60
3.33 115.60
3.34 115.60
3.35 115.60
3.36 115.60
3.37 115.59
3.38 115.59
3.39 115.59
3.40 115.59
3.41 115.58
3.42 115.58
3.43 115.58
3.44 115.58
3.45 115.57
3.46 115.57
3.47 115.57
3.48 115.56
3.49 115.56
3.50 115.56
3.51 115.56
3.52 115.55
3.53 115.55
3.54 115.55
3.55 115.54
3.56 115.54
3.57 115.54
3.58 115.53
3.59 115.53
3.60 115.53
3.61 115.52
3.62 115.52
3.63 115.52
3.64 115.51
3.65 115.51
3.66 115.51
3.67 115.50
3.68 115.50
3.69 115.50
3.70 115.49
3.71 115.49
3.72 115.49
3.73 115.48
3.74 115.48
3.75 115.48
3.76 115.47
3.77 115.47
3.78 115.46
3.79 115.46
3.80 115.46
3.81 115.45
3.82 115.45
3.83 115.44
3.84 115.44
3.85 115.44
3.86 115.43
3.87 115.43
3.88 115.42
3.89 115.42
3.90 115.42
3.91 115.41
3.92 115.41
3.93 115.40
3.94 115.40
3.95 115.40
3.96 115.39
3.97 115.39
3.98 115.38
3.99 115.38
4.00 115.38
4.01 115.37
4.02 115.37
4.03 115.36
4.04 115.36
4.05 115.35
4.06 115.35
4.07 115.35
4.08 115.34
4.09 115.34
4.10 115.33
4.11 115.33
4.12 115.33
4.13 115.32
4.14 115.32
4.15 115.31
4.16 115.31
4.17 115.30
4.18 115.30
4.19 115.30
4.20 115.29
4.21 115.29
4.22 115.28
4.23 115.28
4.24 115.28
4.25 115.27
4.26 115.27
4.27 115.26
4.28 115.26
4.29 115.25
4.30 115.25
4.31 115.25
4.32 115.24
4.33 115.24
4.34 115.23
4.35 115.23
4.36 115.23
4.37 115.22
4.38 115.22
4.39 115.21
4.40 115.21
4.41 115.20
4.42 115.20
4.43 115.20
4.44 115.19
4.45 115.19
4.46 115.18
4.47 115.18
4.48 115.18
4.49 115.17
4.50 115.17
4.51 115.16
4.52 115.16
4.53 115.15
4.54 115.15
4.55 115.15
4.56 115.14
4.57 115.14
4.58 115.13
4.59 115.13
4.60 115.13
4.61 115.12
4.62 115.12
4.63 115.11
4.64 115.11
4.65 115.10
4.66 115.10
4.67 115.10
4.68 115.09
4.69 115.09
4.70 115.08
4.71 115.08
4.72 115.07
4.73 115.07
4.74 115.07
4.75 115.06
4.76 115.06
4.77 115.05
4.78 115.05
4.79 115.05
4.80 115.04
4.81 115.04
4.82 115.03
4.83 115.03
4.84 115.02
4.85 115.02
4.86 115.02
4.87 115.01
4.88 115.01
4.89 115.00
4.90 115.00
4.91 115.00
4.92 114.99
4.93 114.99
4.94 114.98
4.95 114.98
4.96 114.97
4.97 114.97
4.98 114.97
4.99 114.96
5.00 114.96
5.01 114.95
5.02 114.95
5.03 114.95
5.04 114.94
5.05 114.94
5.06 114.93
5.07 114.93
5.08 114.92
5.09 114.92
5.10 114.92
5.11 114.91
5.12 114.91
5.13 114.90
5.14 114.90
5.15 114.90
5.16 114.89
5.17 114.89
5.18 114.88
5.19 114.88
5.20 114.87
5.21 114.87
5.22 114.87
5.23 114.86
5.24 114.86
5.25 114.85
5.26 114.85
5.27 114.85
5.28 114.84
5.29 114.84
5.30 114.83
5.31 114.83
5.32 114.82
5.33 114.82
5.34 114.82
5.35 114.81
5.36 114.81
5.37 114.80
5.38 114.80
5.39 114.79
5.40 114.79
5.41 114.79
5.42 114.78
5.43 114.78
5.44 114.77
5.45 114.77
5.46 114.77
5.47 114.76
5.48 114.76
5.49 114.75
5.50 114.75
5.51 114.74
5.52 114.74
5.53 114.74
5.54 114.73
5.55 114.73
5.56 114.72
5.57 114.72
5.58 114.72
5.59 114.71
5.60 114.71
5.61 114.70
5.62 114.70
5.63 114.69
5.64 114.69
5.65 114.69
5.66 114.68
5.67 114.68
5.68 114.67
5.69 114.67
5.70 114.67
5.71 114.66
5.72 114.66
5.73 114.65
5.74 114.65
5.75 114.64
5.76 114.64
5.77 114.64
5.78 114.63
5.79 114.63
5.80 114.62
5.81 114.62
5.82 114.62
5.83 114.61
5.84 114.61
5.85 114.60
5.86 114.60
5.87 114.59
5.88 114.59
5.89 114.59
5.90 114.58
5.91 114.58
5.92 114.57
5.93 114.57
5.94 114.57
5.95 114.56
5.96 114.56
5.97 114.55
5.98 114.55
5.99 114.54
6.00 114.54
6.01 114.54
6.02 114.53
6.03 114.53
6.04 114.52
6.05 114.52
6.06 114.51
6.07 114.51
6.08 114.51
6.09 114.50
6.10 114.50
6.11 114.49
6.12 114.49
6.13 114.49
6.14 114.48

