Annual Demographic Estimates: Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2019
Analysis: Population by age and sex

Skip to text

Text begins

For the purposes of this article, various indicators are used to measure population aging. These include the number, proportion and distribution of the population aged 0 to 14 years and 65 years and older, the demographic dependency ratio, and the median age. The median age is age “x”, as it divides a population into two groups of equal size, one with individuals older than “x” and the other with individuals younger than “x”.

This section presents an analysis of the population estimates by age and sex for Canada, the provinces and territories on July 1, 2019, compared with July 1 estimates in previous years.

Canada’s population aging is fuelled by the advancing age of baby boomers

Population aging represents one of the major changes associated with Canada’s age-sex structure, and it continues to shape Canada’s society and economy. It is the result of baby boomers (born between 1946 and 1965) reaching more advanced ages, combined with a fertility rate below the replacement level (2.1 children per woman) since 1972Note  and a long-term increase in life expectancy for both men and women.Note 

The population pyramid opposite (Figure 2.1) shows the aging of Canada’s population in recent decades by comparing the age-sex structure of the Canadian population on July 1 of the years 1999 and 2019. On July 1, 1999, baby boomers were in their 30s, 40s and early 50s, as can be seen in the bulge in the pyramid at these ages. On July 1, 2019, individuals in the baby boom generation were between 53 and 73 years of age, as illustrated by the upward shift in the largest bulge in the pyramid observed 20 years earlier. Therefore, the number of people aged 53 and over was proportionally higher in 2019 (34.3%) than in 1999 (23.7%). In contrast, the number of younger people, particularly people in their 30s and early 40s, as well as individuals aged 0 to 19, has proportionally decreased.

Figure 2.1 Population pyramid estimates as of July 1, 1999 and 2019, Canada

Description for Figure 2.1 

This stacked column graph or population pyramid compares the age structure of the 1999 and the 2019 population at July 1st in relative value.

The left side shows males and the right side shows females.

The horizontal axis shows the population in relative value and the vertical axis shows age.

Figure 2.1
Population pyramid estimates as of July 1, 1999 and 2019, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Population pyramid estimates as of July 1. The information is grouped by Age (appearing as row headers), 1999, 2019, Males and Females, calculated using per thousand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age 1999 2019
Males Females Males Females
per thousand
0 5.7 5.4 5.2 4.9
1 5.9 5.6 5.2 5.0
2 6.1 5.8 5.3 5.0
3 6.5 6.2 5.4 5.1
4 6.6 6.3 5.4 5.2
5 6.7 6.3 5.5 5.2
6 6.8 6.5 5.5 5.3
7 7.0 6.7 5.5 5.3
8 7.1 6.7 5.5 5.3
9 7.1 6.8 5.6 5.4
10 6.9 6.5 5.7 5.4
11 6.7 6.4 5.6 5.5
12 6.8 6.5 5.5 5.3
13 7.0 6.6 5.4 5.2
14 7.0 6.6 5.3 5.1
15 7.0 6.6 5.4 5.2
16 7.0 6.6 5.4 5.2
17 7.0 6.6 5.6 5.3
18 7.1 6.7 5.9 5.6
19 7.1 6.7 6.5 6.1
20 6.9 6.6 6.7 6.1
21 6.8 6.5 6.7 6.2
22 6.8 6.6 6.8 6.2
23 6.8 6.6 7.0 6.4
24 6.8 6.6 7.2 6.5
25 6.6 6.5 7.1 6.5
26 6.7 6.5 7.1 6.6
27 6.9 6.7 7.2 6.8
28 7.2 7.1 7.3 6.9
29 7.3 7.1 7.3 7.0
30 7.2 7.1 7.1 6.8
31 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.7
32 7.4 7.3 6.9 6.8
33 7.9 7.8 7.1 6.9
34 8.6 8.4 7.1 6.9
35 8.9 8.7 7.0 6.9
36 9.0 8.9 6.9 6.9
37 8.9 8.7 6.8 6.9
38 9.0 8.9 6.8 6.9
39 8.9 8.8 6.7 6.8
40 8.6 8.7 6.5 6.6
41 8.6 8.6 6.4 6.5
42 8.4 8.5 6.3 6.5
43 8.1 8.2 6.3 6.5
44 8.1 8.2 6.3 6.4
45 7.8 8.0 6.2 6.3
46 7.5 7.6 6.2 6.3
47 7.3 7.3 6.3 6.4
48 7.2 7.2 6.5 6.6
49 7.0 7.1 6.5 6.6
50 6.9 6.9 6.4 6.5
51 6.9 6.9 6.4 6.4
52 6.9 7.0 6.4 6.5
53 5.9 5.9 6.8 6.8
54 5.5 5.5 7.2 7.2
55 5.4 5.4 7.4 7.4
56 5.2 5.3 7.4 7.5
57 4.8 4.9 7.2 7.3
58 4.6 4.7 7.2 7.3
59 4.3 4.5 7.1 7.2
60 4.2 4.4 6.9 7.1
61 4.1 4.2 6.8 7.0
62 3.9 4.1 6.6 6.8
63 3.9 4.1 6.4 6.6
64 3.8 4.0 6.2 6.5
65 3.7 3.9 5.9 6.2
66 3.7 3.9 5.6 5.9
67 3.7 3.9 5.4 5.7
68 3.6 3.9 5.2 5.5
69 3.5 3.8 5.0 5.4
70 3.2 3.7 4.8 5.2
71 3.1 3.7 4.8 5.2
72 2.9 3.6 4.7 5.1
73 2.8 3.5 3.9 4.3
74 2.6 3.4 3.6 3.9
75 2.5 3.3 3.4 3.8
76 2.3 3.2 3.2 3.6
77 2.2 3.1 2.9 3.3
78 2.0 2.9 2.6 3.1
79 1.8 2.7 2.4 2.8
80 1.4 2.3 2.2 2.7
81 1.3 2.1 2.0 2.5
82 1.1 2.0 1.8 2.3
83 1.0 1.8 1.7 2.2
84 0.9 1.7 1.5 2.0
85 0.8 1.5 1.4 1.9
86 0.7 1.3 1.2 1.8
87 0.5 1.2 1.1 1.6
88 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.5
89 0.3 0.8 0.8 1.3
90 0.3 0.8 0.6 1.1
91 0.2 0.6 0.5 1.0
92 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.8
93 0.1 0.4 0.3 0.7
94 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.6
95 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.5
96 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.4
97 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3
98 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2
99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
100 and over 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2

