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  • Notices and consultations: 95-635-X
    Description:

    To stay relevant, preparing for a new Census of Agriculture requires a thorough evaluation of data requirements. Before each census, Statistics Canada conducts consultations to solicit input and feedback on the Census of Agriculture's content. This report describes those consultations and the process that was followed to test and determine which topics could be potentially retained for the next census.

    Release date: 2019-10-02

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900200008
    Description:

    High nonresponse occurs in many sample surveys today, including important surveys carried out by government statistical agencies. An adaptive data collection can be advantageous in those conditions: Lower nonresponse bias in survey estimates can be gained, up to a point, by producing a well-balanced set of respondents. Auxiliary variables serve a twofold purpose: Used in the estimation phase, through calibrated adjustment weighting, they reduce, but do not entirely remove, the bias. In the preceding adaptive data collection phase, auxiliary variables also play a major role: They are instrumental in reducing the imbalance in the ultimate set of respondents. For such combined use of auxiliary variables, the deviation of the calibrated estimate from the unbiased estimate (under full response) is studied in the article. We show that this deviation is a sum of two components. The reducible component can be decreased through adaptive data collection, all the way to zero if perfectly balanced response is realized with respect to a chosen auxiliary vector. By contrast, the resisting component changes little or not at all by a better balanced response; it represents a part of the deviation that adaptive design does not get rid of. The relative size of the former component is an indicator of the potential payoff from an adaptive survey design.

    Release date: 2019-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201800254954
    Description:

    These last years, balanced sampling techniques have experienced a recrudescence of interest. They constrain the Horvitz Thompson estimators of the totals of auxiliary variables to be equal, at least approximately, to the corresponding true totals, to avoid the occurrence of bad samples. Several procedures are available to carry out balanced sampling; there is the cube method, see Deville and Tillé (2004), and an alternative, the rejective algorithm introduced by Hájek (1964). After a brief review of these sampling methods, motivated by the planning of an angler survey, we investigate using Monte Carlo simulations, the survey designs produced by these two sampling algorithms.

    Release date: 2018-12-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-005-M2016001
    Description:

    In over 70 years, the methodology and questionnaire, as well as the collection and processing techniques of the Canadian Labour Force Survey have undergone major changes. This document summarizes these changes chronologically and provides references to more detailed information sources. Among the most significant changes were two questionnaire redesigns, which occurred approximately 20 years apart, in 1976 and 1997.

    Release date: 2017-01-06

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201600414490
    Description:

    This analysis examines associations between utilitarian walking and cycling and objective measures of physical activity, body composition, physical fitness and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 20 to 79.

    Release date: 2016-04-20

  • Notices and consultations: 92-140-X2016001
    Description:

    The 2016 Census Program Content Test was conducted from May 2 to June 30, 2014. The Test was designed to assess the impact of any proposed content changes to the 2016 Census Program and to measure the impact of including a social insurance number (SIN) question on the data quality.

    This quantitative test used a split-panel design involving 55,000 dwellings, divided into 11 panels of 5,000 dwellings each: five panels were dedicated to the Content Test while the remaining six panels were for the SIN Test. Two models of test questionnaires were developed to meet the objectives, namely a model with all the proposed changes EXCEPT the SIN question and a model with all the proposed changes INCLUDING the SIN question. A third model of 'control' questionnaire with the 2011 content was also developed. The population living in a private dwelling in mail-out areas in one of the ten provinces was targeted for the test. Paper and electronic response channels were part of the Test as well.

    This report presents the Test objectives, the design and a summary of the analysis in order to determine potential content for the 2016 Census Program. Results from the data analysis of the Test were not the only elements used to determine the content for 2016. Other elements were also considered, such as response burden, comparison over time and users’ needs.

    Release date: 2016-04-01

  • Notices and consultations: 92-140-X
    Description:

    Before each Census of Population, Statistics Canada carries out a three- to four-year process to review the content of the census questionnaires in consultation with census data users, performing tests and developing questionnaire content to ensure that it takes into account the evolution of Canadian society. Factors considered in developing the content include legislative requirements regarding information, program and policy requirements; the burden placed on respondents to respond to questions; concerns about privacy; feedback from consultations and tests; data quality; costs and operational considerations; the comparability of data with earlier data and the availability of alternative data sources. Before each census, Statistics Canada tests the questionnaire content through an extensive test. The content report presents the analyses conducted from the data collected from this test and the results that are used to fine tune the questionnaires, the methodology and the systems used for the Census Program.

    Release date: 2016-04-01

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-522-X
    Description:

    Since 1984, an annual international symposium on methodological issues has been sponsored by Statistics Canada. Proceedings have been available since 1987.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89-654-X2016003
    Description:

    This paper describes the process that led to the creation of the new Disability Screening Questions (DSQ), jointly developped by Statistics Canada and Employment and Social Development Canada. The DSQ form a new module which can be put on general population surveys to allow comparisons of persons with and without a disability. The paper explains why there are two versions of the DSQ—a long and a short one—, the difference between the two, and how each version can be used.

    Release date: 2016-02-29

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214229
    Description:

    Self-weighting estimation through equal probability selection methods (epsem) is desirable for variance efficiency. Traditionally, the epsem property for (one phase) two stage designs for estimating population-level parameters is realized by using each primary sampling unit (PSU) population count as the measure of size for PSU selection along with equal sample size allocation per PSU under simple random sampling (SRS) of elementary units. However, when self-weighting estimates are desired for parameters corresponding to multiple domains under a pre-specified sample allocation to domains, Folsom, Potter and Williams (1987) showed that a composite measure of size can be used to select PSUs to obtain epsem designs when besides domain-level PSU counts (i.e., distribution of domain population over PSUs), frame-level domain identifiers for elementary units are also assumed to be available. The term depsem-A will be used to denote such (one phase) two stage designs to obtain domain-level epsem estimation. Folsom et al. also considered two phase two stage designs when domain-level PSU counts are unknown, but whole PSU counts are known. For these designs (to be termed depsem-B) with PSUs selected proportional to the usual size measure (i.e., the total PSU count) at the first stage, all elementary units within each selected PSU are first screened for classification into domains in the first phase of data collection before SRS selection at the second stage. Domain-stratified samples are then selected within PSUs with suitably chosen domain sampling rates such that the desired domain sample sizes are achieved and the resulting design is self-weighting. In this paper, we first present a simple justification of composite measures of size for the depsem-A design and of the domain sampling rates for the depsem-B design. Then, for depsem-A and -B designs, we propose generalizations, first to cases where frame-level domain identifiers for elementary units are not available and domain-level PSU counts are only approximately known from alternative sources, and second to cases where PSU size measures are pre-specified based on other practical and desirable considerations of over- and under-sampling of certain domains. We also present a further generalization in the presence of subsampling of elementary units and nonresponse within selected PSUs at the first phase before selecting phase two elementary units from domains within each selected PSU. This final generalization of depsem-B is illustrated for an area sample of housing units.

    Release date: 2015-12-17
Data (1)

Data (1) ((1 result))

  • Table: 53F0002X
    Description:

    Nearly 50,000 or one in five (22%) Canadian truck drivers on the road in 1998 were independent truckers or "owner-operators". However, similar to other forms of self-employment, the net-earnings and socio-economic characteristics of owner-operators have often been ignored by researchers for reasons of analytical convenience or data limitations. New data products recently released by Statistics Canada such as the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) have the potential to fill much of this gap. The 1997 SLID cross-sectional micro-data files offer a limited but meaningful insight into the work patterns of the owner-operator population, complementing and validating well-established business surveys such as the annual Small for-hire carrier and Owner-operator Survey (SFO). The purpose of this study, through a multivariate analysis of the 1997 SLID and the 1997 SFO survey, was to compare the work patterns and backgrounds of owner-operators to company drivers (paid truck drivers employed by carriers). The study found that while drivers may choose to be self-employed to gain independence, owner-operators tend to work longer hours to meet fixed and variable costs, in return for lower after-tax earnings and a greater likelihood of high work-life stress. The analysis also found that the odds of self-employment among truckers were highest among drivers over 40 years of age with no post-secondary training.

    Release date: 2000-06-07
Analysis (178)

Analysis (178) (0 to 10 of 178 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201900200008
    Description:

    High nonresponse occurs in many sample surveys today, including important surveys carried out by government statistical agencies. An adaptive data collection can be advantageous in those conditions: Lower nonresponse bias in survey estimates can be gained, up to a point, by producing a well-balanced set of respondents. Auxiliary variables serve a twofold purpose: Used in the estimation phase, through calibrated adjustment weighting, they reduce, but do not entirely remove, the bias. In the preceding adaptive data collection phase, auxiliary variables also play a major role: They are instrumental in reducing the imbalance in the ultimate set of respondents. For such combined use of auxiliary variables, the deviation of the calibrated estimate from the unbiased estimate (under full response) is studied in the article. We show that this deviation is a sum of two components. The reducible component can be decreased through adaptive data collection, all the way to zero if perfectly balanced response is realized with respect to a chosen auxiliary vector. By contrast, the resisting component changes little or not at all by a better balanced response; it represents a part of the deviation that adaptive design does not get rid of. The relative size of the former component is an indicator of the potential payoff from an adaptive survey design.

    Release date: 2019-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201800254954
    Description:

    These last years, balanced sampling techniques have experienced a recrudescence of interest. They constrain the Horvitz Thompson estimators of the totals of auxiliary variables to be equal, at least approximately, to the corresponding true totals, to avoid the occurrence of bad samples. Several procedures are available to carry out balanced sampling; there is the cube method, see Deville and Tillé (2004), and an alternative, the rejective algorithm introduced by Hájek (1964). After a brief review of these sampling methods, motivated by the planning of an angler survey, we investigate using Monte Carlo simulations, the survey designs produced by these two sampling algorithms.

    Release date: 2018-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201600414490
    Description:

    This analysis examines associations between utilitarian walking and cycling and objective measures of physical activity, body composition, physical fitness and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a nationally representative sample of Canadians aged 20 to 79.

    Release date: 2016-04-20

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-522-X
    Description:

    Since 1984, an annual international symposium on methodological issues has been sponsored by Statistics Canada. Proceedings have been available since 1987.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214229
    Description:

    Self-weighting estimation through equal probability selection methods (epsem) is desirable for variance efficiency. Traditionally, the epsem property for (one phase) two stage designs for estimating population-level parameters is realized by using each primary sampling unit (PSU) population count as the measure of size for PSU selection along with equal sample size allocation per PSU under simple random sampling (SRS) of elementary units. However, when self-weighting estimates are desired for parameters corresponding to multiple domains under a pre-specified sample allocation to domains, Folsom, Potter and Williams (1987) showed that a composite measure of size can be used to select PSUs to obtain epsem designs when besides domain-level PSU counts (i.e., distribution of domain population over PSUs), frame-level domain identifiers for elementary units are also assumed to be available. The term depsem-A will be used to denote such (one phase) two stage designs to obtain domain-level epsem estimation. Folsom et al. also considered two phase two stage designs when domain-level PSU counts are unknown, but whole PSU counts are known. For these designs (to be termed depsem-B) with PSUs selected proportional to the usual size measure (i.e., the total PSU count) at the first stage, all elementary units within each selected PSU are first screened for classification into domains in the first phase of data collection before SRS selection at the second stage. Domain-stratified samples are then selected within PSUs with suitably chosen domain sampling rates such that the desired domain sample sizes are achieved and the resulting design is self-weighting. In this paper, we first present a simple justification of composite measures of size for the depsem-A design and of the domain sampling rates for the depsem-B design. Then, for depsem-A and -B designs, we propose generalizations, first to cases where frame-level domain identifiers for elementary units are not available and domain-level PSU counts are only approximately known from alternative sources, and second to cases where PSU size measures are pre-specified based on other practical and desirable considerations of over- and under-sampling of certain domains. We also present a further generalization in the presence of subsampling of elementary units and nonresponse within selected PSUs at the first phase before selecting phase two elementary units from domains within each selected PSU. This final generalization of depsem-B is illustrated for an area sample of housing units.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214231
    Description:

