Table 7 
Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted 

Labour force characteristics by census metropolitan area, three-month moving average, seasonally adjusted
  August
2023
September
2023
Standard error1 August to September 2023 September 2022 to September 2023 August to September 2023 September 2022 to September 2023
  thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates)thousands (except rates) change in thousands (except rates)change in thousands (except rates) % change% change
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador              
Population 190.5 191.0 ... 0.5 5.8 0.3 3.1
Labour force 125.6 125.1 0.8 -0.5 0.2 -0.4 0.2
Employment 118.0 116.9 0.8 -1.1 -1.0 -0.9 -0.8
Unemployment 7.6 8.2 0.4 0.6 1.2 7.9 17.1
Participation rate 65.9 65.5 0.4 -0.4 -1.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.1 6.6 0.3 0.5 1.0 ... ...
Employment rate 61.9 61.2 0.5 -0.7 -2.5 ... ...
Halifax, Nova Scotia              
Population 410.9 412.6 ... 1.7 16.9 0.4 4.3
Labour force 279.8 280.1 1.5 0.3 14.2 0.1 5.3
Employment 259.9 260.3 1.6 0.4 8.1 0.2 3.2
Unemployment 19.9 19.8 0.8 -0.1 6.1 -0.5 44.5
Participation rate 68.1 67.9 0.4 -0.2 0.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 7.1 7.1 0.3 0.0 1.9 ... ...
Employment rate 63.3 63.1 0.4 -0.2 -0.6 ... ...
Moncton, New Brunswick              
Population 144.8 145.4 ... 0.6 6.3 0.4 4.5
Labour force 95.7 95.7 0.9 0.0 4.2 0.0 4.6
Employment 90.4 90.2 0.9 -0.2 3.3 -0.2 3.8
Unemployment 5.3 5.5 0.4 0.2 0.9 3.8 19.6
Participation rate 66.1 65.8 0.6 -0.3 0.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.5 5.7 0.4 0.2 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 62.4 62.0 0.6 -0.4 -0.5 ... ...
Saint John, New Brunswick               
Population 116.1 116.4 ... 0.3 3.2 0.3 2.8
Labour force 72.6 73.1 0.9 0.5 2.7 0.7 3.8
Employment 68.1 68.3 0.9 0.2 2.5 0.3 3.8
Unemployment 4.5 4.8 0.4 0.3 0.1 6.7 2.1
Participation rate 62.5 62.8 0.8 0.3 0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.2 6.6 0.5 0.4 -0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 58.7 58.7 0.8 0.0 0.6 ... ...
Saguenay, Quebec              
Population 136.1 136.2 ... 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.5
Labour force 78.1 77.8 1.0 -0.3 -4.6 -0.4 -5.6
Employment 74.8 74.8 1.0 0.0 -4.2 0.0 -5.3
Unemployment 3.4 3.0 0.4 -0.4 -0.4 -11.8 -11.8
Participation rate 57.4 57.1 0.8 -0.3 -3.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.4 3.9 0.4 -0.5 -0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 55.0 54.9 0.8 -0.1 -3.4 ... ...
Québec, Quebec              
Population 700.9 701.9 ... 1.0 8.2 0.1 1.2
Labour force 470.7 472.0 3.3 1.3 13.3 0.3 2.9
Employment 455.7 458.1 3.3 2.4 11.6 0.5 2.6
Unemployment 14.9 13.9 1.0 -1.0 1.7 -6.7 13.9
Participation rate 67.2 67.2 0.5 0.0 1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.2 2.9 0.2 -0.3 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 65.0 65.3 0.5 0.3 0.9 ... ...
Sherbrooke, Quebec              
Population 194.5 194.9 ... 0.4 3.7 0.2 1.9
Labour force 112.2 114.1 1.3 1.9 -1.8 1.7 -1.6
Employment 108.7 110.1 1.3 1.4 -2.6 1.3 -2.3
Unemployment 3.5 4.0 0.4 0.5 0.8 14.3 25.0
Participation rate 57.7 58.5 0.7 0.8 -2.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.1 3.5 0.4 0.4 0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 55.9 56.5 0.7 0.6 -2.4 ... ...