More than 10,000 centenarians in Canada for the first time

On July 1, 2019, preliminary estimates indicate that there were 10,795 centenarians in Canada. Topping 10,000 for the first time, the number of centenarians in Canada is constantly growing as a result of increased life expectancy.

Since 2001,Note  the number of centenarians has more than tripled. In the latest annual period, the growth rate of centenarians was 8.7%, or about six times the growth rate for the entire population (1.4%). Population growth of centenarians was greater than that of each five-year age group of the population.

In relative numbers, there were 29 centenarians per 100,000 population in Canada. In 2001, the proportion was 11 centenarians per 100,000 population. Because women have a higher life expectancy than men, the vast majority of centenarians were women (82.0%).

Like Canada, most industrialized countries are currently experiencing a rapid increase in the number of centenarians. Although Canada is among the countries with the highest proportion of centenarians, their population share is even greater in other parts of the world. For example, in Japan, which has one of the oldest populations in the world, there were about 56 centenarians per 100,000 population in March 2019.Note  The other G7 countries had a ratio equal to or less than Canada’s, although it is on the rise.

Chart 2.1 Number of centenarians per 100,000 persons, most recent estimate available, G7 countries and other selected countries

Data table for Chart 2.1 
Chart 2.1 Number of centenarians per 100,000 persons, most recent estimate available,Chart 2.1 Note 1 G7 countries and other selected countries
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.1 Number of centenarians per 100. The information is grouped by Country (appearing as row headers), number of centenarians per 100,000 persons (appearing as column headers).
Country number of centenarians per 100,000 persons
Japan 56
Canada 29
United States 29
Spain 25
Italy 24
France 23
United Kingdom 22
Norway 20
Sweden 20
Australia 19
Denmark 19
Germany 17

Canada remains younger than most G7 countries

Population aging is a widespread phenomenon in the whole world, and is currently more important in the industrialized countries. In recent years, the proportion of persons aged 65 and older has increased in every G7 country. Of these countries, Canada has the second-lowest proportion of persons aged 65 and older (17.5%), just behind the United States,Note  with 16%.Note  Conversely, Japan’s population is among the oldest in the world, with the highest proportion of persons aged 65 and older among the G7 countries (28%), or almost 3 out of 10 people.

The proportion of children aged 0 to 14 is higher in Canada (16.0%) than in Japan (12%), Germany and Italy (13% each). A usually higher fertility rate in Canada than in these countries is the main reason why Canada has a higher proportion of children aged 0 to 14 years.Note  However, the proportion of children is lower in Canada than in the United States (19%), France and the United Kingdom (18% each), where the fertility rate is higher than in Canada, though below the replacement level in the last decade.

Moreover, Canada is the G7 country with the largest proportion of working-age people; two-thirds of its population (66.5%) is in the 15-to-64 age group. Japan has the lowest proportion in the G7 (60%). The fact that the baby boom was greater in Canada than in most other G7 countries explains why it has the highest proportion of people in this age group.Note  As all Canadian baby boomers turn 65, the proportion of the working-age population in Canada should move closer to the levels observed among other G7 countries.

Text table 2.1
Age distribution of the population, Canada and other G7 countries, 2019
Table summary
This table displays the results of Age distribution of the population 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years and 65 years and over, calculated using percentage units of measure (appearing as column headers).
0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and over
percentage
Canada 16.0 66.5 17.5
France 18 62 20
Germany 13 66 21
Italy 13 64 23
Japan 12 60 28
United Kingdom 18 64 18
United States 19 65 16

The gap widens between children and seniors

Since 2011, baby boomers have played a significant role in the increase in the number of people aged 65 and older. In fact, people aged 65 and older outnumbered children aged 0 to 14 between July 1, 2015, and July 1, 2016. During the last annual period, the gap between these two age groups continued to widen. On July 1, 2019, a record number of Canadians—6,592,611, or more than 1 in 6 people (17.5%)—was at least 65 years of age.

