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1. Turk DC, Melzack R, eds. Handbook of Pain Assessment. Second Edition. New York: The Guilford Press, 2001.

2. Melzak R, Wall PD. The Challenge of Pain. Markham: Penguin Books, 1988.

3. Breivik H. Collett B, Ventafridda V, et al. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: Prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. European Journal of Pain 2006; 10(4): 287-333. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2005.06.009.

4. Roth-Isigkeit A, Thyen U, Stöven H, et al.Pain among children and adolescents: Restrictions in daily living and triggering factors. Pediatrics 2005;115(2):e152-e162. Available at Accessed October 14, 2009. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-0682.

5. Cosby AG, Hitt HC, Thornton-Neaves T, et al. Profiles of pain in Mississippi: Results from the Southern Pain Prevalence Study. Journal of MississippiState Medical Association 2005; 46(10): 301-9.

6. Karoly P, Ruehlman LS. Psychosocial aspects of pain-related life task interference: An exploratory analysis in a general population sample. Pain Medicine 2007; 8(7): 563-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00230.x.

7. Côté P, Kristman V, Vidmar M, et al. The prevalence and incidence of work absenteeism involving neck pain. Spine 2008; 33(4suppl.): S192-8.

8. Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E, et al. Lost productive time and cost due to common pain conditions in the US workforce. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290(18): 2443-54. doi: 10.1001/jama.290.18.2443.

9. Mailis-Gagnon A, Yegneswaran B, Lakha SF, et al. Pain characteristics and demographics of patients attending a university-affiliated pain clinic in Toronto, Ontario. Pain Research and Management 2007; 12(2): 93-9.

10. Neville A, Peleg R, Singer Y, et al. Chronic pain: a population-based study. Israel Medical Association Journal 2008; 10: 676-80.

11. Ratcliffe GE, Enns MW, Belik SL, Sareen, J. Chronic pain conditions and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts: An epidemiologic perspective. Clinical Journal of Pain 2008; 24(3): 204-10.

12. Millar WJ. Chronic pain. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003)1996; 7(4): 47-53.

13. Mäntyselkä PT, Turunen JHO, Ahonen RS, et al. Chronic pain and poor self-rated health. Journal of the American Medical Association 2003; 290(18): 2435-42. doi: 10.001/jama.290.18.2435.

14. Rustøen T, Klopstad Wahl A, Hanestad BR, et al. Age and the experience of chronic pain. Differences in health and quality of life among younger, middle-aged and older adults. Clinical Journal of Pain 2005; 21(6): 513-23.

15. Briggs AM, Smith AJ, Straker LM, Bragge P. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009; 10: 77. doi: 10.1186/1471.2474-10-77.

16. Tripp DA, Nickel JC, Ross S, et al. Prevalence, symptom impact and predictors of chronic prostatitis-like symptoms in Canadian males aged 16 to 19 years. British Journal of Urology International 2008;103(8): 1080-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410x.2008.08157.x.

17. Hill CL, Gill TK, Menz HB, Taylor AW. Prevalence and correlates of foot pain in a population-based study: the North West Adelaide health study. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2008; 1: 2. doi: 10.1186/1757-1146-1-2.

18. Green CR, Baker TA, Sato Y, et al. Race and chronic pain: A comparative study of young black and white Americans presenting for management. Journal of Pain 2003; 4(4): 176-83. doi: 10.1016/51526-5900(02)65013-8.

19. Hastie BA, Riley JL, Fillingim RB. Ethnic differences and responses to pain in healthy young adults. Pain Medicine 2005; 6(1): 61-71.

20. Kopec JA, Sayre EC. Work-related psychosocial factors and chronic pain: a prospective cohort study in Canadian workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2004; 46(12): 1263-71. doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000147230.29859.69.

21. van Dijk A, Mcgrath PA, Pickett W, VandenKerkhof EG. Pain prevalence in nine- to 13-year-old school children. Pain Research and Management 2006; 11(4): 234-40.

22. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

23. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

24. Elliott AM, Smith BH, Penny KI, et al. The epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. Lancet 1999; 354: 1248-52.

25. Eriksen J, Jensen MK, Sjøgren P, et al. Epidemiology of chronic non-malignant pain in Denmark. Pain 2003; 106: 221-8. doi: 10.1016/S0304-3959(03)00225-2.