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Special notes1. Aboriginal Groups
2. Comparability of 1996 Place of Work Data
3. Highest Level of Schooling
4. Historical Comparison of Census Metropolitan Areas, 1991 and 1996
5. Income Reference Period
6. Income Suppression
7. Incompletely Enumerated Indian Reserves and Indian Settlements
8. Non-permanent Residents
9. Number of Weeks Worked
10. Population Counts Based on Usual Residence
11. Product Updates
12. Structural Type of Dwelling
13. Temporary Residents
14. Total Inuit Population
15. Total Métis Population
16. Total North American Indian Population
A grouping of the total population into non-Aboriginal or Aboriginal population, with Aboriginal persons further divided into Aboriginal groups, based on their responses to three questions on the 1996 Census form. Included in the Aboriginal population are those persons who reported identifying with at least one Aboriginal group, i.e. North American Indian, Métis or Inuit (Eskimo) and/or who reported being a Treaty Indian or a Registered Indian as defined by the Indian Act of Canada and/or who reported they were members of an Indian Band or First Nation.
Working at home can be measured in different ways. In the Census, the "worked at home" category includes persons who live and work at the same physical location, such as farmers, teleworkers and work camp workers. In addition, the 1996 Census Guide instructed persons who worked part of the time at home and part of the time at an employer's address to indicate that they worked at home if most of their time was spent working at home (e.g. 3 days out of 5). The 1995 Survey of Work Arrangements asked respondents whether they did some or all of their paid work at home. The difference between the 1996 Census and the 1995 Survey of Work Arrangements work at home data is the result of differences in the way these workers are measured. The place of work question has been asked in virtually the same format in each census since 1971. However, the term "no fixed workplace address" replaced "no usual place of work" in 1996. For 1996, the Census questionnaire was modified by adding a check box for the "no fixed workplace address" response category. In previous censuses, respondents were asked to write "no usual place of work" in the address fields. It is believed that previous censuses have undercounted the number of persons with "no fixed workplace address". Annexations, incorporations and amalgamations of municipalities could create some difficulties when comparing spatial units and structures which change over time.
The overall quality of the education variables from the 1996 Census is acceptable. However, a specific data problem has been identified. There is an inconsistency in the "Highest Grade of Elementary-secondary" variable in the province of Quebec. The proportion of persons with the value of 'No schooling or kindergarten only' has increased from 0.8% (44,440) in 1991 to 1.2% (72,070) in 1996. The problem appears to be the wording of Question 24 on the French 2B Census questionnaire. The "Highest Level of Schooling" and "Total Years of Schooling" variables are also affected as they are derived from a number of education questions including "Highest Grade of Elementary-secondary".
A few of the census metropolitan areas (CMAs) have different geographic boundaries in 1996 than they had in 1991. In order to facilitate comparisons, 1991 data shown in the 1996 data products reflects the 1996 CMA geographic boundaries.
Canadian censuses were conducted in 1991 and 1996. Income data from these censuses relate to the calendar year prior to the census year, i.e. 1990 and 1995 respectively.
Income statistics have been suppressed where the total number of units (all persons, males, females, families or households) in the reference year is less than 250. All suppressed cells and associated averages, medians and standard errors of average income have been replaced with zeroes.
In all cases, suppressed data are included in the appropriate higher aggregate subtotals and totals.
On some Indian reserves and Indian settlements in the 1996 Census, enumeration was not permitted, or was interrupted before it could be completed. Moreover, for some Indian reserves and Indian settlements, the quality of the collected data was considered inadequate. These geographic areas (a total of 77) are called incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements.
Data for 1996 are therefore not available for the incompletely enumerated reserves and settlements and are not included in tabulations. Data for geographic areas containing one or more of these reserves and settlements are therefore noted accordingly. Because of the missing data, users are cautioned that for the affected geographic areas, comparisons (e.g., percentage change) between 1991 and 1996 are not exact. While for higher level geographic areas (Canada, provinces, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations) the impact of the missing data is very small, the impact can be significant for smaller areas, where the affected reserves and settlements account for a higher proportion of the population.
It was possible after the census to obtain population and dwelling counts for the Wendake (Quebec) Indian reserve. These certified counts amount to 1,462 persons and 563 occupied private dwellings. These numbers are not included in the census population and dwelling counts, since they were established after the census using a different methodology.