By comparison, there were 6,014,289 children aged 0 to 14 (16.0%) in Canada. This number is increasing, but since the number of seniors is growing faster than the number of children, the population share of children has decreased in recent years. By comparison, prior to 1987, there were two to three times more children aged 0 to 14 than people aged 65 and older. According to the medium growth (M1) scenario in the most recent population projections,Note  the proportion of people aged 65 and older should reach 20% in 2025 and 25% in 2059, while the proportion of children aged 0 to 14 should remain relatively stable at around 15% to 16% over the same period.

Chart 2.2 Population aged 0 to 14 years and 65 years and over, 1999 to 2039, Canada

Data table for Chart 2.2 
Chart 2.2 Population aged 0 to 14 years and 65 years and over, 1999 to 2039, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.2 Population aged 0 to 14 years and 65 years and over. The information is grouped by Year ending June 30 (appearing as row headers), 0 to 14 years (population estimates), 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario), 65 years and over (population estimates) and 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario), calculated using number units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year ending June 30 0 to 14 years (population estimates) 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario) 65 years and over (population estimates) 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario)
number
1999 5,919,034 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,785,489 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2000 5,883,491 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,851,253 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2001 5,851,142 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,921,849 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2002 5,826,792 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 3,989,384 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2003 5,792,083 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,060,711 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2004 5,751,912 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,136,349 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2005 5,697,557 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,213,993 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2006 5,648,161 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,318,906 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2007 5,621,320 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,421,379 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2008 5,616,339 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,541,116 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2009 5,620,154 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,669,325 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2010 5,622,173 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,804,015 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2011 5,628,821 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 4,955,235 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2012 5,660,294 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,154,937 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2013 5,704,052 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,352,983 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2014 5,752,008 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,542,326 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2015 5,793,833 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,722,237 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2016 5,865,824 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 5,920,968 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2017 5,911,421 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,135,246 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2018 5,966,052 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,355,401 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2019 6,014,289 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,592,611 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2020 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,071,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,834,800
2021 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,118,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,081,700
2022 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,155,600 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,337,300
2023 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,181,400 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,599,500
2024 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,205,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 7,861,600
2025 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,230,700 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,129,500
2026 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,261,300 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,398,400
2027 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,289,600 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,657,400
2028 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,317,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 8,921,500
2029 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,347,400 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,175,300
2030 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,377,800 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,406,700
2031 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,409,000 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,600,000
2032 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,443,000 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,761,600
2033 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,476,100 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 9,911,500
2034 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,513,800 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,057,400
2035 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,552,600 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,200,900
2036 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,592,900 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,337,500
2037 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,635,300 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,451,300
2038 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,679,700 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,551,900
2039 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 6,726,619 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 10,647,109

Chart 2.3 Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years and 65 years and over, 1999 to 2039, Canada

Data table for Chart 2.3 
Chart 2.3 Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years and 65 years and over, 1999 to 2039, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.3 Proportion of the population aged 0 to 14 years. The information is grouped by Year ending June 30 (appearing as row headers), 0 to 14 years (population estimates), 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario), 15 to 64 years (population estimates), 15 to 64 years (population projections based on M1 scenario), 65 years and over (population estimates) and 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario), calculated using percent units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year ending June 30 0 to 14 years (population estimates) 0 to 14 years (population projections based on M1 scenario) 15 to 64 years (population estimates) 15 to 64 years (population projections based on M1 scenario) 65 years and over (population estimates) 65 years and over (population projections based on M1 scenario)
percent
1999 19.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2000 19.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2001 18.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2002 18.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2003 18.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 12.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2004 18.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2005 17.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2006 17.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2007 17.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2008 16.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2009 16.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 13.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2010 16.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2011 16.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 69.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2012 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2013 16.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2014 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 68.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2015 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 67.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2016 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 67.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2017 16.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 67.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2018 16.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 66.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 17.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2019 16.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 66.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 17.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period
2020 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 65.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 18.0
2021 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 16.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 65.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 18.5
2022 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 65.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 19.0
2023 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 64.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 19.4
2024 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 64.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 19.9
2025 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 64.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 20.4
2026 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 63.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 20.8
2027 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 63.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 21.3
2028 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.4 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 62.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 21.7
2029 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 62.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 22.1
2030 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 62.3 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 22.5
2031 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.2 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 62.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 22.7
2032 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 62.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 22.9
2033 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.1 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.0
2034 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.8 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.2
2035 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 15.0 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.7 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.3
2036 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.4
2037 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.5
2038 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.6 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.5
2039 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 14.9 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 61.5 Note ..: not available for a specific reference period 23.6

Moreover, during the last annual period, the growth rate of the 65-and-over group was 3.7%, more than double the growth rate of the population as a whole (1.4%). Children aged 0 to 14 had a growth rate of 0.8% in the last annual period. Since the beginning of the period covered by the current demographic accounting system (1971), the population growth rate for children has always remained lower than that of seniors, thereby contributing to population aging.

Children still outnumber seniors in the Prairies and the territories

Population aging affects all regions of the country; however, this process is playing out at an unequal pace, and certain provinces are aging faster than others. Consequently, the proportion of people aged 65 and older and that of children aged 0 to 14 varies significantly from east to west and from north to south.

In Canada’s eastern and central provinces and in British Columbia, the proportion of people 65 years and older was higher than the proportion of children 0 to 14 years on July 1, 2019. However, the Prairie provinces and the territories had a higher proportion of children aged 0 to 14 than people 65 years and older. In 2009, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick were the top two provinces where the proportion of people aged 65 and older exceeded that of children aged 0 to 14.

