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1. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Hospital Mental Health Services in Canada,2005–2006. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008. Available at:

2. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Hospital Length of Stay and Readmission forIndividuals Diagnosed With Schizophrenia: Are They Related? Ottawa: Canadian Institutefor Health Information, 2008.

3. Public Health Agency of Canada. The Human Face of Mental Health and Mental Illness in Canada, 2006 (Catalogue HP5-19/2006E) Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2006. Available at:

4. Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Practice Atlas, 2nd Ed. Chapter 10: Mental health: Levels of need and variations in service use in Ontario. Toronto: Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2003.

5. Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Patterns of Regional Mental Illness Disorder Diagnoses and Service Use in Manitoba: A Population-Based Study. Winnipeg,Manitoba: Manitoba Center for Health Policy,2004. Available at:

6. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Exploring Hospital Mental Health ServiceUse in Ontario, 2007-2008. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2009. Available at:

7. Leucht S, Fountoulakis K. Improvement of the physical health of people with mental illness. Medical comorbidity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2006; 19(4): 411-2.

8. Oakley Browne MA, Wells JE, Scott KM (eds). Te Rau Hinengaro: The New ZealandMental Health Survey. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Health, 2006.

9. Rodriguez, C, Thankam S. The interplay of comorbidity among patients with medical illness and mental illness: A sociological perspective. Proceedings of the AnnualMeeting of the American SociologicalAssociation, August 2007. New York, New York, 2007.

10. Huang K-L, Su T-P, Tzeng-Ji C, et al. Comorbidity of cardiovascular diseases with mood and anxiety disorder: A population based 4-year study. Psychiatry and ClinicalNeurosciences 2009; 63: 401-9

11. Shen C, Sambamoorthi U, Rust G. Disease Management 2008; 11(3): 153-60. doi:10.1089/dis.2007.0012.

12. Banerjea R, Sambamoorthi U, Smelson D, Pogach LM. Expenditures in mental illness and substance use disorders among veteran clinic users with diabetes. Journalof Behavioral Health Services and Research 2008; 35(3): 290-303.

13. Goldman LS. Comorbid medical illness in psychiatric patients. Current PsychiatryReports 2000; 2: 256-63.

14. Prince M, Patel V, Saxena S, et al. No health without mental health. The Lancet 2007; 8; 370(9590): 859-77.

15. Johansen H, Sanmartin C, Longitudinal Health and Administrative Data Research Team. Mental comorbidity and its contribution to increased use of hospital services. Health Research Working Paper Series (Statistics Canada,Catalogue 82-622-X, No. 006) Ottawa:Statistics Canada, 2011.

16. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Data Quality Documentation: HospitalMorbidity Database (HMDB) 2001-2002. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2005.

17. World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.

18. Canadian Institute for Health Information. International Statistical Classification ofDiseases and Related Health Problems.ICD-10-CA/CCI. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2003.

19. World Health Organization. Mental and Behavioural Disorders. InternationalStatistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2007.

20. Nord P. Alternate level of care: Ontario addresses the long waits. Canadian Family Physician 2009; 55: 786.

21. Costa AP, Hirdes JP. Clinical characteristics and service needs of alternate-level-of-care patients waiting for long-term care in Ontario hospitals. Healthcare Policy 2010; 6(1): 33-46.

22. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Alternate Level of Care in Canada. Ottawa:  Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2009.

23. Costa PA, Poss JW, Peirce T, Hirdes JP. Acute care inpatients with long-term delayed discharge: evidence from a Canadian health region. Health Services Research 2012; 12: 172.