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Data sources, definitions and methodology

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Description

This survey collects the financial and operating data needed to produce statistics on the Performing arts industry in Canada.

These data are aggregated with information from other sources to produce official estimates of the national and provincial economic production of the Performing arts industry in Canada. Data on this and other industries together contribute to the accurate measurement of national and provincial economies.

Target population

The target population consists of all establishments classified to the Performing arts industry, (NAICS 711111, 711112, 711120, 711130, and 711190) according to the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) during the reference year. This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in the live performing arts industry.

Sampling

This is a sample survey with a cross-sectional design.

The frame is the list of establishments from which the portion eligible for sampling is determined and the sample is taken. The frame provides basic information about each firm including address, industry classification, and information from administrative data sources. The frame is maintained by Statistics Canada's Business Register and is updated using administrative data.

The basic objective of the survey is to produce estimates for the whole industry - incorporated and unincorporated businesses. The data come from two different sources: a sample of all businesses with revenue above or equal to a certain threshold (note: the threshold varies between surveys and sometimes between industries and provinces in the same survey) for which either survey or administrative data may be used; and administrative data only for businesses with revenue below the specified threshold. It should be noted that only financial information is available from businesses below the threshold; e.g., revenue, and expenses such as depreciation and salaries, wages and benefits. Detailed characteristics are collected only for surveyed establishments.

Prior to the selection of a random sample, establishments are classified into homogeneous groups (i.e., groups with the same NAICS codes and same geography). Quality requirements are targeted, and then each group is divided into sub-groups called strata: take-all, must-take, and take-some.

The take-all stratum represents the largest firms in terms of performance (based on revenue) in an industry. The must-take stratum is comprised of units selected based on complex structural characteristics (multi-establishment, multi-legal, multi-NAICS, or multi-province enterprises). All take-all and must-take firms are selected to the sample. Units in the take-some strata are subject to simple random sampling.

The effective sample size for reference year 2007 was 816 collection entities.

Definitions

Operating revenue excludes investment income, capital gains, extraordinary gains and other non-recurring items.

Operating expenses exclude write-offs, capital losses, extraordinary losses, interest on borrowing, and other non-recurring items.

Operating profit margin is derived as follows: operating revenue minus operating expenses, expressed as a percentage of operating revenue. The derived figure excludes corporation income tax paid by incorporated businesses and individual income tax paid by unincorporated businesses. For unincorporated businesses, operating profit margin includes unpaid remuneration to partners and proprietors, which is not recorded as salaries, wages and benefits. Therefore the profit estimate will be higher in industries where unincorporated proprietorships and partnerships are significant contributors.

Salaries, wages and benefits include vacation pay and commissions for all employees for whom a T4 slip was completed. This category also includes the employer portion of employee benefits for items such as Canada/Quebec Pension Plan or Employment Insurance premiums. Salaries and wages do not include working owners' dividends nor do they include the remuneration of owners of unincorporated business. Therefore the relative level of salaries, wages and benefits will be lower in industries where unincorporated businesses are significant contributors.

An active statistical establishment is one production entity or the smallest grouping of production entities which produces as homogeneous a set of goods and/or services as possible; which does not cross provincial boundaries; and for which records provide data on the value of output together with the cost of principal intermediate inputs used and cost and quantity of labour resources used to produce the output.

Data quality

While considerable effort is made to ensure high standards throughout all stages of collection and processing, the resulting estimates are inevitably subject to a certain degree of error. These errors can be broken down into two major types: non-sampling and sampling.

Non-sampling error is not related to sampling and may occur for many reasons. For example, non-response is an important source of non-sampling error. Population coverage, differences in the interpretation of questions, incorrect information from respondents, and mistakes in recording, coding and processing data are other examples of non-sampling errors.

Sampling error occurs because population estimates are derived from a sample of the population rather than the entire population. Sampling error depends on factors such as sample size, sampling design, and the method of estimation. An important property of probability sampling is that sampling error can be computed from the sample itself by using a statistical measure called the coefficient of variation (CV). The assumption is that over repeated surveys, the relative difference between a sample estimate and the estimate that would have been obtained from an enumeration of all units in the universe would be less than twice the CV, 95 times out of 100. The range of acceptable data values yielded by a sample is called a confidence interval. Confidence intervals can be constructed around the estimate using the CV. First, we calculate the standard error by multiplying the sample estimate by the CV. The sample estimate plus or minus twice the standard error is then referred to as a 95% confidence interval.

For this survey, the CVs are excellent (less than 5%) for operating revenue and operating expenses and wages, salaries and benefits of employees variables.

Quality evaluation

Prior to dissemination, combined survey results are analyzed for overall quality; in general, this includes a detailed review of individual responses (especially for the largest companies), an assessment of the general economic conditions portrayed by the data, historic trends, and comparisons with other data sources.

Disclosure control

Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any data which would divulge information obtained under the Statistics Act that relates to any identifiable person, business or organization without the prior knowledge or the consent in writing of that person, business or organization. Various confidentiality rules are applied to all data that are released or published to prevent the publication or disclosure of any information deemed confidential. If necessary, data are suppressed to prevent direct or residual disclosure of identifiable data.

Data accuracy

Of the units contributing to the estimate, the weighted response rate was 93.2%. CVs were calculated for each estimate and are available upon request.