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Health Status

Well-being
Health conditions
Human function
Deaths

Well-being

Self-rated health

Definition:
Population (aged 12 and over for data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and National Population Health Survey, North component) who rate their own health status as being either excellent, very good, good, fair or poor.

Self-reported health is an indicator of overall health status. It can reflect aspects of health not captured in other measures, such as: incipient disease, disease severity, aspects of positive health status, physiological and psychological reserves and social and mental function.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component; Statistics Canada, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (0 to 11 years of age), 1994/95

Changes over time in self-rated health

Definition:
Changes over time in self-rated health (excellent, very good, good, fair or poor) of the 1994/95 household population aged 12 and over every two years, at each cycle of the National Population Health Survey. Population, age, sex and province are based on the first survey cycle (Cycle 1) in 1994/95.

Source:
Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1996/97 and 1998/99 longitudinal full-response data files and, 2000/01 and 2002/03 longitudinal data files.

Self esteem

Definition:
Level of perceived self-worth reported by persons aged 12 and over, based on their responses to six questions derived from the self-esteem Rosenberg scale (1969), which has been further factored into one dimension by Pearlin and Schooler (1978). In this publication, a score of 0 to 17 is classified as low self-esteem, 18 to 19 as moderate self-esteem, and 20 to 24 as high self-esteem.

Source:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, cross sectional sample, health file.

Health conditions

Body mass index (BMI)

Note: Definition change implemented in 2004 to conform with Health Canada guidelines for body weight classification.

Definition:
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a method of classifying body weight according to health risk. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) and Health Canada guidelines, health risk levels are associated with each of the following BMI categories: normal weight = least health risk; underweight and overweight = increased health risk; obese class I = high health risk; obese class II = very high health risk; obese class III = extremely high health risk.

BMI is calculated as follows: weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared.

The index is: under 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal weight); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0-34.9 (obese-Class I); 35.0-39.9 (obese-Class II); 40 or greater (obese - Class III). The index is calculated for those aged 18 and over excluding pregnant women and persons less than 3 feet (0.914 metres) tall or greater than 6 feet 11 inches (2.108 metres).

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/1995, 1996/1997 and 1998/1999 cross sectional sample, health file and North component.

Arthritis/rheumatism

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who report that they have been diagnosed by a health professional as having arthritis or rheumatism. Arthritis/ rheumatism include both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, but excludes fibromyalgia.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component.

Diabetes

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who report that they have been diagnosed by a health professional as having diabetes.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component.

Asthma

Definition:
Population aged 4 and over (or aged 12 and over for data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and National Population Health Survey, North component) who report that they have been diagnosed by a health professional as having asthma.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component; Statistics Canada, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (asthma for 4 to 11 years of age), 1994/95

High blood pressure

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who report that they have been diagnosed by a health professional as having high blood pressure.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component

Chronic pain - affects activities

Definition:
Population aged 4 and over (or aged 12 and over for data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and National Population Health Survey, health file and North component) who report having pain or discomfort which prevents or limits activities on a continuing basis.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component; Statistics Canada, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (4 to 11 years of age), 1994/95

Chronic pain - severity

Definition:
Population aged 4 and over (or aged 12 and over for data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and National Population Health Survey, health file and North component) who answered “yes” or “no” when asked if they were usually free of pain or discomfort. Severity of pain is measured as severe, moderate or mild.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component; Statistics Canada, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (4 to 11 years of age), 1994/95

Depression

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over with the probability of 0.9 or greater of having experienced a major depressive episode in the past 12 months based on responses to the short-form Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Respondents are classified according to the probability that they would have been diagnosed as having experienced a major depressive episode in the past 12 months, if they had completed the long-form CIDI.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95 and 1996/97, cross sectional sample, health file and North component

Low birth weight

Definition:
Live births less than 2,500 grams, expressed as a percentage of all live births (birth weight known).

Live births greater than 500 grams and less than 2,500 grams, expressed as a percentage of all live births (birth weight known). (Applies only to a subset of the provincial/territorial time-series data)

Low birth weight is a key determinant of infant survival, health, and development. Low birth weight infants are at a greater risk of having a disability and for diseases such as cerebral palsy, visual problems, learning disabilities and respiratory problems.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Birth Database.

Cancer incidence

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of new primary sites of cancer (malignant neoplasms) per 100,000 population, for all cancers.

Specific site codes: colon/rectum (ICD-0-3 C18.0-C18.9, C19.9, C20.9, C26.0), lung (ICD-0-3 C34.0-C34.9), female breast (ICD-0-3 C50.0-C50.9), and prostate (ICD-0-3 C61.9).

Sources:
Statistics Canada , Vital Statistics, Cancer Database, Canadian Cancer Registry, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Injury hospitalization

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of acute care hospitalization due to injury resulting from the transfer of energy (excluding poisoning and other non-traumatic injuries), per 100,000 population.

Cause of injury is reported by the first valid documented external cause of injury code that meets the definition of a traumatic injury and with a diagnosis type of ’9’:

ICD-9 or ICD-9-CM

E800-E807, E810-E838, E840-E848, E880-E888, E890-E902, E906-E910, E913-E928, E953-E958, E960-E961, E963-E968, E970-E976, E978, E983-E988, E990-E998

ICD-10-CA

V01-V06, V09-V99, W00-W45, W49-W60, W64-W70, W73-W77, W81, W83-W94, W99, X00-X06, X08-X19, X30-X39, X50, X52, X58, X59, X70-X84, X86, X91-X99, Y00-Y05, Y07-Y09, Y20-Y36

This indicator contributes to an understanding of the adequacy and effectiveness of injury prevention efforts, including public education, product development and use, community and road design, and prevention and treatment resources.

Source:
Canadian Institute for Health Information, National Trauma Registry

Injuries

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who sustained injuries in the past 12 months. Includes all injuries serious enough to limit one’s normal activities, but does not include repetitive strain injury. For those with more than one injury in the past 12 months, refers to “the most serious injury” as identified by the respondent.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component

Human function

Functional health

Definition:
Population aged 4 and over (or aged 12 and over for data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and National Population Health Survey) reporting measures of overall functional health, based on 8 dimensions of functioning (vision, hearing, speech, mobility, dexterity, feelings, cognition and pain). A score of 0.8 to 1.0 is considered to be very good or perfect health; scores below 0.8 are considered to indicate moderate or severe functional health problems.

Otherwise known as the Health Utility Index (HUI), this index, developed at McMaster University’s Centre for Health Economics and Policy Analysis, is based on the Comprehensive Health Status Measurement System (CHSMS).

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component; Statistics Canada, National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (4 to 11 years of age), 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99

Two-week disability days

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who stayed in bed or cut down on normal activities because of illness or injury, on one or more days in the past two weeks.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file; Statistics Canada, National Population Health Survey, 1994/95, 1996/97 and 1998/99, cross sectional sample, health file and North component

Activity limitation

Note: Activity limitation data from the National Population Health Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey are not comparable due to differences in questions and response categories between the two surveys.

Definition:
Population aged 12 and over who report being limited in selected activities (home, school, work and other) because of a physical condition, mental condition, or health problem which has lasted or is expected to last six months or longer.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Canadian Community Health Survey, 2003, 2000/01, health file

Disability-free life expectancy

Definition:
Life expectancy is the number of years a person would be expected to live, starting from birth (for life expectancy at birth) or at age 65 (for life expectancy at age 65), on the basis of the mortality statistics for a given observation period.

Disability-free life expectancy is a more comprehensive indicator than that of life expectancy because it introduces the concept of quality of life. It is used to distinguish between years of life free of any activity limitation and years experienced with at least one activity limitation. To that end, disability-free life expectancy establishes a threshold based on the nature of such limitations. Years of life lived in conditions above this threshold are counted in full. Those lived in conditions below the threshold are not counted. Thus, the emphasis is not exclusively on the length of life, as is the case for life expectancy, but also on the quality of life.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, Demography Division (population estimates), and the 1996 Census (20% sample)

Disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE)

Definition:
Life expectancy is the number of years a person would be expected to live, starting from birth (for life expectancy at birth) or at age 65 (for life expectancy at age 65), on the basis of the mortality statistics for a given observation period.

Disability-adjusted life expectancy (DALE) is a more comprehensive indicator than that of life expectancy because it introduces the concept of quality of life. DALE integrates data on mortality, long-term institutionalization and activity limitations in the population and represents a comprehensive index of population health status. Thus, the emphasis is not exclusively on the length of life, but also on the quality of life.

To calculate DALE, a set of weights (relative values) is assigned to four states of health. These states are, in order from greatest to least weight: no activity limitations, activity limitations in leisure activities or transportation, activity limitations at work, home and/or school and institutionalization in a health care facility in order to establish units of equal value. These units are summed to yield a type of “quality-adjusted” life expectancy.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, Demography Division (population estimates), and the 1996 Census (20% sample)

Deaths

Infant mortality

Definition:
Infants who die in the first year of life, expressed as a count and a rate per 1,000 live births.

A long-established measure, not only of child health, but also of the well-being of a society. Reflects the level of mortality, health status, and health care of a population, and the effectiveness of preventive care and the attention paid to maternal and child health.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Birth and Death Databases

Perinatal mortality

Definition:
Count and rate of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths (deaths in the first week of life) per 1,000 total births (includes stillbirths). Stillbirths are defined here as gestational age of 28 or more weeks. Stillbirths with unknown gestational age are excluded.

The probability that a viable fetus will be stillborn or will die before the end of the first week of life. Reflects standards of obstetric and pediatric care, as well as the effectiveness of public health initiatives.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Birth, Death and Stillbirth Databases

Life expectancy

Definition:
Life expectancy is the number of years a person would be expected to live, starting from birth (for life expectancy at birth) and similarly for other age groups, on the basis of the mortality statistics for a given observation period.

A widely used indicator of the health of a population. Life expectancy measures quantity rather than quality of life.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Age-standardized mortality rate - (for provincial level time-series)

Definition:
Age-standardized rate of death for selected causes per 100,000 population.

From 1979 to 1999, causes of death were classified according to the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9). The year 2000 and subsequent years available are classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Selected causes are defined as follows: Colorectal cancer (ICD-10 C18-C21 or ICD-9 153-154), lung cancer (ICD-10 C33-C34 or ICD-9 162), female breast cancer (ICD-10 C50 females specified or ICD-9 174), prostate cancer (ICD-10 C61 or ICD-9 185), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (ICD-10 I21-I22 or ICD-9 410), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-10 I60-I69 or ICD-9 430-438), all stroke (selected cerebrovascular diseases) (ICD-10 I60-I66 or ICD-9 430-432, 434, 436).

Indicates the overall health of the population and is similar to what is measured by life expectancy.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Total mortality

Definition:
Crude rate and age-standardized rate of death from all causes per 100,000 population.

Indicates the overall health of the population and is similar to what is measured by life expectancy.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

All diseases of the circulatory system deaths

Definition:
Crude rate and age-standardized rate of death from diseases of the circulatory system per 100,000 population:for all diseases of the circulatory system (ICD-10 I00-I99), ischaemic heart disease (ICD-10 I20-I25), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-10 I60-I69) and all other circulatory diseases (ICD-10 I00-I02, I05-I09, I10-I15, I26-I28, I30-I52, I70-I79, I80-I89, I95-I99).

Measures long-term success in reducing deaths due to circulatory disease, compared with other regions, provinces, and countries. Lower death rates indicate success in circulatory disease prevention, detection, and treatment.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

All malignant neoplasms (cancer) deaths

Definition:
Crude rate and age-standardized rate of death from cancer per 100,000 population: for all cancers (ICD-10 C00-C97) and for specific sites: colorectal (ICD-10 C18-C21), lung (ICD-10 C33-C34), female breast (ICD-10 C50) female specified (ICD-9 174), and prostate cancer (ICD-10 C61).

Measures long-term success in reducing deaths due to cancer, compared with other regions, provinces, and countries. Lower death rates indicate success in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

All diseases of the respiratory system deaths

Definition:
Crude rate and age-standardized rate of death from diseases of the respiratory system per 100,000 population:, for all respiratory diseases (ICD-10 J00-J99), pneumonia and influenza (ICD-10 J10-J18), bronchitis/ emphysema/asthma (ICD-10 J40-J43, J45-J46) and all other diseases of the respiratory system (ICD-10 J00-J06, J20-J22, J30- J39, J44, J47, J60-J70, J80-J84, J85-J86, J90-J94, J95-J99).

Measures long-term success in reducing deaths due to respiratory disease, compared with other regions, provinces, and countries. Lower death rates indicate success in respiratory disease prevention, detection, and treatment.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Suicide

Definition:
Crude rate and age-standardized rate of suicide death (ICD-10 X60-X84, Y87.0) per 100,000 population.

Measures long-term success in reducing suicide, a social as well as a major public health concern.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Unintentional injury deaths

Definition:
Crude rate and age-standardized rate of death from unintentional injuries per 100,000 population. Unintentional (“accidental”) injuries includes injuries due to causes such as motor vehicle collisions, falls, drowning, burns, and poisoning, but not medical misadventures/complications (ICD-10 V01-X59, Y85-Y86).

Measures long-term success in reducing deaths due to unintentional injuries, compared with other regions, provinces, and countries. Measures the adequacy and effectiveness of injury prevention efforts, including public education, community and road design, prevention, emergency care, and treatment resources.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

AIDS deaths

Definition:
Crude rate and age-standardized rate of deaths due to AIDS and HIV infections (ICD-10 B20-B24) per 100,000 population.

Measures success in preventing and treating AIDS and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the agent that causes AIDS). Information on deaths can be used to estimate the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS, as well as the impact of treatment.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) rate - (for provincial level time-series)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from any cause - before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a standardized rate per 100,000 population. Causes of death are classified according to the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) from 1979 to 1999. The year 2000 and subsequent years available are classified according to the Tenth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). Provincial level PYLL was calculated only for suicide and unintentional injuries for the years 2000 and 2001 only. Selected causes are defined as follows: C olorectal cancer (ICD-9 153-154), lung cancer (ICD-9 162), female breast cancer (ICD-9 174), prostate cancer (ICD-9 185), acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (ICD-9 410), cerebrovascular diseases (ICD-9 430-438), all stroke (ICD-9 430-432, 434, 436), unintentional injuries (ICD-10 V01-X59, Y85-Y86 or ICD-9 E800-E929 excluding E870-E879), suicides (ICD-10 X60-X84, Y87 or ICD-9 E950-E959)

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Total mortality Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) (total mortality) is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from any cause - before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a count (total PYLL) and as a rate per 100,000 population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Cancer deaths Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) for all malignant neoplasms ( ICD-10 C00-C97) and for specific sites: colorectal (ICD-10 C18-C21), lung (ICD-10 C33-C34), female breast (ICD-10 C50), and prostate cancer (ICD-10 C61). PYLL is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from any cancer – before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a count (total PYLL) and as a rate per 100,000 population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Circulatory disease deaths Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) for all circulatory disease deaths (ICD-10 I00-I99) and specific causes: ischaemic heart disease (ICD-10 I20-I25), cerebrovascular diseases (stroke) (ICD-10 I60-I69) and all other circulatory diseases (ICD-10 I00-I02, I05-I09, I10-I15, I26-I28, I30-I52, I70-I79, I80-I89, I95-I99). PYLL) is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from any circulatory disease – before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a count (total PYLL)) and as a rate per 100,000 population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Respiratory disease deaths Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) for all respiratory disease deaths (ICD-10 J00-J99) and for specific causes: pneumonia and influenza (ICD-10 J10-J18), bronchitis/emphysema/asthma (ICD-10 J40-J43, J45-J46) and all other respiratory diseases (ICD-10 J00-J06, J20-J22, J30-J39, J44, J47, J60-J70, J80- J84, J85-J86, J90-J94, J95-J99). PYLL) is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from any respiratory disease – before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a count (total PYLL) and as a rate per 100,000 population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Unintentional injury deaths Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) for unintentional injuries (ICD-10 V01-X59, Y85-Y86) is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from unintentional injuries – before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a count (total PYLL) and as a rate per 100,000 population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

Suicide Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) for suicides (ICD-10 X60-X84, Y87.0) is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from suicide – before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a count (total PYLL) and as a rate per 100,000 population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

AIDS deaths Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL)

Definition:
Potential years of life lost (PYLL) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection deaths (ICD-10 B20-B24) is the number of years of life "lost" when a person dies "prematurely" from AIDS/HIV – before age 75. A person dying at age 25, for example, has lost 50 years of life.

Potential years of life lost are calculated by taking the median age in each age group, subtracting from 75, and multiplying by the number of deaths in that age group disaggregated by sex and cause of death. These data are presented as a count (total PYLL) and as a rate per 100,000 population.

Sources:
Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, Death Database, and Demography Division (population estimates)

 


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