Income inequality

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All (48) (0 to 10 of 48 results)

  • Articles and reports: 89-654-X2018002
    Description:

    This profile article is the first main release by Statistics Canada based on findings from the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability. It is divided into three sections - demographics, employment, and income - and provides a general snapshot on persons with disabilities to inform on emerging government priorities (such as Opportunity for All: Canada's First Poverty Reduction Strategy; Government of Canada, 2018) and community interest in the areas of disability prevalence, labour market participation, and income inequality.

    Release date: 2018-11-28

  • Table: 11-10-0037-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 109-0014)
    Frequency: Every 5 years
    Description:

    This table contains 172 series, with data for years 1996 - 1996 (not all combinations necessarily have data for all years), and is no longer being released. This table contains data described by the following dimensions (Not all combinations are available): Geography (173 items: Canada; Newfoundland and Labrador; Health and Community Services St. John's Region, Newfoundland and Labrador; Health and Community Services Eastern Region, Newfoundland and Labrador; ...).

    Release date: 2017-03-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014364
    Description:

    During the 1980s and 1990s, immigration was associated with the rise in low-income rates and family-income inequality in Canada. Over the 2000s, there were significant changes in the labour market and in immigrant selection. This paper focuses on the direct effect of immigration on the change in low income and family-income inequality over the 1995-to-2010 period. The paper outlines recent trends in low-income rates and income inequality for both the Canadian-born and immigrants. The low-income rate in Canada fell during the 2000s. Was this driven in part by changes in economic outcomes among immigrants? Inequality increased considerably in the late 1990s. Did immigration contribute to this increase?

    Release date: 2014-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2013083
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines why rates of homeownership have been increasing amongst young higher-income households, but declining among young lower-income households. For the period from 1981 to 2006, household data from the Census of Population, supplemented with information from the Survey of Financial Security, are employed to model the decision to own across the income distribution. The model assesses whether housing market conditions (e.g., the cost of renting versus owning), the financial condition of households (e.g., whether the household has sufficient wealth to make a standard down payment), and demographic factors (e.g., changing family composition) account for these diverging trends in housing demand.

    Release date: 2013-01-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2010020
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using 2001 Census data, this paper investigates the extent to which the urban-rural gap in the earnings of employed workers is associated with human capital composition and agglomeration economies. Both factors have been theoretically and empirically linked to urban-rural earnings differences. Agglomeration economies-the productivity enhancing effects of the geographic concentration of workers and firms-may underlie these differences as they may be stronger in larger urban centres. But human capital composition may also drive the urban-rural earnings gap if workers with higher levels of education and/or experience are more prevalent in cities. The analysis finds that up to one-half of urban-rural earnings differences are related to human capital composition. It also demonstrates that agglomeration economies related to city size are associated with earnings levels, but their influence is significantly reduced by the inclusion of controls for human capital.

    Release date: 2010-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X200900411019
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article profiles differences in health-adjusted life expectancy across income categories for a representative sample of the Canadian population. Mortality data were obtained from the 1991-2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, which linked a 15% sample of the 1991 adult non-institutional population with 11 years of death records from the Canadian Mortality Data Base.

    Release date: 2009-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008311
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the 1982-to-2000 period by a graphical descriptive approach using the Longitudinal Administrative Data base file. Following Gottschalk and Moffitt (1994), we decompose the total variance of workers' earnings into a 'permanent' or long-run component between workers and a 'transitory' or year-to-year earnings instability component over time for given workers. The decomposition is applied to a five-year moving window. Several results are found. First, the general rise in total earnings variance over the period reflects quite different patterns of change for its separate components. Long-run earnings inequality has generally increased over the period, while year-to-year earnings instability has pretty steadily decreased. Changes in the total earnings variability have been driven primarily by changes in long-run earnings inequality. Second, the patterns of change in the two variance components showed substantial differences between men and women. Since the early 1990s, long-run earnings inequality continued to rise for men, but it markedly decreased for women. Since the late 1980s, earnings instability fell quite steadily for women, but it showed a more cyclical pattern for men. Third, the patterns across ages of the two variance components are almost opposite. Long-run earnings inequality generally rises with age, so it is markedly highest among older-age workers. Earnings instability, in contrast, generally declines with age, so it is markedly highest among entry-age workers.

    Release date: 2008-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008309
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The deterioration of immigrants' entry earnings in Canada in the past three decades has been well documented. This study provides further insights into the changing fortunes of immigrants by focusing on their earnings inequality and earnings instability. The analysis is based on a flexible econometric model that decomposes earnings inequality into current and long-term components. In addition to constructing earnings inequality and earnings instability profiles for different arrival cohorts, we also examine the underlying causes of earnings inequality, including the impact of foreign education, birthplace and the ability to speak English or French.

    Release date: 2008-04-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007298
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-to-1997 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1993-to-2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we examine developments in family income inequality, income polarization, relative low income, and income redistribution through the tax-transfer system. We conclude that family after-tax-income inequality was stable across the 1980s, but rose during the 1989-to-2004 period.

    Growth in family after-tax-income inequality can be due to an increase in family market-income inequality (pre-tax, pre-transfer), or to a reduction in income redistribution through the tax-transfer system.

    We conclude that the increase in inequality was associated with a rise in family market-income inequality. Redistribution was at least as high in 2004 as it was at earlier cyclical peaks, but it failed to keep up with rapid growth in family market-income inequality in the 1990s.

    We present income inequality, polarization, and low-income statistics for several well-known measures, and use data preparations identical to those used in the Luxembourg Income Study in order to facilitate international comparisons.

    Release date: 2007-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20061129543
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Major changes in the wealth structure have taken place over the last two decades. Between 1984 and 2005, virtually all population subgroups experienced a greater increase in average wealth than in median wealth, suggesting that Canadian families are becoming increasingly unequal in their capacity to deal with income shocks. The increase would have been even greater without the marked aging of the population.

    Release date: 2007-03-20
Data (1)

Data (1) ((1 result))

  • Table: 11-10-0037-01
    (formerly: CANSIM 109-0014)
    Frequency: Every 5 years
    Description:

    This table contains 172 series, with data for years 1996 - 1996 (not all combinations necessarily have data for all years), and is no longer being released. This table contains data described by the following dimensions (Not all combinations are available): Geography (173 items: Canada; Newfoundland and Labrador; Health and Community Services St. John's Region, Newfoundland and Labrador; Health and Community Services Eastern Region, Newfoundland and Labrador; ...).

    Release date: 2017-03-06
Analysis (47)

Analysis (47) (0 to 10 of 47 results)

  • Articles and reports: 89-654-X2018002
    Description:

    This profile article is the first main release by Statistics Canada based on findings from the 2017 Canadian Survey on Disability. It is divided into three sections - demographics, employment, and income - and provides a general snapshot on persons with disabilities to inform on emerging government priorities (such as Opportunity for All: Canada's First Poverty Reduction Strategy; Government of Canada, 2018) and community interest in the areas of disability prevalence, labour market participation, and income inequality.

    Release date: 2018-11-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2014364
    Description:

    During the 1980s and 1990s, immigration was associated with the rise in low-income rates and family-income inequality in Canada. Over the 2000s, there were significant changes in the labour market and in immigrant selection. This paper focuses on the direct effect of immigration on the change in low income and family-income inequality over the 1995-to-2010 period. The paper outlines recent trends in low-income rates and income inequality for both the Canadian-born and immigrants. The low-income rate in Canada fell during the 2000s. Was this driven in part by changes in economic outcomes among immigrants? Inequality increased considerably in the late 1990s. Did immigration contribute to this increase?

    Release date: 2014-12-15

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2013083
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines why rates of homeownership have been increasing amongst young higher-income households, but declining among young lower-income households. For the period from 1981 to 2006, household data from the Census of Population, supplemented with information from the Survey of Financial Security, are employed to model the decision to own across the income distribution. The model assesses whether housing market conditions (e.g., the cost of renting versus owning), the financial condition of households (e.g., whether the household has sufficient wealth to make a standard down payment), and demographic factors (e.g., changing family composition) account for these diverging trends in housing demand.

    Release date: 2013-01-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2010020
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using 2001 Census data, this paper investigates the extent to which the urban-rural gap in the earnings of employed workers is associated with human capital composition and agglomeration economies. Both factors have been theoretically and empirically linked to urban-rural earnings differences. Agglomeration economies-the productivity enhancing effects of the geographic concentration of workers and firms-may underlie these differences as they may be stronger in larger urban centres. But human capital composition may also drive the urban-rural earnings gap if workers with higher levels of education and/or experience are more prevalent in cities. The analysis finds that up to one-half of urban-rural earnings differences are related to human capital composition. It also demonstrates that agglomeration economies related to city size are associated with earnings levels, but their influence is significantly reduced by the inclusion of controls for human capital.