    Rotating panels are widely applied by national statistical institutes, for example, to produce official statistics about the labour force. Estimation procedures are generally based on traditional design-based procedures known from classical sampling theory. A major drawback of this class of estimators is that small sample sizes result in large standard errors and that they are not robust for measurement bias. Two examples showing the effects of measurement bias are rotation group bias in rotating panels, and systematic differences in the outcome of a survey due to a major redesign of the underlying process. In this paper we apply a multivariate structural time series model to the Dutch Labour Force Survey to produce model-based figures about the monthly labour force. The model reduces the standard errors of the estimates by taking advantage of sample information collected in previous periods, accounts for rotation group bias and autocorrelation induced by the rotating panel, and models discontinuities due to a survey redesign. Additionally, we discuss the use of correlated auxiliary series in the model to further improve the accuracy of the model estimates. The method is applied by Statistics Netherlands to produce accurate official monthly statistics about the labour force that are consistent over time, despite a redesign of the survey process.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214237
    Description:

    Careful design of a dual-frame random digit dial (RDD) telephone survey requires selecting from among many options that have varying impacts on cost, precision, and coverage in order to obtain the best possible implementation of the study goals. One such consideration is whether to screen cell-phone households in order to interview cell-phone only (CPO) households and exclude dual-user household, or to take all interviews obtained via the cell-phone sample. We present a framework in which to consider the tradeoffs between these two options and a method to select the optimal design. We derive and discuss the optimum allocation of sample size between the two sampling frames and explore the choice of optimum p, the mixing parameter for the dual-user domain. We illustrate our methods using the National Immunization Survey, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214250
    Description:

    Assessing the impact of mode effects on survey estimates has become a crucial research objective due to the increasing use of mixed-mode designs. Despite the advantages of a mixed-mode design, such as lower costs and increased coverage, there is sufficient evidence that mode effects may be large relative to the precision of a survey. They may lead to incomparable statistics in time or over population subgroups and they may increase bias. Adaptive survey designs offer a flexible mathematical framework to obtain an optimal balance between survey quality and costs. In this paper, we employ adaptive designs in order to minimize mode effects. We illustrate our optimization model by means of a case-study on the Dutch Labor Force Survey. We focus on item-dependent mode effects and we evaluate the impact on survey quality by comparison to a gold standard.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201500714205
    Description:

    Discrepancies between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity are well-known. For the purpose of validation, this study compares a new self-reported physical activity questionnaire with an existing one and with accelerometer data.

    Release date: 2015-07-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400214096
    Description:

    In order to obtain better coverage of the population of interest and cost less, a number of surveys employ dual frame structure, in which independent samples are taken from two overlapping sampling frames. This research considers chi-squared tests in dual frame surveys when categorical data is encountered. We extend generalized Wald’s test (Wald 1943), Rao-Scott first-order and second-order corrected tests (Rao and Scott 1981) from a single survey to a dual frame survey and derive the asymptotic distributions. Simulation studies show that both Rao-Scott type corrected tests work well and thus are recommended for use in dual frame surveys. An example is given to illustrate the usage of the developed tests.

    Release date: 2014-12-19
Reference (38)

Reference (38) (0 to 10 of 38 results)

  • Notices and consultations: 95-635-X
    Description:

    To stay relevant, preparing for a new Census of Agriculture requires a thorough evaluation of data requirements. Before each census, Statistics Canada conducts consultations to solicit input and feedback on the Census of Agriculture's content. This report describes those consultations and the process that was followed to test and determine which topics could be potentially retained for the next census.

    Release date: 2019-10-02

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-005-M2016001
    Description:

    In over 70 years, the methodology and questionnaire, as well as the collection and processing techniques of the Canadian Labour Force Survey have undergone major changes. This document summarizes these changes chronologically and provides references to more detailed information sources. Among the most significant changes were two questionnaire redesigns, which occurred approximately 20 years apart, in 1976 and 1997.

