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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016378
    Description:

    In spite of the role that employers may play in the selection of economic immigrants, little is known about whether and how firm-level characteristics are associated with immigrants’ labour market outcomes over the longer term. As a first step towards providing relevant evidence, this study asks whether there are large gaps between the initial earnings of immigrants starting with low- or high-paying firms, and whether the initial earnings gaps narrow with increasing length of residence in Canada. It further examines whether earnings returns to human capital among immigrants are larger if they start working in high-paying firms than in low-paying firms. This paper uses data from the Canadian Employer-Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD) developed by Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2016-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200910613231
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Like the United States and the United Kingdom, Canada has a higher proportion of low-paid jobs than Australia and most countries in continental Europe. While the differences with continental Europe highlight different approaches to the labour market, the much lower rate of low-paid work in Australia is more puzzling since that country shares many similarities with Canada. Differences in wage-setting mechanisms appear to play a role in explaining the disparity in rates of low-paid jobs.

    Release date: 2009-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008054
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The paper investigates how Canadian manufacturing plants adjust to an increase in low-wage import competition by changing their commodity portfolios. At the commodity level, we distinguish between 'core' versus 'peripheral' and differentiated versus homogeneous commodities. We also account for cost and technological complementarities using input-output linkages between commodities produced by a plant. We document large commodity turnover within plants over the period from 1988 to 1996. The largest changes happened in multi-commodity plants and involved peripheral commodities. The commodities that were affected the most were those commodities that are potentially used as inputs in production of the 'core' commodity; homogeneous (rather than differentiated) commodities; and, commodities with relatively weak input complementarities with the core product. Plants experiencing large import competition shifted their output toward production of their core commodity and away from production of unrelated peripheral commodities.

    Release date: 2008-05-16

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2008055
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Dropout rates, defined as the proportion of 20 to 24 year-olds without a high school diploma and not attending school, have been trending downward. Data from the Labour Force Survey shows that the rate for men fell from 21% in 1990/1991 to 14% in 2004/2005; for women, the rates were 16% in 1990/1991 and 9% in 2004/2005. Many dropouts later return to school, taking advantage of the 'second-chance' educational opportunities offered by provinces and institutions across Canada.

    This report uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey to analyze the determinants of the return-to-school. The analysis finds that dropout rates are lower among young women than among young men and that, if they do dropout before completing high school, young women are also more likely to return to school than young men.

    Young male and female dropouts are influenced by different factors in their decision to return to school. For young male dropouts, two of the strongest predictors of the decision to return to school are their parents' education and having taken, in high school, a mathematics course designed to prepare them for postsecondary studies. Young men who dropped out in their last year of high school were more likely to return to school than their counterparts who had dropped out earlier. For young women, time elapsed since leaving school is the most influential factor. However, young women who left school due to personal reasons (most often, pregnancy) are 30% more likely to return than other female dropouts.

    Release date: 2008-04-09

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2007004
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The objective of this paper is to document the characteristics of the rural and urban working poor specifically, those individuals living in a low-income economic family unit in 2003, who were not full-time students and who worked for pay for at least one hour in 2003. We then present some of the factors associated with their situation.

    Release date: 2008-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 89-001-X20070019644
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The North American experience with international migration stands in unique contrast to much of the rest of the world. This paper uses microdata drawn from the national censuses of Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and applies the same methodological framework to these data to examine the impact of international migration on the labour market. We find a numerically comparable and statistically significant inverse relation between immigrant-induced shifts in labour supply and wages in each of the three countries: A 10% labour supply shift is associated with about a 3% to 4% opposite-signed change in wages. Despite the similarity in the wage elasticity, the impact of international migration on the wage structure differs significantly across countries. In Canada, international migration substantially narrowed wage inequality because immigrants in Canada tend to be disproportionately high-skilled. In the United States, international migration substantially increased wage inequality because immigrants in the United States tend to be disproportionately low-skilled. In Mexico, however, emigration rates are highest in the middle of the skill distribution and lowest at the extremes. As a result, international migration greatly increased relative wages in the middle of the Mexican skill distribution and lowered relative wages at the extremes. Paradoxically, the large-scale migration of workers from Mexico may have slightly reduced the relative wage of the low-skill workers remaining in that country.

    Release date: 2007-05-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006039
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) this study examines the labour market experience of Canadians who hold a university diploma and who worked at least one month in a job requiring no more than a high school diploma between 1993 and 2001.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2006006
    Description:

    This report examines the transitions into and out of low income and the persistence of low income among Canadians. It also examines the incidence of low wage among full-time workers and the extent to which low wage workers live in low income families.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006037
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines China's principal imports from Canada and the world between 1998 and 2004 using the United Nations "UN Comtrade" Database. The study focuses on exports by key Canadian industries to China such as organic chemicals, wood pulp, metal and wheat.

    Release date: 2006-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413141
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Prolonged periods of low earnings can limit an individual's capacity to cope with income losses or unexpected expenses, and makes economic self-sufficiency difficult. The ability to escape low earnings is linked to a number of factors, including age, firm size, and changing jobs.