    Release date: 2010-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X200900411019
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This article profiles differences in health-adjusted life expectancy across income categories for a representative sample of the Canadian population. Mortality data were obtained from the 1991-2001 Canadian census mortality follow-up study, which linked a 15% sample of the 1991 adult non-institutional population with 11 years of death records from the Canadian Mortality Data Base.

    Release date: 2009-11-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008311
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the 1982-to-2000 period by a graphical descriptive approach using the Longitudinal Administrative Data base file. Following Gottschalk and Moffitt (1994), we decompose the total variance of workers' earnings into a 'permanent' or long-run component between workers and a 'transitory' or year-to-year earnings instability component over time for given workers. The decomposition is applied to a five-year moving window. Several results are found. First, the general rise in total earnings variance over the period reflects quite different patterns of change for its separate components. Long-run earnings inequality has generally increased over the period, while year-to-year earnings instability has pretty steadily decreased. Changes in the total earnings variability have been driven primarily by changes in long-run earnings inequality. Second, the patterns of change in the two variance components showed substantial differences between men and women. Since the early 1990s, long-run earnings inequality continued to rise for men, but it markedly decreased for women. Since the late 1980s, earnings instability fell quite steadily for women, but it showed a more cyclical pattern for men. Third, the patterns across ages of the two variance components are almost opposite. Long-run earnings inequality generally rises with age, so it is markedly highest among older-age workers. Earnings instability, in contrast, generally declines with age, so it is markedly highest among entry-age workers.

    Release date: 2008-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008309
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The deterioration of immigrants' entry earnings in Canada in the past three decades has been well documented. This study provides further insights into the changing fortunes of immigrants by focusing on their earnings inequality and earnings instability. The analysis is based on a flexible econometric model that decomposes earnings inequality into current and long-term components. In addition to constructing earnings inequality and earnings instability profiles for different arrival cohorts, we also examine the underlying causes of earnings inequality, including the impact of foreign education, birthplace and the ability to speak English or French.

    Release date: 2008-04-09

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2007298
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the 1976-to-1997 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1993-to-2004 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we examine developments in family income inequality, income polarization, relative low income, and income redistribution through the tax-transfer system. We conclude that family after-tax-income inequality was stable across the 1980s, but rose during the 1989-to-2004 period.

    Growth in family after-tax-income inequality can be due to an increase in family market-income inequality (pre-tax, pre-transfer), or to a reduction in income redistribution through the tax-transfer system.

    We conclude that the increase in inequality was associated with a rise in family market-income inequality. Redistribution was at least as high in 2004 as it was at earlier cyclical peaks, but it failed to keep up with rapid growth in family market-income inequality in the 1990s.

    We present income inequality, polarization, and low-income statistics for several well-known measures, and use data preparations identical to those used in the Luxembourg Income Study in order to facilitate international comparisons.

    Release date: 2007-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20061129543
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Major changes in the wealth structure have taken place over the last two decades. Between 1984 and 2005, virtually all population subgroups experienced a greater increase in average wealth than in median wealth, suggesting that Canadian families are becoming increasingly unequal in their capacity to deal with income shocks. The increase would have been even greater without the marked aging of the population.

    Release date: 2007-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006274
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    We present new evidence on levels and trends in after-tax income inequality in Canada between 1980 and 2000. We argue that existing data sources may miss changes in the tails of the income distribution, and that much of the changes in the income distribution have been in the tails. Our data are constructed from Census files, which are augmented with predicted taxes based on information available from administrative tax data. After validating our approach in predicting taxes on the Census files, we document differences in the levels and trends in after-tax inequality between the newly constructed data source and the more commonly used survey data. We find that after-tax inequality levels are substantially higher based on the new data, primarily because income levels are lower at the bottom than in survey data. The new data show larger long-term increases in after-tax income inequality and far more variability over the economic cycle. This raises interesting questions about the role of the tax and transfer system in mitigating both trends and fluctuations in market income inequality.

    Release date: 2006-02-27
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