    Release date: 2017-01-06

  • Notices and consultations: 92-140-X2016001
    Description:

    The 2016 Census Program Content Test was conducted from May 2 to June 30, 2014. The Test was designed to assess the impact of any proposed content changes to the 2016 Census Program and to measure the impact of including a social insurance number (SIN) question on the data quality.

    This quantitative test used a split-panel design involving 55,000 dwellings, divided into 11 panels of 5,000 dwellings each: five panels were dedicated to the Content Test while the remaining six panels were for the SIN Test. Two models of test questionnaires were developed to meet the objectives, namely a model with all the proposed changes EXCEPT the SIN question and a model with all the proposed changes INCLUDING the SIN question. A third model of 'control' questionnaire with the 2011 content was also developed. The population living in a private dwelling in mail-out areas in one of the ten provinces was targeted for the test. Paper and electronic response channels were part of the Test as well.

    This report presents the Test objectives, the design and a summary of the analysis in order to determine potential content for the 2016 Census Program. Results from the data analysis of the Test were not the only elements used to determine the content for 2016. Other elements were also considered, such as response burden, comparison over time and users’ needs.

    Release date: 2016-04-01

  • Notices and consultations: 92-140-X
    Description:

    Before each Census of Population, Statistics Canada carries out a three- to four-year process to review the content of the census questionnaires in consultation with census data users, performing tests and developing questionnaire content to ensure that it takes into account the evolution of Canadian society. Factors considered in developing the content include legislative requirements regarding information, program and policy requirements; the burden placed on respondents to respond to questions; concerns about privacy; feedback from consultations and tests; data quality; costs and operational considerations; the comparability of data with earlier data and the availability of alternative data sources. Before each census, Statistics Canada tests the questionnaire content through an extensive test. The content report presents the analyses conducted from the data collected from this test and the results that are used to fine tune the questionnaires, the methodology and the systems used for the Census Program.

    Release date: 2016-04-01

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 89-654-X2016003
    Description:

    This paper describes the process that led to the creation of the new Disability Screening Questions (DSQ), jointly developped by Statistics Canada and Employment and Social Development Canada. The DSQ form a new module which can be put on general population surveys to allow comparisons of persons with and without a disability. The paper explains why there are two versions of the DSQ—a long and a short one—, the difference between the two, and how each version can be used.

    Release date: 2016-02-29

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0002M2015003
    Description:

    This note discusses revised income estimates from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). These revisions to the SLID estimates make it possible to compare results from the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) to earlier years. The revisions address the issue of methodology differences between SLID and CIS.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75-005-M2015001
    Description:

    Using the experimental Workplace Survey conducted in 2011, this technical document summarizes the main results and evaluates the quality of the data.

    Release date: 2015-04-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X201300111828
    Description:

    A question that commonly arises in longitudinal surveys is the issue of how to combine differing cohorts of the survey. In this paper we present a novel method for combining different cohorts, and using all available data, in a longitudinal survey to estimate parameters of a semiparametric model, which relates the response variable to a set of covariates. The procedure builds upon the Weighted Generalized Estimation Equation method for handling missing waves in longitudinal studies. Our method is set up under a joint-randomization framework for estimation of model parameters, which takes into account the superpopulation model as well as the survey design randomization. We also propose a design-based, and a joint-randomization, variance estimation method. To illustrate the methodology we apply it to the Survey of Doctorate Recipients, conducted by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

    Release date: 2013-06-28

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 99-001-X2011001
    Description:

    The National Household Survey User Guide is a reference document that describes the various phases of the National Household Survey (NHS). It provides an overview of the 2011 NHS content, sampling design and collection, data processing, data quality assessment and data dissemination. The National Household Survey User Guide may be useful to both new and experienced users who wish to familiarize themselves with and find specific information about the 2011 NHS.

    Release date: 2013-05-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 12-001-X201100211606
    Description:

    This paper introduces a U.S. Census Bureau special compilation by presenting four other papers of the current issue: three papers from authors Tillé, Lohr and Thompson as well as a discussion paper from Opsomer.

    Release date: 2011-12-21
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