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1. Gilmour H. Physically active Canadians. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(3): 45-65.

2. Kesaniemi YK, Danforth E Jr., Jensen MD, et al. Dose-response issues concerning physical activity and health: an evidence-based symposium. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2001; 33(suppl): S351-8.

3. Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, et al. Physical activity and public health. A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995; 273: 402-7.

4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 1996.

5. Warburton DER, Charlesworth S, Ivey A, Nettlefold L, Bredin SSD. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2010; 7: 39.

6. Statistics Canada. Physical Activity During Leisure Time, 2009 (Catalogue 82-625) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2010. Available at: http://statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2010002/article/11267-eng.htm. Accessed 26/08/2010.

7. Bryan SN, Katzmarzyk PT. Are Canadians meeting the guidelines for moderate and vigorous leisure-time physical activity? Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 2009; 34: 707-15.

8. Craig CL, Russell SJ, Cameron C, et al. Twenty-year trends in physical activity among Canadian adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2004; 95(1): 59-63.

9. Tjepkema M. Adult obesity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 9-25.

10. Shields M, Tremblay MS, Laviolette M, et al. Fitness of Canadian adults: Results from the 2007-2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2010; 21(1): 1-15.

11. Tremblay MS, Kho ME, Tricco AC, Duggan M. Process description and evaluation of Canadian physical activity guidelines development. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2010; 7: 42.

12. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, ParticipACTION. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology and ParticipACTION share new research to inform Canadians of physical activity levels required. Press release: May 12, 2010. Available at: www.csep.ca; www.participaction.com.

13. World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2010.

14. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Available at: www.health.gov/paguidelines. Accessed: September 7, 2010.

15. Shields M and Tremblay MS. Screen time among Canadian adults: A profile. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2008; 19(2): 31-43.

16. Shields M and Tremblay MS. Sedentary behaviour and obesity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 82-003) 2008; 19(2): 19-30.

17. Tremblay MS, Esliger DW, Tremblay A, Colley RC. Incidental movement, lifestyle-embedded activity and sleep: new frontiers in physical activity assessment. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 2007. 32: 1-10.

18. Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW. Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 2007; 56(11): 2655-67.

19. Hamilton MT, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, et al. Too little exercise and too much sitting: Inactivity physiology and the need for new recommendations on sedentary behaviour. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 2008; 2(4): 292-8.

20. Healy GN, Wijndaele K, Dunstan DW, et al. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: The Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). Diabetes Care 2008; 31(2): 369-71.

21. Katzmarzyk PT, Church TS, Craig CL, et al. Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Medicine and Science in Sportsand Exercise 2009; 41(5): 998-1005.

22. Owen N, Bauman A, Brown W. Too much sitting: a novel and important predictor of chronic disease risk? British Journal of Sports Medicine 2009; 43: 81-3.

23. Tremblay MS, Colley RC, Saunders T, et al. Physiological and health implications of a sedentary lifestyle. Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism 2010; 35(6): 725-40.

24. Bryan SN, St-Denis M, Wojtas D. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Clinic operations and logistics. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18 Suppl: 53-69.

25. Day B, Langlois R, Tremblay M, Knoppers BM. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Ethical, legal and social issues. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18 Suppl: 37-52.

26. Giroux S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Sampling strategy overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003). 2007; 18 Suppl: 31-6.

27. Tremblay M, Wolfson M, Connor Gorber S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Rationale, background and overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18 Suppl: 7-20.

28. Health Canada. Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults (Catalogue H49-179/2003E) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003.

29. World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. A Report of the WHO Consultation. (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 894). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000

30. Colley RC, Connor Gorber S, Tremblay MS. Quality control and data reduction procedures for accelerometry-derived measures of physical activity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2010; 21: 1-7.

31. Heil DP. Predicting activity energy expenditure using the Actical activity monitor. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2006; 77: 64-80.

32. Evenson K, Catellier DJ, Gill K, et al. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children, Journal of Sports Sciences 2008; 26: 1557-65.

33. Puyau M, Adolph AL, VohraFA et al. Prediction of activity energy expenditure using accelerometers in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2004; 36: 1625-31.

34. Esliger DW, Probert A, Connor Gorber S, Bryan S, Laviolette M, Tremblay MS. Validity of the Actical accelerometer step-count function. Medicine and Science in Sports andExercise 2007; 39(7): 1200-4.

35. Ainsworth BE, Haskell WE, Whitt MC, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update on activity codes and MET intensities. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2000; 32(9): S498-516.

36. Colley RC, Tremblay MS. Moderate and vigorous physical activity intensity cut-points for the Actical accelerometer. (submitted and under review)

37. Wong S, Colley RC, Connor Gorber S, Tremblay MS. Sedentary activity Actical accelerometer thresholds for adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2011. (in press)

38. Troiano R, Berrigan D, Dodd K, et al. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2008; 40: 181-8.

39. National Cancer Institute. Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods: SAS Programs for Analyzing NHANES 2003-2004 Accelerometer Data. Available at: http://riskfactor.cancer.gov/tools/nhanes_pam. Accessed: September 8, 2010.

40. Chan CB, Ryan DA, Tudor-Locke C. Health benefits of a pedometer-based physical activity intervention in sedentary workers. Preventive Medicine 2004; 39(6): 1215-22.

41. Le Masurier GC, Sidman CL, Corbin CB. Accumulating 10,000 steps: does this meet current physical activity guidelines? Research Quarterly on Exercise and Sport 2003; 74(4): 389-94.

42. Tudor-Locke C, Hatano Y, Pangrazi RP, Kang M. Revisiting "How many steps are enough?" Medicine and Science in Sports andExercise 2008; 40(7 Suppl): S537-43.

43. Esliger DW, Tremblay MS. Technical reliability assessment of three accelerometer models in a mechanism set-up. Medicine and Science in Sports andExercise 2006; 38 (12): 2173-81.

44. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 1.2010. Available at: /imdb-bmdi/document/5071_D2_T1_V1-eng.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2010.

45. Tudor-Locke C, Brashear MM, Johnson WD, Katzmarzyk PT. Accelerometer profiles of physical activity and inactivity in normal weight, overweight, and obese U.S. men and women. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2010; 7:60.

46. Adamo K, Prince S, Tricco A, et al. A comparison of indirect versus direct measures for assessing physical activity in the pediatric population: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 2009; 4: 2-27.

47. Craig CL, Cameron C, Griffiths J, et al. Non-response bias in physical activity trend estimates. BMC Public Health 2009; 22(9):425.

48. Katzmarzyk PT, Tremblay MS. Limitations of Canada's physical activity data: implications for monitoring trends. Applied Physiology Nutrition Metabolism 2007; 32: S185-94.

49. Prince S, Adamo K, Hamel M, et al. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2008; 5:56.

50. Tudor-Locke C, Johnson WD, Katzmarzyk PT. Accelerometer-determined steps per day in US adults. Medicine and Science in Sports andExercise 2009; 41(7): 1384-91.

51. Matthews CE, Chen KY, Freedson PS, et al. Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003-2004. American Journal of Epidemiology 2008; 167(7): 875-81.

52. Statistics Canada. Popularity of Physical Recreation Activities of Adults, Age 20+ (Canadian Community Health Survey). Available at: http://www.cflri.ca/eng/levels/popular_pa_adults.php. Accessed November 22, 2010.