Treatment

Evidence of underuse of statin treatment among those at high risk of cardiovascular disease

Number of Canadians by actual and recommended statin use
Description for Chart 12
Number of Canadians by actual and recommended statin use, by cardiovascular risk group, 20 to 79 years of age, Canada, 2007 to 2011
Risk Current statin treatment in Canada, Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2007 to 2011 Guideline recommended statin treatment, Canadian Cardiovascular Society, 2012
High risk 2,101,876 4,729,580
Intermediate risk 323,594 1,467,193
Low risk 360,007 321,426

Health care use

Immigrant seniors less likely to be hospitalized for circulatory disease

Proportion of seniors hospitalized at least once for circulatory disease, by immigrant status and source country, 65 years of age and over, Ontario, 2006 to 2009
Description for Chart 13
Proportion of seniors hospitalized at least once for circulatory disease, by immigrant status and source country, 65 years of age and over, Ontario, 2006 to 2009
  Proportion of seniors (%)
Canadian Born 6.4
Immigrants 5.3
Source Country
Europe 5.9
East Asia 2.0
South Asia 5.5
Other 4.5

Social isolation

Social isolation varies among older adults

Proportion of socially isolated adults (three-year moving average), by age and sex, household population aged 45 and over, Canada (excluding territories), 2008/2009
Description for Chart 14
Proportion of socially isolated adults (three-year moving average), by age and sex, household population aged 45 and over, Canada (excluding territories), 2008/2009
Age (years) Men Women
45 ... ...
46 ... ...
47 14.58 16.24
48 13.00 15.49
49 13.22 17.31
50 14.36 18.41
51 13.01 21.37
52 14.46 20.89
53 15.86 20.37
54 14.84 16.39
55 16.11 17.05
56 13.76 16.22
57 15.74 18.23
58 14.71 15.93
59 13.87 15.51
60 12.82 14.08
61 10.52 13.89
62 10.55 14.38
63 9.93 15.22
64 10.45 13.76
65 10.50 12.98
66 9.55 12.48
67 9.07 13.48
68 9.12 13.20
69 9.19 13.28
70 8.61 13.50
71 9.44 15.03
72 9.76 13.48
73 10.39 13.40
74 10.55 13.64
75 12.74 13.65
76 10.56 13.67
77 8.25 13.22
78 6.63 14.90
79 8.66 15.91
80 9.14 17.77
81 8.66 16.96
82 7.74 17.13
83 9.46 15.76
84 11.77 17.37
85 12.81 16.19
86 12.10 15.56
87 11.90 14.91
88 14.00 15.54
89 16.05 15.81
90 13.80 16.43
91 12.65 17.64
92 14.17 21.41
93 13.04 17.50
94 12.22 15.50
95 10.58 15.66
98 13.63 17.00

Range of factors associated with social isolation

  • Factors associated with social isolation
    • Hearing difficulty: OR=1.4 (men); OR=1.5 (women)
    • Pain: OR=1.5 (women only)
    • Emotion: OR=4.3 (men); OR=4.4 (women)
    • Cognition: OR=2.5 (men); OR=1.9 (women)
    • Fear of falling: OR=1.5 (men); OR=1.4 (women)