On July 1, 2019, Newfoundland and Labrador had the highest proportion of people aged 65 and older (21.5%). This is the first time that this province has topped this list; over the past decade, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick have successively held the top spot. Conversely, Alberta (13.3%) had the lowest proportion of people aged 65 years and older among the provinces. As for the proportion of children aged 0 to 14, the highest was observed in Saskatchewan (19.6%) and the lowest in Newfoundland and Labrador (13.7%). These gaps are due to differences in the fertility rate between these two provinces.

The age structure of the population of the territories differs from that of the provinces. Higher fertilityNote  and mortalityNote  explain why the population share of children is especially larger than that of seniors. Nunavut stood out in particular, with children aged 0 to 14 making up 31.8% of the population and a low proportion of people aged 65 and older (4.0%).

For the first time, baby-boomers make up the majority of seniors

The demographic composition of the 65-and-older age group is changing rapidly. Before 2011, there were no members of the baby boom generation in this group. Since 2011, as the first baby boomers started turning 65, growth of this group has clearly accelerated. Consequently, as of July 1, 2019, baby boomers now make up the majority (51.1%) of seniors for the first time.

Inevitably, the baby boom cohorts are aging. Moreover, more than one third of baby boomers (35.7%) were 65 and older in 2019, compared with 31.0% in 2018. In 2031, the last of the baby boomers will have turned 65.

Canada has one child or senior for every two working-age people

The demographic dependency ratio represents the number of children (0 to 14 years) and seniors (65 years and older) per 100 working-age people (15 to 64 years). On July 1, 2019, the ratio was 50.5. This indicator has been rising steadily since reaching a record low in 2007 (44.0). This is the first time since 1977 that the demographic dependency ratio has passed the symbolic cap of 50, meaning that the ratio between the number of adults and the combined number of children and seniors is now less than 2 to 1. It will continue to rise until 2031 and even beyond. According to the medium growth (M1) scenario in the most recent population projections, the demographic dependency ratio should be 61.0 in 2031.

Chart 2.4 Demographic dependency ratio, 1971 to 2019, Canada

Data table for Chart 2.4 
Chart 2.4 Demographic dependency ratio, 1971 to 2019, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.4 Demographic dependency ratio. The information is grouped by Year ending June 30 (appearing as row headers), Persons aged 0 to 14 years and Persons aged 65 years and older, calculated using per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Year ending June 30 Persons aged 0 to 14 years Persons aged 65 years and older
per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years
1971 46.7 12.8
1972 45.0 12.8
1973 43.3 12.9
1974 41.6 12.9
1975 40.1 12.9
1976 38.5 13.1
1977 37.2 13.2
1978 35.8 13.4
1979 34.6 13.7
1980 33.5 13.9
1981 32.7 14.1
1982 32.2 14.2
1983 31.8 14.4
1984 31.5 14.6
1985 31.1 15.0
1986 30.7 15.3
1987 30.6 15.7
1988 30.5 16.0
1989 30.4 16.3
1990 30.4 16.6
1991 30.5 16.9
1992 30.6 17.1
1993 30.6 17.4
1994 30.4 17.5
1995 30.1 17.7
1996 29.9 17.9
1997 29.5 18.0
1998 29.1 18.2
1999 28.6 18.3
2000 28.1 18.4
2001 27.5 18.5
2002 27.0 18.5
2003 26.6 18.6
2004 26.1 18.8
2005 25.5 18.9
2006 25.0 19.1
2007 24.6 19.4
2008 24.3 19.7
2009 24.1 20.0
2010 23.8 20.4
2011 23.7 20.9
2012 23.7 21.6
2013 23.7 22.3
2014 23.8 23.0
2015 24.0 23.7
2016 24.1 24.3
2017 24.1 25.0
2018 24.1 25.7
2019 24.1 26.4

Given their numbers, baby boomers have always had a tangible impact on the demographic dependency ratio. In 1971, the beginning of the period covered by the current demographic accounting system, a good number of baby boomers were still children. At that time, the demographic dependency ratio was 59.5. However, as the baby boomers reached adulthood, that ratio gradually dropped and remained low from 1980 to 2011, while all members of this generation were of working age. The recent increase in the demographic dependency ratio is explained by the baby boomers turning 65.

In the 1970s, the demographic dependency ratio was mainly influenced by the high number of children. As the population aged, the contribution of seniors gradually increased over time. Thus, in 1971, children (aged 0 to 14) represented 78.5% of the non-working-age population, compared with 47.7% in 2019.

The number of people aged 55 to 64 exceeds those aged 15 to 24 years

Generally speaking, individuals aged 15 to 24 years have recently, or are about to enter the labour market for the first time. In contrast, people aged 55 to 64 are often on the cusp of, or in retirement. On July 1, 2019, there was less than one labour market potential entrant (0.9) for each person potentially leaving. By comparison, in 1984, Canada had two people aged 15 to 24 per person aged 55 to 64. Subsequent years were marked by a steady decrease in this ratio, such that starting in 2013, the number of people potentially leaving outnumbered the number of those potentially entering the labour market.