A list of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements along with Population and Occupied Private Dwelling Counts from the last two censuses (where available) has been compiled.
Another list of incompletely enumerated Indian reserves and Indian settlements is shown together with the province, census division and, where applicable, the census metropolitan area or census agglomeration (CMA/CA) in which each is located.
In 1991 and 1996, the Census of Population enumerated both permanent and non-permanent residents of Canada. Non-permanent residents are persons who held a student or employment authorization, Minister's permit or who were refugee claimants, as well as family members living with them, at the time of the Census.
Prior to 1991, only permanent residents of Canada were included in the census. (The only exception to this occurred in 1941.) Non-permanent residents were considered foreign residents and were not enumerated.
Today in Canada, non-permanent residents make up a significant segment of the population, especially in several census metropolitan areas. Their presence can affect the demand for such government services as health care, schooling, employment programs and language training. The inclusion of non-permanent residents in the census facilitates comparisons with provincial and territorial statistics (marriages, divorces, births and deaths) which include this population. In addition, this inclusion of non-permanent residents brings Canadian practice closer to the UN recommendation that long-term residents (persons living in a country for one year or longer) be enumerated in the census.
According to the 1991 Census, there were 223,410 non-permanent residents in Canada, representing slightly less than 1% of the total population. There were fewer non-permanent residents in Canada at the time of the 1996 Census: 166,715 non-permanent residents or 0.6% of the total population in 1996.
Total population counts, as well as counts for all variables, are affected by this change in the census universe. Users should be especially careful when comparing data from 1991 or 1996 with data from previous censuses in geographic areas where there is a concentration of non-permanent residents. These include the major metropolitan areas in Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia.
Although every attempt has been made to enumerate non-permanent residents, factors such as language difficulties and the reluctance to complete a government form or understand the need to participate may have affected the enumeration of this population and resulted in undercounting.
The data for the 40-48 and 49-52 weeks worked categories must be interpreted
with caution because some respondents tend to exclude their paid leave
of absence due to vacation or for other reasons from their work weeks,
when in fact such leave of absence should be included. As a result, the
49-52 weeks category may be understated.
The population counts shown here for a particular area represent the number of Canadians whose usual place of residence is in that area, regardless of where they happened to be on Census Day. Also included are any Canadians staying in a dwelling in that area on Census Day and having no usual place of residence elsewhere in Canada, as well as those considered "non-permanent residents" (see special note on this group). In most areas, there is little difference between the number of usual residents and the number of people staying in the area on Census Day. For certain places, however, such as tourist or vacation areas, or those including large work camps, the number of people staying in the area at any particular time could significantly exceed the number of usual residents shown here.
Errors have been found in the 1996 and 1991 counts for the areas indicated below. Due to operational constraints, adjustments cannot be made to the Census databases. Consequently, all data products from the census, standard or custom, will reflect the population and dwelling counts published on April 15, 1997.
The original and revised population and dwelling counts are shown below:
Movable dwellings, one category of structural type of dwellings, were suspected to be under-reported in the 1996 Census. This is thought to be due to the misclassification of a number of mobile homes as other structural types. For large geographic areas, this error is not expected to have a significant impact upon other dwelling categories because of the relatively large number of dwellings in that area. However, for small geographic areas, the impact may be more pronounced.
Unlike previous censuses, the Temporary Residents Study was not carried out in 1996. Therefore, the census did not verify, on a sample basis, if temporary residents (persons found on Census Day at a place other than their usual place of residence) were enumerated at their usual place of residence. In the 1991 Census, the number of people included as a result of the Temporary Residents Study was as follows:
The derived Inuit population includes all persons who reported that they have Inuit identity, either in a single response or in a multiple response with another Aboriginal group.
The derived Métis population includes all persons who reported that they have Métis identity, either in a single response or in a multiple response with another Aboriginal group.
The derived North American Indian population includes all persons who reported that they have North American Indian identity, either in a single response or in a multiple response with another Aboriginal group, AND/OR who reported that they are Registered Indians registered under the Indian Act without any Aboriginal identity, AND/OR who reported that they are a member of an Indian Band or First Nation without any Aboriginal identity.