Police-reported crime for selected offences, Canada, 2021 and 2022
|2021r||2021r||2022||2022||Change in rate 2021 to 2022||Change in rate 2012 to 2022|
|Total Criminal Code (excluding traffic offences) - "Crime rate"||2,063,335||5,398||2,206,454||5,668||5||1|
|Total violent crime||509,017||1,332||531,243||1,365||2||14|
|Other violations causing death||106||0s||86||0s||-20||-25|
|Sexual assault - level 3 - aggravated||126||0s||123||0s||-4||-12|
|Sexual assault - level 2 - weapon or bodily harm||617||2||627||2||0s||50|
|Sexual assault - level 1||33,641||88||35,215||90||3||47|
|Sexual offence occurring prior to January 4, 19831||485||1||486||1||-2||...|
|Sexual violations against children||12,838||34||11,859||30||-9||168|
|Assault - level 3 - aggravated||3,960||10||4,124||11||2||4|
|Assault - level 2 - weapon or bodily harm||71,274||186||76,462||196||5||37|
|Assault - level 1||185,199||484||195,701||503||4||2|
|Assault against a peace officer||12,461||33||12,623||32||-1||4|
|Firearms - use of, discharge, pointing||4,457||11.7||4,741||12.2||4||106|
|Forcible confinement or kidnapping||3,592||9||3,727||10||2||-9|
|Trafficking in persons2||386||1||411||1||5||...|
|Indecent or harassing communications||27,497||72||26,503||68||-5||26|
|Non-consensual distribution of intimate images3||2,491||7||2,524||6||-1||...|
|Offences in relation to sexual services4||710||2||703||2||-3||...|
|Other violent Criminal Code violations5||5,271||14||5,356||14||0s||-4|
|Total property crime||1,167,253||3,054||1,290,215||3,314||9||-4|
|Breaking and entering||125,914||329||132,897||341||4||-33|
|Possess stolen property6||20,600||54||22,573||58||8||15|
|Theft of motor vehicle||83,416||218||105,673||271||24||21|
|Theft over $5,000 (non-motor vehicle)||20,570||54||24,295||62||16||40|
|Shoplifting of $5,000 or under||95,242||249||127,444||327||31||24|
|Theft of $5,000 or under (non-motor vehicle)||336,032||879||374,793||963||10||-18|
|Total other Criminal Code offences||387,065||1,013||384,996||989||-2||-1|
|Disturb the peace||107,542||281||104,733||269||-4||-18|
|Administration of justice violations||214,903||562||214,378||551||-2||5|
|Total Criminal Code traffic violations||119,848||314||118,856||305||-3||-25|
|Alcohol- and drug-impaired driving9||5,686||15||4,884||13||-16||...|
|Impaired driving (not specified)9||2,465||6||2,387||6||-5||...|
|Other Criminal Code traffic violations||48,038||126||48,268||124||-1||-25|
|Total drug offences10||62,416||163||52,857||136||-17||-57|
|Total other federal statute violations||18,686||49||33,368||86||75||-17|
|Human trafficking under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act2||169||0s||117||0s||-32||226|
|Youth Criminal Justice Act||1,035||3||932||2||-12||-93|
|Other federal statutes12||15,230||40||31,761||82||105||22|
|Total - all violations||2,264,285||5,923||2,411,535||6,195||5||-4|
value rounded to 0 (zero) where there is a meaningful distinction between true zero and the value that was rounded
Police-reported statistics may be affected by differences in the way police services deal with offences. In some instances, police or municipalities might choose to deal with some offences using municipal bylaws or provincial provisions rather than Criminal Code provisions. Counts are based on the most serious violation in the incident. One incident may involve multiple violations. Data for specific types of crime are available, in most cases, from 1977. Rates are calculated on the basis of 100,000 population. Percentage changes are based on unrounded rates. Populations are based on July 1 estimates from Statistics Canada, Centre for Demography.
Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (3302).
In 2019, the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey added a new violation code to collect information on "sexual offences which occurred prior to January 4, 1983." While most violations are not typically reported years after their occurrence, there are a variety of reasons why sexual violations may be reported by a victim long after the incident took place. On January 4, 1983, Canadian legislation surrounding sexual offences changed considerably. To reflect these changes, the survey added the new violation code rather than collecting historical offences under an existing violation code that did not reflect the state of Canadian legislation at the time of the offence. Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 is not shown.
Changes to the Criminal Code, including the introduction of new offences related to trafficking in persons were made in 2005, 2010, 2012 and 2014. Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 is not shown. Additionally, data specific to human trafficking violations under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act are not available before 2011. Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 should be interpreted with caution since there could be delays in reporting new violations. Trafficking in persons incidents reported to the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey may be undercounted because of differences in police reporting practices for this violation.
Non-consensual distribution of intimate images is an offence created in 2015 by the former Bill C-13 "Protecting Canadians from Online Crime Act." Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 is not shown.
