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1. Archer SL, Stamler J, Moag-Stahlberg A, et al. Association of dietary supplement use with specific micronutrient intakes among middle-aged American men and women: The INTERMAP Study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2005; 105: 1106-14.

2. Barr SI. British Columbia Nutrition Survey: Report on Supplements. University of British Columbia; 2004. Available at: Accessed March 6, 2009.

3. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Panel. National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference statement: Multivitamin/mineral supplements and chronic disease prevention. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 85: 257S-64S.

4. Lemstra M, Neudorf C, Opondo J. Health disparity by neighbourhood income. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2006; 97: 435-9.

5. Kirkpatrick SI, Tarasuk V. Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacies among Canadian adults and adolescents. Journal of Nutrition 2008; 138(3): 604-12.

6. Darmon N, Drewnowski A. Does social class predict diet quality? The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008; 87(5): 1107-17.

7. Balluz LS, Kieszak SM, Philen RM, Mulinare J. Vitamin and mineral supplement use in the United States. Archives of Family Medicine 2000; 9: 258-62.

8. Fennell D. Determinants of supplement usage. Preventive Medicine 2004; 39: 932-9.

9. Lino M, Dinkins J, Bente L. Household expenditure on vitamins and minerals by income level. Family Economics and Nutrition Review 1999; 12: 39-44.

10. Pelletier D, Kendall A. Supplement use may not be associated with better food intake in all population groups. Family Economics and Nutrition Review 1997; 10: 32-45.

11. Ma J, Johns RA, Stafford RS. Americans are not meeting current calcium recommendations. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 85: 1361-6.

12. Picciano MF, Dwyer JT, Radimer KL, et al. Dietary supplement use among infants, children, and adolescents in the United States, 1999-2002. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2007; 161: 978-85.

13. Yu SM, Kogan MD, Gergen P. Vitamin-mineral supplement use among preschool children in the United States. Pediatrics 1997;100: E4.

14. Balluz LS, Okoro CA, Bowman BA, et al. Vitamin or supplement use among adults, behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 13 States, 2001. Public Health Reports 2005; 120: 117-23.

15. Lyle BJ, Mares-Perlman JA, Klein BE, et al. Supplement users differ from nonusers in demographic, lifestyle, dietary and health characteristics. Journal of Nutrition 1998; 128: 2355-62.

16. Nayga R, Reed D. Factors associated with dietary supplements. Family Economics and Nutrition Review 1999; 12: 43-9.

17. Radimer K, Bindewald B, Hughes J, et al. Dietary supplement use by US adults: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2000. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004; 160: 339-49.

18. Troppmann L, Johns T, Gray-Donald K. Natural health product use in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2002; 93: 426-30.

19. Health Canada. 2006. Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, Nutrition (2004). A Guide to Accessing and Interpreting the Data (Catalogue H164-20/2006E-PDF). Available at: Accessed February 9, 2009.

20. Moshfegh AJ, Borrud L,Perloff B, et al. Improved method for the 24-hourdietary recall for use in nationalsurveys . The FASEB Journal: Official Publication of The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1999; 13: A603 (abstract).

21. Moshfegh AJ, Raper N, Ingwersen L, et al. An improved approach to 24-hour dietary recall methodology. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2001; 45(suppl): 156 (abstract).

22. Vatanparast H, Dolega-Cieszkowski JH, Whiting S. Canadians are not meeting current calcium recommendations from food intake. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 2009; 34: 191-6.

23. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intake for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium Vitamin D and Fluoride. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

24. Whiting S, Vatanparast H, Taylor J, Adolphe JL. Barriers to use of vitamin and mineral supplements are similar to those for healthy eating in lower income adults. Canadian JournalofDieteticPracticeandResearch. In press.