The demographic dependency ratio of the provinces and territories sometimes influenced by younger populations, sometimes by older populations

The demographic dependency ratio and its composition vary considerably from one province and territory to another. In 2019, the Atlantic provinces and Quebec had a higher dependency ratio than Canada (50.5) as a result of an increasing number of people aged 65 and older. Moreover, the demographic dependency ratio was also higher than that of the country in Manitoba (52.8) and in Saskatchewan (54.6). This situation was mainly due to the high proportion of children aged 0 to 14. Lastly, Nunavut (55.8) had the highest demographic dependency ratio among all provinces and territories, almost exclusively because of its high proportion of children aged 0 to 14.

Chart 2.5 Demogoraphic dependency ratio, 2019, Canada, provinces and territories

Data table for Chart 2.5 
Chart 2.5 Demographic dependency ratio, 2019, Canada, provinces and territories
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.5 Demographic dependency ratio. The information is grouped by Provinces and territories (appearing as row headers), 0 to 14 years and 65 years and older, calculated using per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Provinces and territories 0 to 14 years 65 years and older
per 100 persons aged 15 to 64 years
Canada 24.1 26.4
N.L. 21.0 33.1
P.E.I. 24.2 30.5
N.S. 21.6 31.9
N.B. 22.4 33.1
Que. 24.3 29.7
Ont. 23.3 25.7
Man. 28.9 23.9
Sask. 30.3 24.3
Alta. 27.6 19.5
B.C. 20.9 27.8
Y.T. 24.0 18.0
N.W.T. 28.2 11.6
Nvt. 49.6 6.2
Text table 2.2
Population estimatesText table Note 1, age distribution, median age and mean age as of July 1, 2019, Canada, provinces and territories
Table summary
This table displays the results of Population estimates Population, 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years, 65 years and over, Median age and Mean age, calculated using number, % and years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Population 0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and over Median age Mean age
number % years
Canada 37,589,262 16.0 66.5 17.5 40.8 41.2
Newfoundland and Labrador 521,542 13.7 64.9 21.5 47.1 44.5
Prince Edward Island 156,947 15.6 64.6 19.7 43.2 42.4
Nova Scotia 971,395 14.1 65.2 20.8 44.9 43.6
New Brunswick 776,827 14.4 64.3 21.3 46.0 44.1
Quebec 8,484,965 15.8 65.0 19.3 42.6 42.4
Ontario 14,566,547 15.7 67.1 17.2 40.4 41.1
Manitoba 1,369,465 18.9 65.4 15.6 37.4 38.9
Saskatchewan 1,174,462 19.6 64.7 15.7 37.4 39.0
Alberta 4,371,316 18.8 68.0 13.3 37.1 38.3
British Columbia 5,071,336 14.1 67.2 18.7 42.2 42.4
Yukon 40,854 16.9 70.4 12.7 39.2 39.4
Northwest Territories 44,826 20.2 71.6 8.3 35.2 35.9
Nunavut 38,780 31.8 64.2 4.0 26.2 28.5

Population aging among women higher because of low female mortality

The main population aging indicators are all higher for females. On July 1, 2019, the proportion of women 65 and older (18.8%) was higher than the corresponding proportion of men (16.2%). The median age was also higher for women (41.8 years) than for men (39.7 years). Furthermore, the centenarian group was comprised mostly of women (82.0%). These differences are mainly due to the fact that women, at all ages, have lower mortality levels than men. These mortality levels create a persistent yet narrowing gap in life expectancy in favour of females. The most recent data (2015 to 2017) show that the life expectancy at birth of females was 84.0 years, compared with 79.9 years for males, with females living an average of 4.1 years longer than males. Twenty years earlier, this same gap was 5.7 years.Note 

One in two Canadians is at least 40 years of age

In 2019, 1 in 2 Canadians was at least 40.8 years. The median ageNote  has increased by 4.4 years since 1999, when it was 36.4 years.

Median age varies considerably from province to province. On July 1, 2019, there was a difference of 10.0 years between the province with the highest median age (47.1 years in Newfoundland and Labrador) and the province with the lowest median age (37.1 years in Alberta). Taking the territories into consideration, Nunavut had the lowest median age at 26.2 years.

In 1999, the differences between the provinces were much smaller, with a gap of 3.4 years. The highest median age was in Quebec (37.6 years) and the lowest in Alberta (34.2 years).

The situation in Newfoundland and Labrador indicates an especially rapid aging of its population. In just a little over 10 years, the median age in the province went from the lowest (31.8 in 1993) to the highest (40.7 years in 2005) in the country. During this period, Newfoundland and Labrador experienced negative population growth. The main contributing factor is the departure of many young adults to other provinces and territories. Consequently, the province registered fewer births.

Conversely, the Prairie provinces now top the list of the youngest provinces. This is mainly due to a higher proportion of Aboriginal people (Manitoba, Saskatchewan),Note  a younger population with higher fertility rates, and to higher migration of young adults and families from other provinces and countries (Alberta).

Chart 2.6 Median age ranking on July 1, 1979 to 2019 (quinquennial years), Canadian provinces

Data table for Chart 2.6 
Chart 2.6
Median age ranking on July 1, 1979 to 2019 (quinquennial years), Canadian provinces

Table summary
This table displays the results of Median age ranking on July 1 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, 2014 and 2019 (appearing as column headers).
1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 2009 2014 2019
N.L.
Median Age 24.2 26.7 29.6 32.5 36.7 40.0 42.6 44.7 47.1
Rank 1 1 1 2 6 9 10 10 10
P.E.I.
Median Age 27.8 29.8 31.9 33.9 36.5 39.2 41.7 43.6 43.2
Rank 4 5 4 5 5 5 7 7 7
N.S.
Median Age 28.3 30.2 32.4 34.7 37.3 40.1 42.4 44.4 44.9
Rank 6 6 7 8 9 10 9 8 8
N.B.
Median Age 27.0 29.4 32.0 34.3 37.1 39.9 42.4 44.6 46.0
Rank 3 4 5 7 8 8 9 9 9
Que.
Median Age 28.8 30.9 33.2 35.3 37.6 39.7 41.1 42.0 42.6
Rank 7 8 9 10 10 7 6 6 6
Ont.
Median Age 29.6 31.3 32.6 34.3 36.2 37.8 39.3 40.5 40.4
Rank 9 9 8 7 4 4 4 4 4
Man.
Median Age 29.1 30.5 32.1 33.9 35.7 37.2 37.8 37.7 37.4
Rank 8 7 6 5 3 2 3 3 3
Sask.
Median Age 28.1 29.3 31.4 33.6 35.4 37.3 37.8 37.2 37.4
Rank 5 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3
Alta.
Median Age 26.5 28.1 30.3 32.4 34.2 35.3 35.7 36.0 37.1
Rank 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1
B.C.
Median Age 30.1 31.8 33.8 35.1 37.0 39.4 40.6 41.9 42.2
Rank 10 10 10 9 7 6 5 5 5

Women outnumber men slightly

On July 1, 2019, the sex ratio for the Canadian population as a whole was estimated at 98.8 males per 100 females. This ratio has changed very little over the last 20 years, with 98.0 males per 100 females observed in 1999. Males outnumber females in ages 0 to 36 years, mainly because of the sex ratio at birth, which averages 105 males per 100 females. When people reach their early 60s, the number of men starts to fall significantly below the number of women because of excess mortality among males. This gap widens at more advanced ages: in the 65-to-79 age group, there were an estimated 91.8 males per 100 females on July 1, 2019. However, the gap between the sexes seems to be narrowing. Twenty years ago, the sex ratio for people aged 65 to 79 was 82.8. In the population aged 80 and older, a sex ratio of 67.1 men per 100 females was estimated on July 1, 2019, compared with a sex ratio of 51.1 on July 1, 1999. Centenarians were predominantly female with a ratio of 21.9 males per 100 females.

Chart 2.7 Sex ratio by age group, 1999 and 2019, Canada

Data table for Chart 2.7 
Chart 2.7 Sex ratio by age group, 1999 and 2019, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.7 Sex ratio by age group. The information is grouped by Age group (appearing as row headers), 1999 and 2019, calculated using number of males for 100 females units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age group 1999 2019
number of males for 100 females
Total 98.0 98.8
0 to 14 years 105.1 104.5
15 to 39 years 103.0 104.5
40 to 64 years 98.7 98.3
65 to 79 years 82.8 91.8
80 years and older 51.1 67.1

The sex ratio differs from one province and territory to another

There are some regional differences in the sex structure in Canada. On July 1, 2019, the province with the lowest sex ratio in the country was Nova Scotia, with 95.9 males per 100 females, and the highest sex ratio was in Saskatchewan (101.5 males per 100 females). The sex ratios in the Atlantic provinces were below the national average (98.8 males per 100 females), while in the Prairie provinces, they were all higher. Among other factors, this situation can be attributed to differences in the aging of Canada’s regions: a younger population is usually a slightly more masculine population, and an older population is usually a more feminine population.

In 2019, males outnumbered females in all the territories because they are home to younger populations than elsewhere in Canada. The main differences between the sex structure in the territories and in Canada as a whole are at higher ages. At age 65 and older, Yukon and the Northwest Territories had 108.8 and 109.6 males per 100 females, respectively, compared with 85.0 males per 100 females nationally. In Nunavut, it was even higher, with 114.7 males per 100 females.

Chart 2.8 Sex ratio by age group, 2019, Canada, provinces and territories

Data table for Chart 2.8 
Chart 2.8 Sex ratio by age group, 2019, Canada, provinces and territories
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.8 Sex ratio by age group. The information is grouped by Provinces and territories (appearing as row headers), Total, 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years, 65 years and older, Total (Canada), 0 to 14 years (Canada), 15 to 64 years (Canada) and 65 years and older (Canada), calculated using number of males for 100 females units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Provinces and territories Total 0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and older Total (Canada) 0 to 14 years (Canada) 15 to 64 years (Canada) 65 years and older (Canada)
number of males for 100 females
N.L. 97.9 106.3 98.8 90.4 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
P.E.I. 96.8 104.7 98.9 84.6 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
N.S. 95.9 105.5 97.8 84.5 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
N.B. 97.8 104.2 100.7 86.0 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Que. 99.8 104.3 103.3 85.8 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Ont. 97.6 104.4 100.3 82.7 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Man. 99.8 103.7 102.8 84.5 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Sask. 101.5 103.4 105.2 85.8 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Alta. 101.3 104.5 103.4 87.0 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
B.C. 98.1 105.4 99.5 87.9 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Y.T. 103.6 108.2 101.6 108.8 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
N.W.T. 105.7 102.3 106.2 109.6 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Nvt. 105.6 106.8 104.5 114.7 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0

