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1. Shields M. Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports 2006; 17(3): 27-42.

2. Thompson DR, Obarzanek E, Franko DL, et al. Childhood overweight and cardiovascular disease risk factors:  the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Journal of Pediatrics 2007; 150(1): 18-25.

3. Daniels SR, Morrison JA, Sprecher DL, et al. Association of body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents. Circulation 1999; 99(4): 541-5.

4. Freedman DS, Mei Z, Srinivasan SR, Berenson GS, Dietz WH. Cardiovascular risk factors and excess adiposity among overweight children and adolescents: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Journal of Pediatrics 2007; 150(1): 12-17 e2.

5. Goodman E, Whitaker RC. A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics 2002; 110(3): 497-504.

6. Strauss RS, Pollack HA. Social marginalization of overweight children. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2003; 157(8): 746-52.

7. Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, et al. The relation of childhood BMI to adult adiposity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 2005; 115(1): 22-7.

8. Kimm SY, Glynn NW, Obarzanek E, et al. Relation between the changes in physical activity and body-mass index during adolescence: a multicentre longitudinal study. Lancet 2005; 366(9482): 301-7.

9. Dencker M, Thorsson O, Karlsson MK, et al. Daily physical activity related to body fat in children aged 8-11 years. Journal of Pediatrics 2006; 149(1): 38-42.

10. Saelens BE, Seeley RJ, van Schaick K, et al. Visceral abdominal fat is correlated with whole-body fat and physical activity among 8-y-old children at risk of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 85(1): 46-53.

11. Patrick K, Norman GJ, Calfas KJ, et al. Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight in adolescence. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2004; 158(4): 385-90.

12. Srinivasan S, O'Fallon LR, Dearry A. Creating healthy communities, healthy homes, healthy people: initiating a research agenda on the built environment and public health. American Journal of Public Health 2003; 93(9): 1446-50.

13. Frumkin H, Frank L, Jackson R. Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning and Building for Healthy Communities. Washington: Island Press, 2004.

14. Frank L, Pivo G. Impacts of mixed use and density on utilization of three modes of travel: single-occupant vehicle, transit, and walking . Transportation Research Record 1994; 1466: 44-52.

15. Holtzclaw J, Clear R, Dittmar H, et al. Location efficiency: neighborhood and socio-economic characteristics determine auto ownership and use—studies in Chicago, Los Angeles and San Francisco.  Transportation Planning and Technology 2002; 25(1): 1-27.

16. Ewing R, Brownson RC, Berrigan D. Relationship between urban sprawl and weight of United States youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2006; 31(6): 464-74.

17. Slater SJ, Ewing R, Powell LM, et al. The association between community physical activity settings and youth physical activity, obesity, and body mass index. Journal of Adolescent Health 2010; 47(5): 496-503.

18. Trowbridge MJ, McDonald NC. Urban sprawl and miles driven daily by teenagers in the United States. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2008; 34(3): 202-6.

19. McGovern L, Johnson JN, Paulo R, et al. Clinical review: treatment of pediatric obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2008;93 (12): 4600-5.

20. Summerbell CD, Ashton V, Campbell KJ, et al. Interventions for treating obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003; 3: CD001872.

21. Kamath CC, Vickers KS, Ehrlich A, et al. Clinical review: behavioral interventions to prevent childhood obesity: a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized trials. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2008; 93(12): 4606-15.

22. Statistics Canada. Data Dictionary (rounded frequencies) CCHS 2007 - Master File 12 Month. Available at:  Accessed November, 2011.

23. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) - Annual Component. User Guide: 2007-2008. Microdata files. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2009.

24. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). 2008 (Annual Component) and 2007-2008 Derived Variable (DV) Specifications. Master and Shared Files.

25. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines: 2011 Scientific Statements. Available at: Statements_E.pdf. Accessed October, 2011.

26. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal 2000; 320(7244): 1240-3.

27. Ross NA, Tremblay S, Khan S, et al. Body mass index in urban Canada: neighborhood and metropolitan area effects. American Journal of Public Health 2007; 97(3): 500-8.

28. Statistics Canada. 2006 Community Profiles. 2006 Census (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 92-591-XWE) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, March 13, 2007.

29. Nelson MC, Neumark-Stzainer D, Hannan PJ, et al. Longitudinal and secular trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence. Pediatrics 2006; 118(6): e1627-34.

30. Aaron DJ, Storti KL, Robertson RJ, et al.  Longitudinal study of the number and choice of leisure time physical activities from mid to late adolescence: implications for school curricula and community recreation programs. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2002; 156(11): 1075-80.

31. Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2000; 32(5): 963-75.

32. Willms JD, Tremblay MS, Katzmarzyk PT. Geographic and demographic variation in the prevalence of overweight canadian children. Obesity Research 2003; 11(5): 668-73.

33. Beighle A, Alderman B, Morgan CF, Le Masurier G. Seasonality in children's pedometer-measured physical activity levels. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2008; 79(2): 256-60.

34. Belanger M, Gray-Donald K, O'Loughlin J, et al.  Influence of weather conditions and season on physical activity in adolescents. Annals of Epidemiology 2009; 19(3): 180-6.

35. Environment Canada. National Climate Data and Information Archive. Canadian Climate Normals or Averages 1971-2000. Available at: Accessed May, 2011.

36. Rust KF, Rao JN. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5(3): 283-310.

37. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling mehtods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

38. Hume C, Timperio A, Salmon J, et al. Walking and cycling to school: predictors of increases among children and adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2009; 36(3): 195-200.

39. Grow HM, Saelens BE, Kerr J, et al. Where are youth active? Roles of proximity, active transport, and built environment. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2008; 40(12): 2071-9.

40. Lee IM, Ewing R, Sesso HD. The built environment and physical activity levels: the Harvard Alumni Health Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2009; 37(4): 293-8.

41. Lopez R. Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese. American Journal of Public Health 2004; 94(9): 1574-9.

42. Ewing R, Schmid T, Killingsworth R, et al.  Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. American Journal of Health Promotion 2003; 18(1): 47-57.

43. Mecredy G, Pickett W, Janssen I. Street connectivity is negatively associated with physical activity in Canadian youth International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health  2011; 8(8): 3333-50.

44. Seasons M, Brown J, Frojmovic M, et al. Canadian Institute of Planners. The World Urban Forum 2006: Vancouver Working Group Discussion Paper. Accessed September, 2011.

45. Tomalty R, Haider M. BC Sprawl Report: Walkability and Health 2009. Available at: (2).pdf. Accessed September, 2011.

46. United Nations Population Fund. State of the World Population 2007: Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. Available at:
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47. Frank LD, Andresen MA, Schmid TL. Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2004; 27(2): 87-96.

48. Frank LD, Sallis JF, Conway TL, et al. Many pathways from land use to health: Associations between neighbourhood walkability and active transportation, body mass index and air quality. Journal of the American Planning Association 2006; 72(1): 75-87.

49. Garden FL, Jalaludin BB. Impact of urban sprawl on overweight, obesity, and physical activity in Sydney, Australia. Journal of Urban Health 2009; 86(1): 19-30.

50. Song Y, Knaap J. New urbanism and housing values: A disaggregate assessment. Journal of Urban Economics 2003; 54: 218-38.

51. Frumkin H, Frank L, Jackson R. Urban Sprawl and Public Health. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004.

52. Cullen J, Levitt S. Crime, urban flight and the consequences for cities. Review of Economics and Statistics 1999; 81(2): 159-69.

53. Shields M, Gorber SC, Tremblay MS. Estimates of obesity based on self-report versus direct measures. Health Reports 2008; 19(2): 61-76.

54. Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, et al. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2008; 40(1): 181-8.