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Alasia, Alessandro, Ray Bollman, John Parkins and Bill Reimer. 2008. "An index of community vulnerability: Conceptual framework and application to population and employment changes, 1981 to 2001." Agriculture and Rural Working Paper Series. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 21-601, no. 088. Ottawa.

Assunção, Renato, Cláudio Beato and Bráulio Silva. 2002. "Describing crime spatial patterns by time of day." CrimeStat II: A Spatial Statistics Program for the Analysis of Crime Incident Locations. Ned Levine (ed.). Washington, D.C. United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice. p. 222.

Blau, Peter M. 1977. Inequality and Heterogeneity: A Primitive Theory of Social Structure. New York. Free Press.

Brantingham, Patricia L. and Paul J. Brantingham. 1982. "Mobility, notoriety and crime: A study of crime patterns in urban nodal points." Journal of Environmental Systems. Vol. 11. p. 89 to 99.

Brzozowski, Jodi-Anne, Andrea Taylor-Butts and Sara Johnson. 2006. "Victimization and offending among the Aboriginal population in Canada." Juristat. Vol. 26, no. 3. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-XIE. Ottawa.

Chapin, F. Stuart and Richard K. Brail. 1969. "Human activity systems in the metropolitan United States." Environment and Behaviour. Vol. 1, no. 2. p. 107 to 130.

Cohen, Lawrence E. and Marcus Felson. 1979. "Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach." American Sociological Review. Vol. 44. p. 588 to 608.

Debarbieux, Bernard. 2003. "Territoire." Dictionnaire de la géographie et de l'espace des sociétés. Jacques Lévy and Michel Lussault (eds.). Paris. Belin.

Dupéré, Véronique, Eric Lacourse, J. Douglas Willms, Frank Vitaro and Richard E. Tremblay. 2007. "Affiliation to youth gangs during adolescence: The interaction between childhood psychopathic tendencies and neighborhood disadvantage." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Vol. 35, no. 6.

Felson, Marcus and Ronald V. Clarke. 1998. "Opportunity makes the thief: Practical theory for crime prevention." Police Research Series. No. 98. London, U.K. Home Office. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.

Felson, Marcus and Erika Poulsen. 2003. "Simple indicators of crime by time of day." International Journal of Forecasting. Vol. 19, no. 4. p. 595 to 601.

Francisco, Joycelyn and Christian Chénier. 2007. "A comparison of large urban, small urban and rural crime rates, 2005." Juristat. Vol. 27, no. 3. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-XIE. Ottawa.

Groff, Elizabeth and J. Thomas McEwen. 2005. "Disaggregating the journey to homicide." Geographic Information Systems and Crime Analysis. Fahui Wang (ed.). Hershey, Penn. Idea Group.

Harries, Keith. 1999. Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice. Washington, D.C. United States Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice.

Hatfield, Michael. 2004. "Vulnerability to persistent low income." Horizons. Vol. 7, no. 2.

Hay, Carter, Edward N. Fortson, Dusten R. Hollist, Irshad Altheimer and Lonnie M. Schaible. 2006. "The impact of community disadvantage on the relationship between the family and juvenile crime." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Vol. 43, no. 4. p. 326 to 356.

Hayslett-McCall, Karen Lynn. 2002. Neighborhoods, Land-use, and Robbery Rates: A Test of Routine Activity Theory. Dallas. University of Texas at Dallas. Doctoral dissertation.

Heisz, Andrew. 2005. "Ten things to know about Canadian metropolitan areas: A synthesis of Statistics Canada's trends and conditions in census metropolitan areas series." Trends and Conditions in Census Metropolitan Areas. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-613-MIE, no. 9. Ottawa.

Jacob, Joanna C. 2006. "Male and female youth crime in Canadian communities: Assessing the applicability of social disorganization theory." Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Vol. 48, no. 1. p. 31 to 60.

Kong, Rebecca. 2005. Criminal Justice Indicators. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-227-XIE. Ottawa.

Kunz, Jean Lock and Jeff Frank. 2004. "Poverty, thy name is hydra." Horizons. Vol. 7, no. 2.

La Prairie, Carol. 2002. "Aboriginal over-representation in the criminal justice system: A tale of nine cities." Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Vol. 44, no. 2. p. 181 to 208.

LaGrange, Teresa C. 1999. "The impact of neighbourhoods, schools and malls on the spatial distribution of property damage." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. Vol. 36, no. 4. p. 393 to 420.

Land, Kenneth C., Patricia L. McCall and Lawrence E. Cohen. 1990. "Structural covariates of homicide rates: Are there any invariances across time and social space?" American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 95. p. 922 to 963.

LeBeau, James L. 1987. "The journey to rape: Geographic distance and the rapist's method of approaching the victim." Journal of Police Science and Administration. Vol. 15, no. 2. p. 129 to 136.

Messner, Steven F. and Luc Anselin. 2004. "Spatial analyses of homicide with areal data." Spatially Integrated Social Science. Michael F. Goodchild and Donald G. Janelle (eds.). New York. Oxford University Press.

Messner, Steven F. and Scott J. South. 1992. "Interracial homicide: A macrostructural-opportunity perspective." Sociological Forum. Vol. 7, no. 3. p. 517 to 536.

Meyer, David S. 1995. "The challenge of cultural elites: Celebrities and social movements." Sociological Inquiry. Vol. 65, no. 2. p.181 to 206.

Montgomery, Douglas C., Elizabeth A. Peck and Geoffrey G. Vining. 2001. Introduction to Linear Regression Analysis. 3rd edition, New York. Wiley.

Morenoff, Jeffrey D. and Robert J. Sampson. 1997. "Violent crime and the spatial dynamics of neighbourhood transition: Chicago 1970-1990." Social Forces. Vol. 76, no. 1. p. 31 to 64.

Morenoff, Jeffrey D., Robert J. Sampson and Steven W. Raudenbush. 2001. "Neighbourhood inequality, collective efficacy and the spatial dynamics of urban violence." Criminology. Vol. 39, no. 3. p. 517 to 559.

Richards. John. 2001. "Neighbors matter: Poor neighborhoods and urban Aboriginal policy." C.D. Howe Institute Commentary 156. Toronto. C.D. Howe Institute.

Roncek, Dennis W. and Pamela A. Maier. 1991. "Bars, blocks, and crimes revisited: Linking the theory of routine activities to the empiricism of 'hot spots." Criminology. Vol. 29. p. 725 to 755.

Sampson, Robert J. and Janet L. Lauritsen. 1994. "Violent victimization and offending: Individual-, situational-, and community-level risk factors." Understanding and Preventing Violence. Albert J. Reiss and Jeffrey A. Roth (eds.). Washington, D.C. National Academy Press.

Sampson, R. J., J. D. Morenoff and T. Gannon-Rowley. 2002. "Assessing 'neighborhood effects': Social processes and new directions for research." Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 28. p. 443 to 478.

Sampson, Robert J. and Steven Raudenbush. 1999. "Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods." American Journalof Sociology. Vol. 105. p. 603 to 651.

Savoie, Josée. 2007. "Youth self-reported delinquency, Toronto, 2006." Juristat. Vol. 27, no. 6. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-XIE. Ottawa.

Shaw, Clifford R. and Henry D. McKay. 1942. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. Chicago. University of Chicago Press.

Simons, Ronald L., Leslie Gordon Simons, Callie Harbin Burt, Gene H. Brody and Carolyn Cutrona. 2005. "Collective efficacy, authoritative parenting and delinquency: A longitudinal test of a model integrating community- and family-level processes." Criminology. Vol. 43, no. 4.

Tremblay, Pierre and Marc Ouimet. 2001. "Trajets urbains et risques de victimisation : les sites de transit et le cas du métro de Montréal." Criminology. Vol. 34, no. 1. p. 157 to 176.

Turner, Susan. 1969. "Delinquency and distance." Delinquency: Selected Studies. Marvin E. Wolfgang and Thorsten Sellin (eds.). New York. John Wiley and Sons.

Wickrama, K. A. S. and Chalandra M. Bryant. 2003. "Community context of social resources and adolescent mental health." Journal of Marriage and Family. Vol. 65, no. 4. p. 850 to 866.

Wiles, Paul and Andrew Costello. 2000. "The 'road to nowhere': The evidence for travelling criminals." Home Office Research Study207. London, U.K. Home Office. Research, Development and Statistics Directorate.