In December 2014, new legislation came into effect governing prostitution-related activities. The new legislation targets "the exploitation that is inherent in prostitution and the risks of violence posed to those who engage in it" (Criminal Code Chapter 25, preamble). New violations classified as "offences in relation to sexual services" under "violent crime" include the purchasing of sexual services or communicating for that purpose, receiving a material benefit deriving from the purchase of sexual services, procuring of persons for the purpose of prostitution, and advertising sexual services offered for sale. In addition, a number of other offences related to prostitution continue to be considered non-violent offences and are classified under "other Criminal Code offences". These include communicating to provide sexual services for consideration and stopping or impeding traffic for the purpose of offering, providing or obtaining sexual services for consideration. Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 is not shown.
In 2022, new violation codes were added to the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. The "other violent Criminal Code violations" category now includes the following violations: 1633 'Causing or Providing Conversion Therapy', 1634 'Material Benefit from Conversion Therapy', 1635 'Intimidation of a person to impede them from obtaining health services', 1636 'Intimidation of a health professional to impede their duties', 1637 'Intimidation of a person assisting in the performance of the health services to impede in those functions', 1638 'Obstruction or interference with access to health services', 1639 'Failure to Provide Necessaries', 1640 'Impeding Attempt to Save Life' and 1641 'Trafficking in Human Organs', which are not presented in detail for confidentiality reasons. Additionally, the "other Criminal Code violations" category now includes the following two violation categories: the category "Total violations related to Animal Cruelty" was created and includes the following UCR violations: 3812 'Injuring or endangering Animals', 3813 'Killing or injuring Law Enforcement or Military Animals', 3814 'Causing unnecessary suffering to Animals', 3815 'Causing damage or injury due to a failure to exercise reasonable care - animals or birds', and 3816 'Arena for animal fighting' which are not presented in detail for confidentiality reasons. Additionally, the "Total other violations" category includes: 3570 'Promoting or Advertising Conversion Therapy', 3700 'Unauthorized Recording of a Movie/Purpose of Sale, Rental, Commercial Distribution', and 3771 'Failure to comply with the regulations/obligations for medical assistance in dying', which are not presented in detail for confidentiality reasons.
Includes trafficking and the intent to traffic stolen goods. In 2011, the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey updated the offences included in this violation. Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 should be interpreted with caution since there could be delays in reporting new violations.
Because of the complexity of cyber incidents, which represent a significant number of incidents of child pornography, these data likely reflect the number of active or closed investigations for the year rather than the total number of incidents reported to police. Data are based on police-reported incidents that are recorded in police services' records management systems. Particularly large changes in total child pornography incidents may be attributed in part to the number of cases forwarded to local police services by the RCMP's National Child Exploitation Coordination Centre (NCECC), which serves as the national law enforcement arm of the National Strategy for the Protection of Children from Sexual Exploitation on the Internet.
Includes seven terrorism violations which were introduced mid-year in 2013 as a result of the enactment of former Bill S-7 "An Act to amend the Criminal Code, the Canada Evidence Act and the Security of Information Act." An additional terrorism violation code was introduced in late 2015 as a result of the enactment of former Bill C-51 "Anti-terrorism Act." Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 is not shown. Because of the length of time for investigations to confirm whether the incident is founded, annual counts of terrorism offences are subject to revisions downwards when revised data are released one year after the initial release; therefore, changes between the current year of data and the previous year should be interpreted with caution.
Reflects new impaired driving offences as per former Bill C-46 "An Act to amend the Criminal Code (offences relating to conveyances) and to make consequential amendments to other Acts," which came into effect part way through 2018. Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 is not shown.
In 2022, marked declines observed in drug offences, particularly drug possession, may be due to changes in police charging practices in response to: 1) August 2020 guidelines issued by the Public Prosecution Service of Canada directing prosecutors to avoid prosecutions for simple possession offences under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA), and 2) the anticipated introduction of Health Canada's exemption from the CDSA for the province of British Columbia for the personal possession of small amounts of certain illegal drugs, that came into effect on January 31, 2023. Additionally, changes in the rate of offences related to importation or exportation of Cannabis and other illicit drugs and controlled substances may be due in part to operational conditions and reporting of seizure cases, conducted by the Canada Border Services Agency and the Canada Post Mail Centre. These cases are forwarded for processing and investigation, and as a result of this exchange, the year in which occurrences are reported by police may not always correspond to the year in which they occurred. Therefore, year-over-year changes in these offences should be considered with caution.
The Quarantine Act is applicable to persons arriving in or departing from Canada. It provides measures for the screening, health assessment and medical examination of travellers to determine whether they have a communicable disease and to prevent the introduction and spread of such disease. The Quarantine Act requires any persons entering Canada—whether by air, sea or land—to quarantine (self-isolate) themselves for 14 days if they are asymptomatic to limit the introduction and spread of COVID-19. The 14-day period begins on the day the person enters Canada. After the Government of Canada's March 2020 announcement of restrictions on persons arriving in or departing from Canada, pursuant to its powers under the Quarantine Act, the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey was adjusted to add a specific Quarantine Act violation code. Therefore, the percentage change from 2012 to 2022 is not shown.
The marked increase observed in the 2022 counts for "other federal statutes" offences is due in part to an increase in violations under the "Customs Act" as a result of criminal incidents at the Roxham Road unofficial border crossing point from New York State to Quebec.