Trois-Rivières, Quebec               
Population 139.2 139.4 ... 0.2 1.5 0.1 1.1
Labour force 79.9 82.7 0.9 2.8 2.2 3.5 2.7
Employment 76.7 79.4 1.0 2.7 1.8 3.5 2.3
Unemployment 3.2 3.3 0.3 0.1 0.4 3.1 13.8
Participation rate 57.4 59.3 0.7 1.9 0.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.0 4.0 0.4 0.0 0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 55.1 57.0 0.7 1.9 0.7 ... ...
Montréal, Quebec              
Population 3,745.6 3,754.7 ... 9.1 73.6 0.2 2.0
Labour force 2,557.5 2,564.2 8.5 6.7 92.0 0.3 3.7
Employment 2,428.0 2,431.8 8.8 3.8 80.8 0.2 3.4
Unemployment 129.6 132.4 4.4 2.8 11.2 2.2 9.2
Participation rate 68.3 68.3 0.2 0.0 1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.1 5.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 ... ...
Employment rate 64.8 64.8 0.2 0.0 0.9 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario/Quebec               
Population 1,271.4 1,275.0 ... 3.6 35.1 0.3 2.8
Labour force 880.0 882.1 4.5 2.1 44.1 0.2 5.3
Employment 837.5 838.9 4.5 1.4 34.7 0.2 4.3
Unemployment 42.5 43.2 1.6 0.7 9.4 1.6 27.8
Participation rate 69.2 69.2 0.4 0.0 1.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 4.9 0.2 0.1 0.9 ... ...
Employment rate 65.9 65.8 0.4 -0.1 0.9 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Quebec part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 294.8 295.2 ... 0.4 4.4 0.1 1.5
Labour force 194.6 195.7 1.4 1.1 -0.7 0.6 -0.4
Employment 185.9 187.5 1.5 1.6 -1.1 0.9 -0.6
Unemployment 8.7 8.2 0.5 -0.5 0.4 -5.7 5.1
Participation rate 66.0 66.3 0.5 0.3 -1.2 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.2 0.3 -0.3 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 63.1 63.5 0.5 0.4 -1.4 ... ...
Ottawa–Gatineau, Ontario part, Ontario/Quebec              
Population 976.6 979.8 ... 3.2 30.7 0.3 3.2
Labour force 685.4 686.4 4.2 1.0 44.8 0.1 7.0
Employment 651.6 651.3 4.3 -0.3 35.7 -0.0 5.8
Unemployment 33.8 35.1 1.5 1.3 9.0 3.8 34.5
Participation rate 70.2 70.1 0.4 -0.1 2.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.9 5.1 0.2 0.2 1.0 ... ...
Employment rate 66.7 66.5 0.4 -0.2 1.6 ... ...
Kingston, Ontario              
Population 153.9 154.5 ... 0.6 5.8 0.4 3.9
Labour force 97.5 96.8 0.8 -0.7 1.9 -0.7 2.0
Employment 93.7 92.7 0.8 -1.0 2.3 -1.1 2.5
Unemployment 3.8 4.1 0.3 0.3 -0.3 7.9 -6.8
Participation rate 63.4 62.7 0.5 -0.7 -1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.9 4.2 0.3 0.3 -0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 60.9 60.0 0.6 -0.9 -0.8 ... ...
Belleville, Ontario              
Population 111.3 107.1 ... -4.2 4.7 -3.8 4.6
Labour force 71.6 66.5 3.0 -5.1 2.3 -7.1 3.6
Employment 64.1 60.0 2.7 -4.1 -1.0 -6.4 -1.6
Unemployment 7.5 6.5 0.8 -1.0 3.2 -13.3 97.0
Participation rate 64.3 62.1 2.1 -2.2 -0.6 ... ...
Unemployment rate 10.5 9.8 1.4 -0.7 4.7 ... ...
Employment rate 57.6 56.0 2.0 -1.6 -3.6 ... ...
Peterborough, Ontario              
Population 117.0 117.3 ... 0.3 2.6 0.3 2.3
Labour force 70.3 71.3 1.6 1.0 -0.2 1.4 -0.3
Employment 67.5 69.6 1.6 2.1 1.7 3.1 2.5
Unemployment 2.8 1.7 0.6 -1.1 -1.9 -39.3 -52.8
Participation rate 60.1 60.8 1.4 0.7 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.0 2.4 0.8 -1.6 -2.6 ... ...
Employment rate 57.7 59.3 1.4 1.6 0.1 ... ...
Oshawa, Ontario              
Population 358.6 359.4 ... 0.8 7.4 0.2 2.1
Labour force 235.9 237.8 2.0 1.9 -1.5 0.8 -0.6
Employment 223.8 224.0 2.1 0.2 -1.6 0.1 -0.7
Unemployment 12.0 13.8 1.0 1.8 0.1 15.0 0.7
Participation rate 65.8 66.2 0.6 0.4 -1.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.1 5.8 0.4 0.7 0.1 ... ...
Employment rate 62.4 62.3 0.6 -0.1 -1.8 ... ...
Toronto, Ontario              
Population 5,834.0 5,856.1 ... 22.1 185.3 0.4 3.3
Labour force 3,953.8 3,945.3 11.1 -8.5 146.7 -0.2 3.9
Employment 3,698.6 3,687.5 11.0 -11.1 113.0 -0.3 3.2
Unemployment 255.2 257.7 5.9 2.5 33.6 1.0 15.0
Participation rate 67.8 67.4 0.2 -0.4 0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.5 6.5 0.2 0.0 0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 63.4 63.0 0.2 -0.4 0.0 ... ...
Hamilton, Ontario              
Population 684.0 685.5 ... 1.5 11.6 0.2 1.7
Labour force 437.5 438.5 2.9 1.0 -2.9 0.2 -0.7
Employment 414.1 414.6 3.0 0.5 -8.4 0.1 -2.0
Unemployment 23.4 23.9 1.3 0.5 5.4 2.1 29.2
Participation rate 64.0 64.0 0.4 0.0 -1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.3 5.5 0.3 0.2 1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 60.5 60.5 0.4 0.0 -2.3 ... ...
St. Catharines–Niagara, Ontario               
Population 383.3 384.3 ... 1.0 7.7 0.3 2.0
Labour force 231.8 237.9 2.8 6.1 10.3 2.6 4.5
Employment 215.9 222.0 2.8 6.1 6.2 2.8 2.9
Unemployment 15.9 15.9 1.0 0.0 4.2 0.0 35.9
Participation rate 60.5 61.9 0.7 1.4 1.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.9 6.7 0.4 -0.2 1.6 ... ...
Employment rate 56.3 57.8 0.7 1.5 0.5 ... ...
Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo, Ontario              
Population 526.3 528.4 ... 2.1 17.9 0.4 3.5
Labour force 369.3 367.3 2.0 -2.0 9.9 -0.5 2.8
Employment 348.8 347.8 2.1 -1.0 10.6 -0.3 3.1
Unemployment 20.5 19.5 1.1 -1.0 -0.7 -4.9 -3.5
Participation rate 70.2 69.5 0.4 -0.7 -0.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.6 5.3 0.3 -0.3 -0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 66.3 65.8 0.4 -0.5 -0.3 ... ...
Brantford, Ontario              
Population 122.3 122.5 ... 0.2 1.8 0.2 1.5
Labour force 79.9 80.2 0.9 0.3 -2.8 0.4 -3.4
Employment 76.1 76.3 1.0 0.2 -3.0 0.3 -3.8
Unemployment 3.8 3.8 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 2.7
Participation rate 65.3 65.5 0.7 0.2 -3.3 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.8 4.7 0.5 -0.1 0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 62.2 62.3 0.8 0.1 -3.4 ... ...
Guelph, Ontario              
Population 146.4 146.8 ... 0.4 3.5 0.3 2.4
Labour force 103.6 103.4 1.2 -0.2 4.0 -0.2 4.0
Employment 99.2 98.3 1.3 -0.9 2.3 -0.9 2.4
Unemployment 4.4 5.1 0.6 0.7 1.7 15.9 50.0
Participation rate 70.8 70.4 0.9 -0.4 1.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.2 4.9 0.6 0.7 1.5 ... ...
Employment rate 67.8 67.0 0.9 -0.8 0.0 ... ...
London, Ontario              
Population 490.2 491.9 ... 1.7 14.7 0.3 3.1
Labour force 327.1 331.9 2.3 4.8 16.7 1.5 5.3
Employment 308.9 312.0 2.3 3.1 17.7 1.0 6.0
Unemployment 18.2 19.9 0.9 1.7 -1.0 9.3 -4.8
Participation rate 66.7 67.5 0.5 0.8 1.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.6 6.0 0.3 0.4 -0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 63.0 63.4 0.5 0.4 1.7 ... ...
Windsor, Ontario              
Population 316.5 317.5 ... 1.0 8.3 0.3 2.7
Labour force 202.2 200.2 2.1 -2.0 22.7 -1.0 12.8
Employment 190.3 188.1 2.1 -2.2 25.8 -1.2 15.9
Unemployment 11.8 12.0 1.0 0.2 -3.2 1.7 -21.1
Participation rate 63.9 63.1 0.7 -0.8 5.7 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 6.0 0.5 0.2 -2.6 ... ...
Employment rate 60.1 59.2 0.7 -0.9 6.7 ... ...
Barrie, Ontario              
Population 187.9 188.4 ... 0.5 4.2 0.3 2.3
Labour force 136.8 133.1 1.7 -3.7 -0.6 -2.7 -0.4
Employment 130.6 127.1 1.8 -3.5 0.2 -2.7 0.2
Unemployment 6.2 6.0 0.8 -0.2 -0.8 -3.2 -11.8
Participation rate 72.8 70.6 0.9 -2.2 -2.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.5 0.5 0.0 -0.6 ... ...
Employment rate 69.5 67.5 1.0 -2.0 -1.4 ... ...
Greater Sudbury, Ontario              
Population 147.5 147.7 ... 0.2 1.6 0.1 1.1
Labour force 88.8 89.9 1.0 1.1 2.1 1.2 2.4
Employment 84.8 85.8 1.0 1.0 1.7 1.2 2.0
Unemployment 4.0 4.1 0.4 0.1 0.5 2.5 13.9
Participation rate 60.2 60.9 0.7 0.7 0.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.5 4.6 0.4 0.1 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 57.5 58.1 0.7 0.6 0.5 ... ...
Thunder Bay, Ontario              
Population 107.6 107.8 ... 0.2 1.2 0.2 1.1
Labour force 66.8 67.0 0.6 0.2 2.6 0.3 4.0
Employment 63.8 63.8 0.6 0.0 3.1 0.0 5.1
Unemployment 3.1 3.2 0.2 0.1 -0.4 3.2 -11.1
Participation rate 62.1 62.2 0.6 0.1 1.8 ... ...
Unemployment rate 4.6 4.8 0.3 0.2 -0.8 ... ...
Employment rate 59.3 59.2 0.6 -0.1 2.3 ... ...
Winnipeg, Manitoba              
Population 734.6 737.1 ... 2.5 22.0 0.3 3.1
Labour force 496.5 499.1 1.7 2.6 11.6 0.5 2.4
Employment 470.1 472.9 1.7 2.8 8.8 0.6 1.9
Unemployment 26.3 26.2 0.9 -0.1 2.8 -0.4 12.0
Participation rate 67.6 67.7 0.2 0.1 -0.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.3 5.2 0.2 -0.1 0.4 ... ...
Employment rate 64.0 64.2 0.2 0.2 -0.7 ... ...
Regina, Saskatchewan              
Population 228.7 229.6 ... 0.9 8.8 0.4 4.0
Labour force 155.9 156.9 1.1 1.0 12.6 0.6 8.7
Employment 148.1 148.6 1.2 0.5 10.5 0.3 7.6
Unemployment 7.8 8.2 0.5 0.4 2.1 5.1 34.4
Participation rate 68.2 68.3 0.5 0.1 2.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.0 5.2 0.3 0.2 1.0 ... ...
Employment rate 64.8 64.7 0.5 -0.1 2.2 ... ...
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan              
Population 292.2 293.4 ... 1.2 11.9 0.4 4.2
Labour force 209.8 210.0 1.1 0.2 8.6 0.1 4.3
Employment 198.5 198.6 1.2 0.1 5.4 0.1 2.8
Unemployment 11.3 11.4 0.6 0.1 3.2 0.9 39.0
Participation rate 71.8 71.6 0.4 -0.2 0.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.4 5.4 0.3 0.0 1.3 ... ...
Employment rate 67.9 67.7 0.4 -0.2 -0.9 ... ...