    Release date: 2005-06-20
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  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016378
    Description:

    In spite of the role that employers may play in the selection of economic immigrants, little is known about whether and how firm-level characteristics are associated with immigrants’ labour market outcomes over the longer term. As a first step towards providing relevant evidence, this study asks whether there are large gaps between the initial earnings of immigrants starting with low- or high-paying firms, and whether the initial earnings gaps narrow with increasing length of residence in Canada. It further examines whether earnings returns to human capital among immigrants are larger if they start working in high-paying firms than in low-paying firms. This paper uses data from the Canadian Employer-Employee Dynamics Database (CEEDD) developed by Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2016-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200910613231
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Like the United States and the United Kingdom, Canada has a higher proportion of low-paid jobs than Australia and most countries in continental Europe. While the differences with continental Europe highlight different approaches to the labour market, the much lower rate of low-paid work in Australia is more puzzling since that country shares many similarities with Canada. Differences in wage-setting mechanisms appear to play a role in explaining the disparity in rates of low-paid jobs.

    Release date: 2009-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2008054
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The paper investigates how Canadian manufacturing plants adjust to an increase in low-wage import competition by changing their commodity portfolios. At the commodity level, we distinguish between 'core' versus 'peripheral' and differentiated versus homogeneous commodities. We also account for cost and technological complementarities using input-output linkages between commodities produced by a plant. We document large commodity turnover within plants over the period from 1988 to 1996. The largest changes happened in multi-commodity plants and involved peripheral commodities. The commodities that were affected the most were those commodities that are potentially used as inputs in production of the 'core' commodity; homogeneous (rather than differentiated) commodities; and, commodities with relatively weak input complementarities with the core product. Plants experiencing large import competition shifted their output toward production of their core commodity and away from production of unrelated peripheral commodities.

    Release date: 2008-05-16

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2008055
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Dropout rates, defined as the proportion of 20 to 24 year-olds without a high school diploma and not attending school, have been trending downward. Data from the Labour Force Survey shows that the rate for men fell from 21% in 1990/1991 to 14% in 2004/2005; for women, the rates were 16% in 1990/1991 and 9% in 2004/2005. Many dropouts later return to school, taking advantage of the 'second-chance' educational opportunities offered by provinces and institutions across Canada.

    This report uses data from the Youth in Transition Survey to analyze the determinants of the return-to-school. The analysis finds that dropout rates are lower among young women than among young men and that, if they do dropout before completing high school, young women are also more likely to return to school than young men.

    Young male and female dropouts are influenced by different factors in their decision to return to school. For young male dropouts, two of the strongest predictors of the decision to return to school are their parents' education and having taken, in high school, a mathematics course designed to prepare them for postsecondary studies. Young men who dropped out in their last year of high school were more likely to return to school than their counterparts who had dropped out earlier. For young women, time elapsed since leaving school is the most influential factor. However, young women who left school due to personal reasons (most often, pregnancy) are 30% more likely to return than other female dropouts.

    Release date: 2008-04-09

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2007004
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The objective of this paper is to document the characteristics of the rural and urban working poor specifically, those individuals living in a low-income economic family unit in 2003, who were not full-time students and who worked for pay for at least one hour in 2003. We then present some of the factors associated with their situation.

    Release date: 2008-01-14

  • Articles and reports: 89-001-X20070019644
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    The North American experience with international migration stands in unique contrast to much of the rest of the world. This paper uses microdata drawn from the national censuses of Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and applies the same methodological framework to these data to examine the impact of international migration on the labour market. We find a numerically comparable and statistically significant inverse relation between immigrant-induced shifts in labour supply and wages in each of the three countries: A 10% labour supply shift is associated with about a 3% to 4% opposite-signed change in wages. Despite the similarity in the wage elasticity, the impact of international migration on the wage structure differs significantly across countries. In Canada, international migration substantially narrowed wage inequality because immigrants in Canada tend to be disproportionately high-skilled. In the United States, international migration substantially increased wage inequality because immigrants in the United States tend to be disproportionately low-skilled. In Mexico, however, emigration rates are highest in the middle of the skill distribution and lowest at the extremes. As a result, international migration greatly increased relative wages in the middle of the Mexican skill distribution and lowered relative wages at the extremes. Paradoxically, the large-scale migration of workers from Mexico may have slightly reduced the relative wage of the low-skill workers remaining in that country.

    Release date: 2007-05-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006039
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) this study examines the labour market experience of Canadians who hold a university diploma and who worked at least one month in a job requiring no more than a high school diploma between 1993 and 2001.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Articles and reports: 75F0002M2006006
    Description:

    This report examines the transitions into and out of low income and the persistence of low income among Canadians. It also examines the incidence of low wage among full-time workers and the extent to which low wage workers live in low income families.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006037
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    This study examines China's principal imports from Canada and the world between 1998 and 2004 using the United Nations "UN Comtrade" Database. The study focuses on exports by key Canadian industries to China such as organic chemicals, wood pulp, metal and wheat.

    Release date: 2006-03-14

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200510413141
    Geography: Canada
    Description:

    Prolonged periods of low earnings can limit an individual's capacity to cope with income losses or unexpected expenses, and makes economic self-sufficiency difficult. The ability to escape low earnings is linked to a number of factors, including age, firm size, and changing jobs.

    Release date: 2005-06-20
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