Mobile individuals are much younger than the entire population

The population pyramid opposite highlights the differences in the age-sex structure of interprovincial migrants, new immigrants, non-permanent residents and the total population.Note  On July 1, 2019, the proportion of the working-age population (aged 15 to 64) was considerably higher among immigrants (77.7%), interprovincial migrants (77.0%) and non-permanent residents (95.1%). These subgroups also had a high concentration of young adults. A majority of non-permanent residents (60.9%) were between 18 and 29 years of age. Immigrants were slightly older and less concentrated in some age groups, since 62.7% were in the 20-to-44 group. Lastly, 54.5% of interprovincial migrants were aged 20 to 44. Similarly, the median age of interprovincial migrants (31.0 years), non-permanent residents (25.6 years) and immigrants (30.7 years) was lower compared to the entire population (40.8 years) on July 1, 2019.

Figure 2.2 Population pyramid of total population, interprovincial migrants, immigrants and non-permanent residents, 2019, Canada

Description for Figure 2.2 

This stacked column graph or population pyramid compares the age structure of total population and of non-permanent residents as of July 1st, 2019, as well as of interprovincial migrants and immigrants who migrated between July 1st, 2018 and June 30th, 2019, in relative value.

The left side shows males and the right side shows females.

The horizontal axis shows the population in relative value and the vertical axis shows age.

Figure 2.2
Population pyramid of total population, interprovincial migrants, immigrants and non-permanent residents, 2019, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Population pyramid of total population. The information is grouped by Age (appearing as row headers), Interprovincial migrants, Non-permanent residents, Immigrants, Total population, Males and Females, calculated using per thousand units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Age Interprovincial migrants Non-permanent residents Immigrants Total population
Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females
per thousand
0 3.8 3.4 0.1 0.1 1.4 1.3 5.2 4.9
1 7.9 6.7 0.4 0.4 5.8 5.6 5.2 5.0
2 7.6 6.7 0.9 0.8 6.5 6.6 5.3 5.0
3 7.3 6.6 1.0 0.9 7.1 6.9 5.4 5.1
4 6.9 6.4 1.2 1.1 7.6 7.0 5.4 5.2
5 6.4 6.1 1.4 1.3 7.3 7.0 5.5 5.2
6 6.0 5.8 1.7 1.6 7.1 6.7 5.5 5.3
7 5.5 5.4 1.9 1.8 7.1 6.8 5.5 5.3
8 5.1 5.0 2.0 1.9 6.6 6.1 5.5 5.3
9 4.7 4.6 1.9 1.9 6.6 6.0 5.6 5.4
10 4.3 4.3 2.0 1.8 6.1 5.6 5.7 5.4
11 4.0 4.0 2.0 1.9 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.5
12 3.8 3.7 2.0 1.8 5.5 5.1 5.5 5.3
13 3.7 3.6 2.0 1.8 5.0 4.9 5.4 5.2
14 3.7 3.7 2.5 2.2 4.9 4.5 5.3 5.1
15 3.8 3.9 3.3 3.1 4.5 4.4 5.4 5.2
16 4.1 4.2 5.6 5.4 4.6 4.1 5.4 5.2
17 4.4 4.6 7.8 7.9 4.4 4.2 5.6 5.3
18 5.0 5.2 16.0 15.3 4.3 3.8 5.9 5.6
19 5.8 6.1 29.1 25.4 4.4 4.4 6.5 6.1
20 7.0 7.3 34.3 28.2 4.1 4.5 6.7 6.1
21 8.2 8.5 35.2 27.6 4.1 5.1 6.7 6.2
22 9.4 9.6 34.1 25.7 5.5 6.4 6.8 6.2
23 10.7 10.9 34.5 26.2 6.7 8.2 7.0 6.4
24 12.4 12.4 34.1 25.9 7.6 10.0 7.2 6.5
25 14.2 14.1 30.9 23.8 10.2 14.1 7.1 6.5
26 16.0 15.9 27.9 21.6 14.7 19.0 7.1 6.6
27 17.8 17.5 24.0 18.9 18.1 22.0 7.2 6.8
28 18.6 18.2 21.0 16.2 20.3 23.7 7.3 6.9
29 18.0 17.4 18.6 14.2 21.6 24.5 7.3 7.0
30 16.4 15.7 16.5 12.4 21.2 22.7 7.1 6.8
31 14.8 14.1 14.4 11.1 20.3 21.3 6.9 6.7
32 13.1 12.2 13.2 9.8 18.9 19.3 6.9 6.8
33 11.7 10.7 12.1 8.5 18.1 17.7 7.1 6.9
34 10.8 9.9 11.1 7.8 16.7 16.0 7.1 6.9
35 10.3 9.5 10.5 7.2 15.6 14.4 7.0 6.9
36 9.6 8.9 10.2 6.8 14.4 13.1 6.9 6.9
37 8.8 8.3 9.1 6.2 12.4 11.4 6.8 6.9
38 8.3 7.7 8.1 5.6 10.8 9.7 6.8 6.9
39 7.8 7.3 7.7 5.1 9.7 8.7 6.7 6.8
40 7.4 6.8 7.1 4.5 8.6 7.7 6.5 6.6
41 7.1 6.5 6.5 4.1 7.4 6.6 6.4 6.5
42 6.9 6.2 6.2 3.8 6.7 5.9 6.3 6.5
43 6.6 5.8 5.7 3.5 5.9 5.4 6.3 6.5
44 6.3 5.4 5.4 3.2 5.3 4.9 6.3 6.4
45 5.9 5.0 4.9 2.9 5.0 4.6 6.2 6.3
46 5.6 4.7 4.5 2.6 4.4 4.1 6.2 6.3
47 5.3 4.4 4.1 2.3 4.0 3.9 6.3 6.4
48 5.0 4.1 3.8 2.0 3.6 3.5 6.5 6.6
49 4.9 4.2 3.5 1.7 3.5 2.9 6.5 6.6
50 4.8 4.4 3.0 1.4 3.0 2.8 6.4 6.5
51 4.8 4.5 2.7 1.2 2.4 2.3 6.4 6.4
52 4.7 4.7 2.3 1.0 2.3 2.2 6.4 6.5
53 4.6 4.8 2.2 0.9 2.1 2.3 6.8 6.8
54 4.6 4.8 2.0 0.8 1.9 2.2 7.2 7.2
55 4.5 4.7 1.8 0.7 2.0 2.1 7.4 7.4
56 4.5 4.6 1.6 0.7 1.9 2.5 7.4 7.5
57 4.4 4.5 1.4 0.6 1.5 2.3 7.2 7.3
58 4.4 4.4 1.3 0.5 1.6 2.2 7.2 7.3
59 4.2 4.2 1.1 0.5 1.7 2.6 7.1 7.2
60 4.0 4.1 1.0 0.4 1.7 2.4 6.9 7.1
61 3.8 3.9 0.8 0.3 1.9 2.7 6.8 7.0
62 3.6 3.7 0.7 0.3 2.0 2.7 6.6 6.8
63 3.4 3.6 0.7 0.3 2.1 2.6 6.4 6.6
64 3.3 3.5 0.6 0.3 2.2 2.7 6.2 6.5
65 3.2 3.6 0.5 0.2 2.0 2.7 5.9 6.2
66 3.2 3.6 0.4 0.2 1.9 2.4 5.6 5.9
67 3.1 3.6 0.3 0.2 1.8 2.3 5.4 5.7
68 3.0 3.6 0.3 0.2 1.7 2.1 5.2 5.5
69 2.7 3.2 0.2 0.1 1.7 2.2 5.0 5.4
70 2.4 2.8 0.2 0.1 1.4 2.0 4.8 5.2
71 2.1 2.3 0.2 0.1 1.5 1.7 4.8 5.2
72 1.7 1.9 0.2 0.1 1.4 1.6 4.7 5.1
73 1.5 1.5 0.1 0.1 1.2 1.4 3.9 4.3
74 1.3 1.3 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.2 3.6 3.9
75 1.2 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.9 1.0 3.4 3.8
76 1.1 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.9 3.2 3.6
77 1.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.7 2.9 3.3
78 0.9 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.8 2.6 3.1
79 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.6 2.4 2.8
80 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 2.2 2.7
81 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.5 2.0 2.5
82 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 1.8 2.3
83 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.3 1.7 2.2
84 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 1.5 2.0
85 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.4 1.9
86 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.2 1.8
87 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.1 1.6
88 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.0 1.5
89 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.8 1.3
90 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.1
91 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.5 1.0
92 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.8
93 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.7
94 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.6
95 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.5
96 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.4
97 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3
98 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2
99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
100 and over 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2

