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1. World Health Organization. What is Mental Health? Avaiable at:  Accessed March 31, 2014.

2. Keyes CM. The Mental Health Continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Research 2002; 43(June): 207-22.

3. Keyes CLM, Simoes EJ. To flourish or not: Positive mental health and all-cause mortality. American Journal of Public Health 2012; 102(11): 2164-72.

4. Keyes CLM, Eisenberg D, Perry GS, et al. The relationship of level of positive mental health with current mental disorders in predicting suicidal behavior and academic impairment in college students. Journal of American College Health 2012; 60(2): 126-33.

5. Grant F, Guille C, Sen S. Well-being and the risk of depression under stress. PLOS One 2013; 8(7): e67395.

6. Keyes CLM, Dhingra SS, Simoes EJ. Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. American Journal of Public Health 2010; 100(12): 2366-71.

7. Keyes CLM. Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing. A complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist 2007; 62(2): 95-108.

8. Keyes, CLM. The nexus of cardiovascular disease and depression revisited:  The complete mental health perspective and the moderating role of age and gender. Aging and Mental Health 2004; 8: 266-74.

9. Keyes CLM. Chronic physical conditions and aging: Is mental health a potential protective factor? Ageing International 2005; 30(1): 88-104.

10. Keyes CLM. Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2005; 73(3): 539-48.

11. Keyes CLM, Grzywacz JG. Health as a complete state: The added value in work performance and healthcare costs. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2005; 47: 523-32.

12. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5(3): 283-310.

13. Lamers SM, Glas CA, Westerhof GJ, Bohlmeijer ET. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF). European Journal of Psychological Assessment 2012; 28(4): 290-6.

14. Keyes CLM, Wissing M, Potgieter JP, et al. Evaluation of the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-speaking South Africans. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 2008; 15: 181-92.

15. Lamers SMA, Westerhof GJ, Bohlmeijer ET, et al. Evaluating the psychometric properties of the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form (MHC-SF). Journal of Clinical Psychology 2011; 67(1): 99-110. doi: 10.1002.jclp.20741.

16. Westerhof GJ, Keyes CLM.  Mental illness and mental health: The Two Continua Model across the lifespan. Journal of Adult Development 2010; 17: 110-9.

17. Ismaïl A, Salama-Younes M. Validation of the factor structure of the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF) for physically active old adult. World Journal of Sport Sciences 2011; 4(1): 24-30.

18. Young-Jin L. Psychometric characteristics of the Korean Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF) in an adolescent sample. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessement 2013. doi: 10.1177/073-4282913511431

19. Kessler RC, Ustun TB. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 2004; 13(2): 93-121.

20. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Chiu WT, et al. The US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R): Design and field procedures. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research 2004; 13(2): 1369-92.

21. Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2007 National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: User’s Guide (Catalogue 4327.0) Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009.

22. Statistics Canada. Low-income cut-offs for 2008 and low income measures for 2007. Income Research Paper Series, No. 002 (Catalogue 75F002M) Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 2009.

23. Keyes CLM. Mental health in adolescence: Is America’s youth flourishing? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 2006; 76(3): 395-402.

24. Low KG. Flourishing, substance use and engagement in students entering college: A preliminary study. Journal of American College Health 2011; 59(6): 555-61.

25. Ross A, Friedmann E, Bevans M, Thomas S. National survey of yoga practitioners: mental and physical health benefits. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 2013; 21(4): 313-23.

26. Statistics Canada. Table 051-0001 Estimates of Population, by Age Group and Sex for July 1, Canada, Provinces and Territories, Annual (Persons Unless Otherwise Noted). CANSIM database. Accessed May 7, 2014.

27. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Mental Health. Available at: Accessed May 7, 2014.

28. Huppert FA, So TTS. Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Social Indicators Research 2013; 110: 837-61

29. Joshanloo M, Wissing MP, Khumalo IP, Lamers SMA. Measurement invariance of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) across three cultural groups. Personality and Individual Differences 2013; 55(7): 755-9.

30. Huppert FA. Psychological well-being: Evidence regarding its causes and consequences. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-being 2009; 1(2): 137-64.

31. Weiss LA, Westerhof GJ, Bohlmeijer ET. Nudging socially isolated people towards well-being with the ‘Happiness Route’: design of a randomized controlled trial for the evaluation of a happiness-based intervention. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2013; 11: 159.

32. Dein S, Cook CCH, Koenig H. Religion, spirituality, and mental health: Current controversies and future directions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2010; 200(10): 852-5.

33. Keyes CLM. Overview of the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF). Available at:  Accessed April 2, 2014.

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