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All data presented in this section are from the 2006 Census. See Map 7 to locate areas mentioned in the text.
The concept of social cohesion is used regularly in studies on how society works. While definitions may vary, strong social cohesion stems from a situation where the members of a group participate in and contribute to social well-being, and where conflicts are rare. The concept of social cohesion is complex and can include many components, such as common values, group solidarity, high social capital, a sense of belonging and a territorial identity (Kearns and Forrest 2000).
The 'visible minorities' variable was strongly associated with other variables, particularly the 'recent immigrants' variable and the socio-economic characteristics of neighbourhood residents. Since these strong associations posed a multicollinearity problem, the variable was removed from the regression models. The examination of data suggests that the visible minorities variable did not show strong statistical associations with crime rates.
The Moran I score for shoplifting is not significantly different from 0. This result indicates that a census tract's (CT) shoplifting rate is not similar to those of adjacent CTs in the neighbourhood. Unlike shoplifting, sexual assault, harassment, breaking and entering and drug incidents are concentrated in adjacent CTs. On the other hand, the spatial structures of those incidents are explained by neighbourhood characteristics, which means that spatial regressions are not necessary for those types of crimes.
Residents aged 15 and older who earn an income (after-tax income).
Residents aged 15 and older who are not full-time students.
Building age was determined based on the age categories used in the census. For example, buildings constructed between 1961 and 1971 were given the age of 40 (2006 – 1966).