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1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2010.

2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.

3. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, Volume 83. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002.

4. Rehm J, Ballunas D, Brochu S, et al. The Costs of Substance Abuse in Canada 2002. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, 2006.

5. Gilmore J. Report on Smoking in Canada, 1985 to 2001 (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82F0077XIE) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2002.

6. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey.  Updated November 6, 2010.  Available at: /cchs.  Accessed January 12, 2011.

7. Health Canada. Tobacco Research Statistics: Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey and Youth Smoking Survey.  Updated September 27, 2010.  Available at:  Accessed January 12, 2011.

8. Fendrich M, Mackesy-Amiti ME, Johnson TP, et al. Tobacco-reporting validity in an epidemiological drug-use survey. Addictive Behaviors 2005; 30: 175-81.

9. Non-Smokers' Rights Association. Second-hand Smoke. Updated winter, 2010. Available at:  Accessed January 12, 2011.

10. Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Environmental Health Perspectives 1999; 107(Suppl. 2): 349-55.

11. Jarvis MJ, Russell MAH, Benowitz NL, Feyerabend C. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure.  American Journal of Public Health 1988; 78: 696-8.

12. Jarvis MJ, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Feyerabend C, et al. Comparison of tests used to distinguish smokers from nonsmokers. American Journal of Public Health 1987; 77:1435-8.

13. Connor Gorber S, Schofield-Hurwitz S, Hardt J, et al.   The accuracy of self-reported smoking: a systematic review of the relationship between self-reported and cotinine-assessed smoking status. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2009; 1: 12-24.

14. West R, Zatonski W, Przewonzniak K, Jarvis MJ. Can we trust national smoking prevalence figures? Discrepancies between biochemically assessed and self-reported smoking rates in three countries. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 2007; 16: 820-2.

15. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 1. Available at: /imdb-bmdi/document/5071_D2_T1_V1-eng.pdf.  Accessed August 8, 2010.

16. Tremblay M, Wolfson M, Connor Gorber S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Rationale, background and overview. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.):  7-20.

17. Tremblay M, Langlois R, Bryan S, et al. Canadian Health Measures Survey Pre-test: Design, methods, results. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 21-30.

18. Giroux S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Sampling strategy overview. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 31-6.

19. Day B, Langlois R, Tremblay M, Knoppers BM. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Ethical, legal and social issues. Health Reports  2007; 18(Suppl): 37-52.

20. Bryan S, St-Denis M, Wojtas D. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Clinic operations and logistics. Health Reports 2007; 18(Suppl.): 53-70.

21. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology. ATC/DDD Index 2011.  Updated December 21, 2010. Available at:  Accessed August 26, 2011.

22. Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Laboratoire de toxicologie.  Analytical Method for the Determination of Cotinine in Urine by HPLC-MS-MS Robotic Workstation Method (C-550), Condensed Version for CHMS. Québec: Institut national de santé publique du Québec, 2009.

23. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Subcommittee on Biochemical Verification. Biochemical verification of tobacco use and cessation. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2002; 4: 149-59.

24. Song L, Davis W, Abrams SM, et al. Sensitive and rapid method for the determination of urinary cotinine in non-smokers: an application for studies assessing exposures to second-hand smoke (SHS). Analytica Chimica Acta 2005; 545: 200-8.

25. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18: 209-17.

26. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

27. Health Canada. Report on Human Biomonitoring of Environmental Chemicals in Canada (Catalogue H128-1/10-601E) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2010.

28. Wagenknecht L, Burke GL, Perkins LL, et al. Misclassification of smoking status in the CARDIA Study: a comparison of self-report with serum cotinine levels. American Journal of Public Health 1992; 82: 33-6.

29. Shields M. The journey to quitting smokiNg E. Health Reports 2005; 16(3): 19-36.

30. Webb DA, Boyd NR, Messina D, Windsor RA. The discrepancy between self-reported smoking status and urine cotinine levels among women enrolled in prenatal care at four publicly funded clinical sites. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice 2003; 9: 322-5.

31. Lewis SJ, Cherry NM, McNiven R, et al. Cotinine levels and self-reported smoking status in patients attending a bronchoscopy clinic. Biomarkers 2003; 8: 218-28.

32. Martinez ME, Reid M, Jiang R, et al. Accuracy of self-reported smoking status among participants in a chemoprevention trial. Preventive Medicine 2004; 38: 492-7.

33. Statistics Canada.  Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey. The Daily (Catalogue 11-001-XIE) September  27, 2010. Available at:  Accessed December 9, 2010.

34. Murray DM, Perry CL. The measurement of substance abuse among adolescents: when is the "bogus pipeline" method needed? Addictive Behavior 1987; 12: 225-33.

35. Statistics Canada.  Smokers, by sex, provinces and territories. CANSIM table 105-0501 (Catalogue 82-221-X). Updated November 5, 2010.  Available at: Accessed December 9, 2010. 

36. Béland Y, Bélanger Y, Dufour J, et al. Comparaison méthodologique entre l'Enquête sur la santé dans les collectivités canadiennes (ESCC) et l'Enquête de surveillance de l'usage du tabac au Canada (ESUTC) :  Rapport interne du groupe de travail. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2002.

37. St-Pierre M, Béland Y. Mode effects in the Canadian Community Health Survey:  A comparison of CAPI and CATI. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association, Survey Research Methods Section, August 2004. Toronto: American Statistical Association, 2004.