OR = odds ratio

Data Source: Canadian Community Health Survey (2008/2009)—Healthy Aging

Hearing loss

Hearing loss associated with speech frequency more prevalent among older Canadians

Hearing loss, by age group and frequency, household population aged 20 to 79, Canada, 2012/2013
Description for Chart 15

65% have hearing loss associated with speech frequency

Hearing loss, by age group and frequency, household population aged 20 to 79, Canada, 2012/2013, proportion with hearing loss (%)
Age Group Four-frequency PTA hearing loss Low frequency PTA hearing loss High frequency PTA hearing loss
20 to 39 7.1 7.7 8.0
40 to 49 10.1 9.9 21.8
50 to 59 19.9 12.2 49.1
60 to 69 38.3 29.5 74.1
70 to 79 65.0 49.5 93.8

Fear of falling

One in three seniors is concerned or worried about falling

Percentage of seniors who perceive a risk of falling, by age and sex, household population aged 65 and over, Canada, 2008/2009
Description for Chart 16
Percentage of seniors who perceive a risk of falling, by age and sex, household population aged 65 and over, Canada, 2008/2009, percent
Age Group Men Women
65 to 69 18 33
70 to 74 21 41
75 to 79 25 45
80 to 84 33 47
85 and over 35 51

Home care

Chronic conditions associated with higher use of home-care services and need for formal-care providers

Proportion of individuals aged 75 and over receiving home care, by type of service, provider and number of chronic conditions, Canada, 2008/2009
Description for Chart 17
Proportion of individuals aged 75 and over receiving home care, by type of service, provider and number of chronic conditions, Canada, 2008/2009
Type of provider Personal and medical care Other care (e.g., housework, meal preparation)
Number of chronic conditions
0 1 2 3+ 0 1 2 3+
Formal 1.80% 4.77% 5.61% 8.95% 3.37% 4.83% 5.46% 7.63%
Informal 3.33% 3.55% 4.73% 8.80% 10.83% 17.22% 20.75% 28.33%
Mixed 1.51% 1.59% 3.17% 7.37% 3.75% 5.32% 7.64% 14.10%

Caregivers

One in four caregivers reports providing care related to aging

Proportion of caregivers providing care, by reason, Canada, 2012
Description for Chart 18
Proportion of caregivers providing care, by reason, Canada, 2012
Health conditions or problems Percentage distribution among all health conditions or problems
Aging 27.8
Cancer 11.2
Cardiovascular disease 9.3
Mental illness 6.8
Alzheimer's disease or dementia 5.9
Neurological diseases 5.3
Injury from an accident 4.1
Athritis 3.8
Diabetes 3.0
Back problems 2.6
Developmental disability or disorder 2.3
Respiratory problems 2.3
Mobility or physical disability 2.2
Other health problem 12.2

Higher levels of stress and poor health associated with increased hours of care provided

Proportion of caregivers reporting feelings of stress and poor health related to caregiving duties, Canada, 2012
Description for Chart 19
Proportion of caregivers reporting feelings of stress and poor health related to caregiving duties, Canada, 2012.
Number of hours per week Feelings of stress related to caregiving duties Feelings that their own health suffered because of caregiving duties
2 to 4 17% 10%
5 to 9 27% 17%
10 to 14 32% 23%
15 to 19 39% 31%
20 or more 50% 37%

Neurological disease

Dementia

An estimated 227,500 Canadians aged 45 and over reported a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease or other dementia

Number of Canadians with Alzheimer's disease or other dementia in private households (2010/2011) and long-term health-care institutions (2011/2012), by age group and sex, population aged 45 and over, Canada (excluding territories)
Description for Chart 20
Number of Canadians with Alzheimer's disease or other dementia in private households (2010/2011) and long-term health-care institutions (2011/2012), by age group and sex, population aged 45 and over, Canada (excluding territories), number of Canadians (in thousands)
Age Group Men Women
Household (0.8%)
45 to 64 7.127 6.103E
65 to 79 20.842 16.059
80 and over 23.537 35.835
Institutions (45%)
45 to 64 1.643 1.502
65 to 79 8.527 12.248
80 and over 23.237 70.757

Parkinson's

An estimated 65,700 Canadians aged 45 and over reported a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

