Immigrants in the labour market

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  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202400100001
    Description: In recent years, foreign workers have become an important source of labour in the accommodation and food services industry in Canada. This study examines the characteristics of temporary foreign workers with lower-skill occupations who had their first Canadian employment in the accommodation and food services industry from 2000 to 2020, as well as their cumulative rates of transition to permanent residency and retention in that industry. This study also compares these outcomes with those of temporary foreign workers with higher-skill occupations and study permit holders employed in the industry.
    Release date: 2024-01-24

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202400100003
    Description: In 2013, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada introduced a new refugee resettlement category called the Blended Visa Office-Referred Program. This admission stream combined the core principles of IRCC’s Government-Assisted Refugees program and the Private Sponsorship of Refugees program. This study asks two questions. First, what are the economic outcomes of BVOR refugees who have been admitted to Canada since 2013? Second, how do these outcomes compare with those of other resettled refugees who were admitted through the GAR and Private Sponsorship of Refugees programs?
    Release date: 2024-01-24

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202400100004
    Description: The COVID-19 pandemic has put a spotlight on the roles played by temporary foreign workers with lower-skill occupations in the food manufacturing sector, and concerns have been raised about whether they have sufficient pathways to become permanent residents and whether they stay in the sector after obtaining their permanent residency. This study focuses on these workers and examines their transition to permanent residency and their industrial retention after immigration.
    Release date: 2024-01-24

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202301100002
    Description: The Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) is designed to contribute to a more equitable distribution of new immigrants across Canada. A related objective is the retention and integration of provincial nominees in the nominating province or territory. This article is the second in a series that examines the characteristics and labour market outcomes of PNP immigrants and examines the retention of PNP immigrants at both the national and provincial or territorial levels. The analysis uses data from the Immigrant Landing File and tax records, along with three indicators of retention, to measure the propensity of a province or territory to retain immigrants.
    Release date: 2023-11-22

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202301000003
    Description: As the role of temporary foreign workers in Canada’s labour market has grown in significance, it has become essential to accurately measure their numbers for informing policy decisions. Two data sources have often been used to determine the number of temporary foreign workers: data on work permit holders released by Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada and data based on tax administrative files that identify temporary residents with earnings. This article aims to evaluate the benefits and limitations of these two data sources and compare the trends in the number of temporary foreign workers derived from them.
    Release date: 2023-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202301000004
    Description: Canada has a long history of recruiting foreign nationals to address temporary labour shortages through a diverse range of work permit programs. Along with a significant increase in the number of work permit holders, there have been large changes in the composition of this population in terms of work permit programs and demographic characteristics. This article aims to examine recent changes in the composition of work permit programs and the proportion of work permit holders reporting employment income.
    Release date: 2023-10-25

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202300700004
    Description: The Provincial Nominee Program (PNP) was introduced in all provinces, excluding Quebec, and most territories in Canada between 1998 and 2009. Its primary goal was to increase the settlement of economic immigrants outside major Canadian cities and to address the workforce needs of employers, as perceived by the province or territory. This article focuses on the expansion of the PNP in Canada and is part of a series that examines the characteristics and labour market outcomes of PNP immigrants.
    Release date: 2023-07-26

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202300500003
    Description: The selection of highly educated immigrants is based in part on the premise that they can better adapt to the labour market and will have, on average, better economic outcomes than less-educated immigrants. Earlier research indicates that this is the case. However, some university-educated immigrants have a slow start in the initial years after immigration. Little Canadian research has considered whether these immigrants eventually catch up with similarly educated immigrants who have early economic success. Likewise, it is unknown whether they outperform less-educated immigrants. Using the Longitudinal Immigration Database, this study looks at the long-term economic outcomes of university-educated economic principal applicant immigrants who immigrated at the ages of 20 to 44 during the period from 1990 to 2014 by their earnings level in the initial years after immigration.
    Release date: 2023-05-24

  • Articles and reports: 36-28-0001202300100002
    Description: A large body of studies have consistently demonstrated that higher proficiency in the destination-country language improves immigrant labour market outcomes. However, because of the lack of objective measures of language skills, previous studies have mainly drawn on subjective measures of language proficiency and were confined to the effect of only one dimension or general language skills. This study examines the effects of test-based measures of official language proficiency in four dimensions — listening, speaking, reading and writing —on immigrant employment and earnings.
    Release date: 2023-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2022017
    Description:

    This study provides the first socioeconomic profile of immigrant women board directors and officers in Canada from an intersectional lens. Linking data from the Corporations Returns Act with those from the Longitudinal Immigration database, exploratory estimates are presented. The study analyzes characteristics of immigrants at admission and disparities in family, work and income characteristics, mainly by gender and immigrant status. Further, it informs on the types of businesses in which diverse women executives contribute to corporate governance and strategic decision making.

    Release date: 2022-12-08
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  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 96-328-M2004022
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This activity focuses on the contribution of immigrants to Canadian agriculture, highlighting which countries they come from and why, and what types of farms they prefer.

    Release date: 2005-01-28
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