Lethbridge, Alberta              
Population 112.3 112.7 ... 0.4 4.7 0.4 4.4
Labour force 70.3 71.6 1.2 1.3 -0.3 1.8 -0.4
Employment 66.4 67.6 1.2 1.2 -1.3 1.8 -1.9
Unemployment 3.9 4.0 0.4 0.1 1.0 2.6 33.3
Participation rate 62.6 63.5 1.1 0.9 -3.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.5 5.6 0.6 0.1 1.4 ... ...
Employment rate 59.1 60.0 1.1 0.9 -3.8 ... ...
Calgary, Alberta              
Population 1,357.4 1,363.6 ... 6.2 61.2 0.5 4.7
Labour force 983.0 977.3 5.5 -5.7 31.0 -0.6 3.3
Employment 925.8 919.7 5.8 -6.1 24.6 -0.7 2.7
Unemployment 57.2 57.5 2.7 0.3 6.3 0.5 12.3
Participation rate 72.4 71.7 0.4 -0.7 -1.0 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 5.9 0.3 0.1 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 68.2 67.4 0.4 -0.8 -1.3 ... ...
Edmonton, Alberta              
Population 1,291.9 1,298.0 ... 6.1 60.4 0.5 4.9
Labour force 904.6 907.2 4.8 2.6 47.3 0.3 5.5
Employment 849.4 852.3 4.8 2.9 40.1 0.3 4.9
Unemployment 55.2 54.8 2.3 -0.4 7.1 -0.7 14.9
Participation rate 70.0 69.9 0.4 -0.1 0.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.1 6.0 0.3 -0.1 0.5 ... ...
Employment rate 65.7 65.7 0.4 0.0 0.1 ... ...
Kelowna, British Columbia               
Population 193.4 193.9 ... 0.5 4.8 0.3 2.5
Labour force 122.8 121.9 2.0 -0.9 7.5 -0.7 6.6
Employment 119.6 118.9 2.0 -0.7 9.3 -0.6 8.5
Unemployment 3.2 3.0 0.7 -0.2 -1.9 -6.3 -38.8
Participation rate 63.5 62.9 1.1 -0.6 2.4 ... ...
Unemployment rate 2.6 2.5 0.5 -0.1 -1.8 ... ...
Employment rate 61.8 61.3 1.0 -0.5 3.3 ... ...
Abbotsford–Mission, British Columbia              
Population 178.0 178.5 ... 0.5 4.0 0.3 2.3
Labour force 113.2 112.3 1.2 -0.9 -6.0 -0.8 -5.1
Employment 106.5 105.7 1.2 -0.8 -5.5 -0.8 -4.9
Unemployment 6.8 6.5 0.5 -0.3 -0.6 -4.4 -8.5
Participation rate 63.6 62.9 0.7 -0.7 -4.9 ... ...
Unemployment rate 6.0 5.8 0.4 -0.2 -0.2 ... ...
Employment rate 59.8 59.2 0.7 -0.6 -4.5 ... ...
Vancouver, British Columbia               
Population 2,450.9 2,458.5 ... 7.6 63.1 0.3 2.6
Labour force 1,673.1 1,689.6 5.6 16.5 70.9 1.0 4.4
Employment 1,575.4 1,590.4 5.6 15.0 41.4 1.0 2.7
Unemployment 97.7 99.3 2.8 1.6 29.6 1.6 42.5
Participation rate 68.3 68.7 0.2 0.4 1.1 ... ...
Unemployment rate 5.8 5.9 0.2 0.1 1.6 ... ...
Employment rate 64.3 64.7 0.2 0.4 0.0 ... ...
Victoria, British Columbia               
Population 364.0 365.0 ... 1.0 9.2 0.3 2.6
Labour force 231.8 237.5 1.9 5.7 14.6 2.5 6.6
Employment 223.8 228.5 2.0 4.7 15.7 2.1 7.4
Unemployment 8.1 9.0 0.7 0.9 -1.1 11.1 -10.9
Participation rate 63.7 65.1 0.5 1.4 2.5 ... ...
Unemployment rate 3.5 3.8 0.3 0.3 -0.7 ... ...
Employment rate 61.5 62.6 0.6 1.1 2.8 ... ...
...
not applicable
Note(s):
The sum of individual categories may not always add up to the total as a result of rounding.
Source(s):
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