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1. World Health Organization. Assessment of Fracture Risk and Its Application to Screening for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 843) Geneva: World Health Organization, 1994.

2. Osteoporosis Canada. Breaking Barriers Not Bones; 2008 National Report Card on Osteoporosis Care. Toronto: Osteoporosis Canada, 2008.

3. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2010.

4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The 2004 Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health and Osteoporosis: What It Means To You. Place of publication: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General, 2004

5. Health Canada. It's Your Health - Seniors and Aging - Osteoporosis. Available at: Accessed July 5, 2010.

6. Béland Y, Dale, Dufour J, Hamel M. The Canadian Community Health Survey: Building on the success from the past. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association Joint Statistical Meeting, Section on Survey Research Method, August, 2005. Minneapolis, Minnesota: American Statistical Association, 2005.

7. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS): Cycle 2.2, Nutrition: General Health Component Including Vitamin and Mineral Supplements, and 24-hour Dietary Recall Component, User Guide, 2008. Available at: /imdb-bmdi/document/5049_D24_T9_V1-eng.pdf..

8. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) – Healthy Aging – 2008/2009, User Guide. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2008.

9. Moshfegh AJ, Borrud L,Perloff B, et al. Improved method for the 24-hourdietary recall for use in nationalsurveys . The FASEB Journal: Official Publication of The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1999; 13: A603 (Abstract).

10. Moshfegh AJ, Raper N, Ingwersen L, et al. An improved approach to 24-hour dietary recall methodology. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2001; 45(suppl): 156 (abstract).

11. Nusser SM, Carriquiry AL, Dodd KW, et al. A semiparametric transformation approach to estimating usual daily intake distributions. Journal of the American Statistical Association 1996; 91(436): 1440-9.

12. Novenario MJ. User's Guide to SIDE, A, August 1996. Available at: Accessed December 12, 2010.

13. Garriguet D. Combining nutrient intake from food and from vitamin and mineral supplements. Health Reports 2010; 21(4): 71-84.

14. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

15. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in MedicalResearch 1996; 5: 281-310.

16. Yeo D, Mantel H, Liu TP. Bootstrap variance estimation for the National Population Health Survey, Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association: Survey Research Methods Section, August 1999. Baltimore, Maryland: American Statistical Association, 1999.

17. World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 894) Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.

18. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS): Cycle 2.2, Nutrition: General Health Component Including Vitamin and Mineral Supplements, and 24-hour Dietary Recall Component, Derived Variables Documentation, 2008.

19. Health Canada. 2005. Canadian Nutrient File, 2005 Version. Available at:

20. Health Canada. Drug Product Database. Available at:

21. De Laet C, Kanis JA, Odén A, et al. Body mass index as predictor of fracture risk: A meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International, 2005; 16: 1330-8.

22. Morin S, Tsang JF, Leslie WD. Weight and body mass index predict bone mineral density and fractures in women aged 40 to 59 years. Osteoporosis International 2009; 20: 363-70.

23. Meyer HE, Tverdal A, Selmer R. Weight variability, weight change and the incidence of hip fracture: a prospective study of 39,000 middle-aged Norwegians.Osteoporosis International 1998; 8: 373-8.

24. Ricci TA, Chowdhury HA, Heymsfield SB, et al. Calcium supplementation suppresses bone turnover during weight reduction in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1998; 13: 1045-50.

25. Compston JE, Laskey MA, Croucher PI, et al. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on total body bone mass. Clinical Science 1992; 82: 429-32.

26. Leslie WD, Derksen AA, Metge C, et al. Demographic risk factors for fracture in First Nations people. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2005; 96(S1): S45-50.

27. Boonen S, Rizzoli R, Meunier PJ, et al. The need for clinical guidance in the use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis: a consensus report. Osteoporosis International 2004; 15: 511-9.

28. Brennan SL, Pasco JA, Urquhart DM, et al. The association between socioeconomic status and osteoporosis fracture in population-based adults: a systematic review. Osteoporosis International 2009; 20: 1487-97

29. Gallagher CM, Kovach JS, Meliker JR. Urinary cadmium and osteoporosis in U.S. women ≥ 50 years of age: NHANES 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008; 116(10): 1338-43.

30. Wang M-C, Dixon LB. Socioeconomic influences on bone health in postmenopausal women: findings from NHANES III, 1988-1994. Osteoporosis International 2006; 17: 91-8.

31. Cooper C, Westlake S, Harvey N, et al. Review: Developmental origins of osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis International 2006; 17: 337-47.

32. Moshfegh AJ, Rhodes DG, Baer DJ, et al. The US Department of Agriculture Automated Multiple-Pass Method reduces bias in the collection of energy intakes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008; 88: 324-32.

33. Garriguet D. Under-reporting of energy intake in the Canadian Community Health Survey. Health Reports 2008; 19(4): 37-45.

34. Tucker KL. Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition. Current Osteoporosis Reports 2009; 7: 111-7.

35. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Office of the Surgeon General Web site. Available at: Accessed May 7, 2010