Number of Canadians with Parkinson's disease in private households (2010/2011) and long-term health-care institutions (2011/2012), by age group and sex, population aged 45 and over, Canada (excluding territories)
Description for Chart 21
Number of Canadians with Parkinson's disease in private households (2010/2011) and long-term health-care institutions (2011/2012), by age group and sex, population aged 45 and over, Canada (excluding territories), number ('000)
Age Group Men Women
Households (0.4%)
45 to 64 6.44 3.18E
65 to 79 18.12 9.71E
80 and over 9.32E 6.42E
Institutions (2.9%)
45 to 64 0.27 0.17
65 to 79 2.00 1.63
80 and over 3.44 5.00

Projections

Expect increases in the prevalence of both Parkinson's and Alzheimer's (aging population)

Projected prevalent cases (person years) and prevalence rates for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, Canadian population, 2011 to 2031
Description for Chart 22
Projected prevalent cases (person years) and prevalence rates for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, Canadian population, 2011 to 2031
Year Prevalent cases (person years) Prevalence rate (age 65 years and over)
Parkinson's disease
2011 84,690 1.03
2016 99,022 1.03
2021 116,822 1.06
2026 138,760 1.14
2031 163,704 1.28
Alzheimer's disease
2011 340,170 4.56
2016 394,996 4.52
2021 461,651 4.55
2026 554,189 4.91
2031 673,991 5.62

Costs

Cost of health-care services higher among those with Alzheimer's, especially long-term care costs

Average per capita health-care costs for those with and without Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, by age group, 2010
Description for Chart 23
Average per capita health-care costs for those with and without Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, by age group, 2010, Thousand $
Age group Physician services Hospitalization Pharmaceuticals Rehabilitation Long term care Homecare
No neurological
40-44 0.47 0.42 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.02
45-49 0.54 0.51 0.47 0.01 0.00 0.04
50-54 0.64 0.68 0.59 0.01 0.01 0.06
55-59 0.75 0.88 0.75 0.02 0.01 0.08
60-64 0.90 1.20 0.92 0.03 0.02 0.12
65-69 1.10 1.63 1.12 0.05 0.04 0.16
70-74 1.28 2.11 1.35 0.07 0.09 0.24
75-79 1.44 2.68 1.52 0.11 0.17 0.38
80-84 1.50 3.24 1.60 0.16 0.40 0.59
85+ 1.36 3.72 1.42 0.21 1.41 1.01
Alzheimer's disease and other dementias
40-44 2.45 12.73 3.52 0.00 7.63 0.73
45-49 2.55 11.49 3.29 0.02 6.92 0.85
50-54 1.94 8.20 2.71 0.08 7.28 1.25
55-59 2.08 9.14 3.20 0.11 9.21 1.09
60-64 2.16 8.46 2.82 0.20 9.23 1.32
65-69 2.24 9.11 3.19 0.22 8.26 1.45
70-74 2.20 8.07 3.20 0.30 8.37 1.58
75-79 2.17 7.68 3.18 0.29 9.39 1.69
80-84 2.16 7.50 3.11 0.26 11.38 1.85
85+ 2.09 6.81 2.69 0.25 15.93 1.78

Additional cost of health-care services used by patients with Alzheimer's is projected to reach about $13.3 billion by 2031

Total health sector costs for individuals with Alzheimer's disease, Canada, 2011 and 2031
Description for Chart 24
Total health sector costs for individuals with Alzheimer's disease, Canada, 2011 and 2031, dollars in billions
Year People with Alzheimer's disease, base cost People with Alzheimer's disease, additional cost
2011 2.4 6.7
2031 5.0 13.3

Transitions to institutions

Understanding factors associated with transitions to institutions will inform future projections

Proportion of surviving 2007/2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 3.1) respondents living in nursing homes or residences for senior citizens in 2011 Census
Description for Chart 25
Proportion of surviving 2007/2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 3.1) respondents living in nursing homes or residences for senior citizens in 2011 Census, Proportion of seniors (%)
  Alzheimer's Lost partner, CCHS to Census Gained partner, CCHS to Census Received home care Immigrant
No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nursing home 9.35 52.16 4.1 11.67 13.46 17.78 8.87 14.45 10.92 7.79
Residence for senior citizens 8.4 16.45 4.75 11.94 10.16 0.01 7.92 10.77 10.09 4.14
Date modified: