Abstract

Background

Beverage consumption, especially water, is critical to a healthy diet. The 2007 Canada’s Food Guide (CFG) makes specific recommendations regarding the intake of water, fruit juice, milk and energy-dense beverages. Earlier comparisons of 2004 and 2015 dietary data show that changing patterns in beverage intake can explain some of the changes in energy and sugar intake observed in the Canadian population. The objective of this study is to describe any changes in beverage consumption between 2004 and 2015, and how these changes relate to existing recommendations in the 2007 CFG.

Data and methods

Data are from the Canadian Community Health Survey – Nutrition for 2004 and 2015. To estimate any change in the proportion of Canadians consuming a beverage the day before and the quantity consumed, 19 beverage categories were derived using the Bureau of Nutritional Science categories. The CFG classification was used to estimate the relative share of juice intake from total servings of vegetables and fruit, and the intake of milk from milk subcategories. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate usual intake.

Results

Water intake was higher in 2015 than in 2004. Consumption of milk, fruit juice, and energy-dense beverages such as fruit drinks and soft drinks was lower in 2015. Changes in water, soft drink and fruit drink consumption mostly reflect changes in the proportion of Canadians consuming these specific beverages the day before reporting, while changes in milk and fruit juice mostly reflect a change in the quantity consumed. In 2015, the majority of the population was consuming more whole vegetables and fruit than juice, which is in line with 2007 CFG recommendations.

Interpretation

Beverage consumption patterns in Canada changed between 2004 and 2015. Some of these changes are in line with recommendations from the 2007 CFG, the food guide that was available at the time of the 2015 survey.

Keywords

Canadian Community Health Survey, food, nutrition, dietary intake, water, fruit juice, milk

DOI: https://www.doi.org/10.25318/82-003-x201900700003-eng

Findings

Beverage consumption, especially water, is critical to a healthy diet1. It not only provides hydration, but can also be an important source of energy, vitamins and minerals—depending on the type of beverage consumed. For the first time in over a decade, food and beverage consumption was measured through a 24-hour recall in the 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Nutrition. Earlier comparisons between the 2004 CCHS – Nutrition and the 2015 CCHS – Nutrition show that changes in energy intake2 and total sugars intake3 can be partly explained by changing patterns in beverage consumption. [Full article]

Author

Didier Garriguet (didier.garriguet@canada.ca) is with the Health Analysis Division at Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Start of text box

 

What is already known on this subject?

  • Early comparisons of 2004 and 2015 dietary data show that changing patterns in beverage intake can explain some of the changes in energy and sugar intake observed in the Canadian population.
  • Canadian food availability data show a decline in the availability of beer, soft drinks, all types of milk, apple juice and orange juice from 2004 to 2015.

What does this study add?

  • Water consumption was higher in 2015, and water contributed more to hydration in the form of moisture in 2015 than in 2004.
  • Consumption of skim, 1% or 2% milk was below the recommended intake of 500 mL, or two servings, a day. This was the case in both survey years, but average consumption was lower in 2015, compared with 2004.
  • Fruit juice consumption was lower in 2015 than in 2004, and less than 40% of the population consumed more juice than whole fruit.
  • Consumption of energy-dense beverages, particularly regular soft drinks and fruit drinks, was lower in 2015 than in 2004, mostly because of a change in the proportion of the population who consumed this type of beverage the day before.

End of text box

Date modified: