Health Indicators
Community and health system characteristics

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Community

Population estimates

Definition:
The number of people living in a geographic area by age and sex.

A population’s size and age/sex composition impact the health status of a region and its need for health services. Population data also provide the "denominators" used to calculate rates for most health and social indicators.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Demography Division. Data are derived from the Census and administrative sources on births, deaths, and migration. The Quebec preliminary estimates are derived from the census division estimates provided by "Institut de la statistique du Québec". Population growth for British Columbia were supplied by BC Stats.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0086-01 Estimates of population (2011 Census and administrative data), by age group and sex for July 1st, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2017 boundaries) and peer groups
Table: 17-10-0088-01 Estimates of population (2011 Census and administrative data), by age group and sex for July 1st, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2015 boundaries) and peer groups

Population distribution by size of population centre

Definition:
A population centre (POPCTR) has a population of at least 1,000 and a population density of 400 persons or more per square kilometre, based on population counts from the current Census of Population. All areas outside population centres are classified as rural areas.  Taken together, population centres and rural areas cover all of Canada.

Population centres are divided into three groups based on the size of their population:

  • small population centres, with a population of between 1,000 and 29,999;
  • medium population centres, with a population of between 30,000 and 99,999
  • large urban population centres, consisting of a population of 100,000 and over.

These counts and rates exclude institutional residents. Rates were calculated on randomly rounded data, and may not necessarily add up to 100%.

Sources:
Census of Population, Statistics Canada.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0122-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census short-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0091-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Population density

Definition:
Number of people per square kilometre. Calculated by dividing the total population by land area.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Census of Population, and Geography Division (special tabulations).

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0122-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census short-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0091-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Dependency ratio

Definition:
The ratio of the combined child population aged 0 to 19 and population aged 65 and over to the population 20 to 64 years old. This ratio is presented as the number of dependents for every 100 people in the working age population.

Canadians aged 65 and over and those under age 20 are more likely to be socially and/or economically dependent on working age Canadians, and they may also put certain additional demands on health services.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Demography Division. Data are derived from the Census and administrative sources on births, deaths, and migration.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0120-01 Dependency ratio (2011 Census and administrative data), by age group for July 1st, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2017 boundaries) and peer groups

Table: 17-10-0089-01 Dependency ratio (2011 Census and administrative data), by age group for July 1st, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2015 boundaries) and peer groups

Aboriginal population

Definition:
Aboriginal people living in a geographic area. ‘Aboriginal identity' refers to whether the person reported being an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit) and/or being a Registered or Treaty Indian (that is, registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and/or being a member of a First Nation or Indian band. Aboriginal peoples of Canada are defined in the Constitution Act, 1982, section 35 (2) as including the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada.

Health status characteristics and non-medical determinants of Aboriginal people differ from the non-Aboriginal population, for example, infant mortality, unintentional injury deaths, suicides and smoking rates. Knowing the proportion of Aboriginal people in a geographic area provides context to better interpret health indicators.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Census of Population and National Household Survey.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0123-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0092-01 National Household Survey indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Immigrant population

Definition:
'Immigrant' refers to a person who is, or who has ever been, a landed immigrant or permanent resident. Such a person has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities. Immigrants who have obtained Canadian citizenship by naturalization are included in this group.

Studies have shown that immigrants, particularly non-European immigrants, generally have a longer life expectancy and lower risk of certain chronic conditions than the native-born population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Census of Population and National Household Survey.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0123-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0092-01 National Household Survey indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Internal migrant mobility

Definition:
Refers to the status of a person with regard to the place of residence on the reference day, May 10, 2016, in relation to the place of residence on the same date one year earlier. Persons who have not moved are referred to as non-movers and persons who have moved from one residence to another are referred to as movers. Movers include non-migrants and migrants. Non-migrants are persons who did move but remained in the same city, town, township, village or Indian reserve. Migrants include internal migrants who moved to a different city, town, township, village or Indian reserve within Canada. External migrants include persons who lived outside Canada at the earlier reference date.

Source(s):
Statistics Canada, Census of Population and National Household Survey.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0123-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0092-01 National Household Survey indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Metropolitan Influenced Zones (MIZ)

Definition:
The census metropolitan influenced zone (MIZ) is a concept that geographically differentiates the area of Canada outside census metropolitan areas (CMAs) and census agglomerations (CAs). Census subdivisions (CSDs) within provinces that are outside CMAs and CAs are assigned to one of four categories according to the degree of influence (strong, moderate, weak or no influence) that the CMAs or CAs have on them. CSDs within the territories that are outside CAs are assigned to a separate category.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Census of Population and Geography Division.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0122-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census short-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0091-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Lone-parent families

Definition:
Percentage of lone-parent families among all census families living in private households. A census family refers to married or common-law couple or lone parent with at least one never–married son or daughter living in the same household.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Census of Population.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0122-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census short-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0091-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Visible minority population

Definition:
Visible minority refers to whether a person belongs to a visible minority group as defined by the Employment Equity Act and, if so, the visible minority group to which the person belongs. The Employment Equity Act defines visible minorities as 'persons, other than Aboriginal peoples, who are non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour.' The visible minority population consists mainly of the following groups: South Asian, Chinese, Black, Filipino, Latin American, Arab, Southeast Asian, West Asian, Korean and Japanese.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Census of Population and National Household Survey.

Data tables:
Table: 17-10-0123-01 Census indicator profile, based on the 2016 Census long-form questionnaire, Canada, provinces and territories, and health regions (2017 boundaries)

Table: 37-10-0092-01 National Household Survey indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2014 boundaries) and peer groups, 2011

Table: 17-10-0100-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2011 boundaries) and peer groups, 2006

Table: 17-10-0099-01 Census indicator profile, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions and peer groups, 2001

Health system

Inflow/outflow ratio

Definition:
A ratio, calculated as the number of separations (discharges and deaths) from acute care/same-day surgery facilities within a given region divided by the number of acute care/same-day surgery separations generated by residents of that region.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB) and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery rate

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed on inpatients in acute care hospitals, per 100,000 population age 18 and older.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) and Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Percutaneous coronary intervention rate

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed on patients in acute care hospitals, same-day surgery facilities or catheterization laboratories, per 100,000 population age 18 years and older.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Cardiac revascularization rate

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery performed on inpatients in acute care hospitals or percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) performed on patients in acute care hospitals, same-day surgery facilities or catheterization laboratories, per 100,000 population age 18 years and older.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Hip replacement rate

Definition:
Age-standardized hospitalization rate for hip replacement procedures performed in acute care hospitals or same-day surgery facilities, per 100,000 population age 18 years and older.

The indicator includes all hip replacement types: total hip replacement, monopolar/bipolar hemiarthroplasty and resurfacing procedures.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB) and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Knee replacement rate

Definition:
Age-standardized hospitalization rate for knee replacement procedures performed on patients in acute care hospitals or same-day surgery facilities, per 100,000 population age 18 years and older.

This indicator includes all knee replacement types: total knee replacement, unicompartmental knee replacement (medial, lateral or patellofemoral) and patella-only procedures.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB) and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Hysterectomy rate

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of hysterectomy provided to patients in acute care hospitals or same-day surgery facilities, per 100,000 women age 18 and older.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB) and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Contact with alternative health care providers

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who have consulted with alternative health care providers in the past 12 months.

Alternative health care providers include: massage therapists, acupuncturists, homeopaths or naturopaths, Feldenkrais or Alexander teachers, relaxation therapists, biofeedback teachers, "rolfers", herbalists, reflexologists, spiritual healers, religious healers.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey.

Data tables:
Table: 13-10-0665-01 Contact with alternative health care providers in the past 12 months, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 and over, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (June 2005 boundaries) and peer groups

Contact with a medical doctor

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who have consulted with a medical doctor in the past 12 months.

Medical doctor includes family or general practitioners as well as specialists such as surgeons, allergists, orthopaedists, gynaecologists, or psychiatrists. For population aged 12 to 17 includes pediatrician.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey.

Data tables:
Table: 13-10-0096-01 Canadian health characteristics, annual estimates, by age group and sex, Canada (excluding territories) and provinces

Table: 13-10-0113-01 Canadian health characteristics, two year period estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories and health regions

Table: 13-10-0805-01 Canadian health characteristics, two-year period estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, census metropolitan areas and population centres

Contact with health professionals about mental health

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who have consulted with a health professional about their mental health in the past 12 months.

Mental health professionals include: family doctors or general practitioners, psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, social workers and counsellors.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey.

Data tables:
Table: 13-10-0666-01 Contact with health professionals about mental health in the past 12 months, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 and over, selected provinces and health regions (June 2005 boundaries)

Contact with dental professionals

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who have consulted with a dental professional in the past 12 months.

Dental professionals include dentists or orthodontists.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey

Data tables:
Table: 13-10-0663-01 Contact with dental professionals in the past 12 months, by age group and sex, household population aged 12 and over, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (June 2005 boundaries) and peer groups

Mental illness hospitalization rate

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of separations from general hospitals through discharge or death following a hospitalization for a selected mental illness, per 100,000 population.

This indicator is discontinued as of 2014.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (OMHRS) and Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Mental illness patient days

Definition:
Age-adjusted rate of total number of days in general hospitals for selected mental illness, per 10,000 population.

This indicator is discontinued as of 2014.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Sources:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), Ontario Mental Health Reporting System (OMHRS) and Hospital Morbidity Database (HMDB).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

Resources

Doctors rate

Definition:
General/family physicians (family medicine and emergency family medicine specialists) and specialist physicians (medical, surgical and laboratory specialists) on December 31 of the reference year, per 100,000 population.

Please visit CIHI’s Indicator Library for more information.

Source:
Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), Scott’s Medical Database (SMDB).

Data tables:
CIHI’s Health Indicators Interactive Tool

 
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