Immigrants stood out for having a population share of children aged 0 to 14 (17.6%) slightly higher than the total Canadian population (16.0%). By comparison, in 2019, 4.4% of non-permanent residents were in the 0-to-14 age group. The distinct age structure of non-permanent residents is mostly due to the fact that these people come to Canada mainly for the purpose of work or study, which mostly involves young adults and applies less to children.

Females slightly outnumber males among immigrants, contrary to non-permanent residents

The sex structure also differs between each of the three subgroups. Males were slightly underrepresented among immigrants (96.0 males per 100 females) but were overrepresented among non-permanent residents (132.7 males per 100 females), and to a lesser degree, among interprovincial migrants (102.4 males per 100 females). By comparison, the sex ratio for the entire Canadian population is almost equal, with 98.8 males per 100 females.

Chart 2.9 Sex ratio by age of the population, interprovincial migrants, immigrants and non-permanent residents, 2019, Canada

Data table for Chart 2.9 
Chart 2.9 Sex ratio by age group of the population, interprovincial migrants, immigrants and non-permanent residents, 2019, Canada
Table summary
This table displays the results of Chart 2.9 Sex ratio by age group of the population Total, 0 to 14 years, 15 to 64 years and 65 years and older, calculated using number of males for 100 females units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Total 0 to 14 years 15 to 64 years 65 years and older
number of males for 100 females
Population 98.8 104.5 101.4 85.0
Interprovincial migrants 102.4 105.8 103.7 83.8
Immigrants 96.0 105.4 94.8 82.3
Non-permanent residents 132.7 108.0 133.9 152.3
 
Report a problem on this page

Is something not working? Is there information outdated? Can't find what you're looking for?

Please contact us and let us know how we can help you.

Privacy notice

Date modified: