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1. Paustenbach D, Galbraith D. Biomonitoring: Is body burden relevant to public health? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 2006; 44: 249-61.

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5. Tremblay M, Wolfson M, Connor Gorber S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Rationale, background and overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003)2007;18(Supp):7-20.

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9. Gorospe EC, Gerstenberger SL. Atypical sources of childhood lead poisoning in the United States: a systematic review from 1966-2006. Clinical Toxicology 2008; 46: 728-37.

10. Health Canada. Health Canada Advises Consumers of Lead Hazard From ‘Mood Chain’ Anklets and Necklaces. Available at: Accessed April 1, 2010.

11. Health Canada. Lead and Health. Available at: Accessed April 1, 2010.

12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Lead Toxicity. Available at Accessed April 1, 2010.

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24. Chiodo LM, Covington C, Sokol RJ, et al. Blood lead levels and specific attention effects in young children. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2007; 29: 538-46.

25. Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, et al. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: An international pooled analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113: 894-9.

26. Surkan PJ, Zhang A, Trachtenberg F, et al. Neuropsychological function in children with blood lead levels <10 ug/dL. Neurotoxicology 2007; 28: 1170-7.

27. Fadrowski JJ, Navas-Acien A, Tellez-Plaza M, et al. Blood lead level and kidney function in US adolescents. Archives of Internal Medicine 2010; 170: 75-82.

28. Chandramouli K, Steer C D, Ellis M, Emond A M. Effects of early childhood lead exposure on academic performance and behaviour of school age children. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2010; 94: 844-8.

29. Gilbert SG, Weiss B. A rationale for lowering the blood lead action level from 10 to 2 ug/dL. Neurotoxicology 2006; 27: 693-701.

30. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Bisphenol A (BPA) - Current State of Knowledge and Future Actions by WHO and FAO. INFOSAN Information Note No. 5. 2009. Available at:
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31. Health Canada. Health Risk Assessment of Bisphenol A from Food Packaging Applications. 2008. Available at Accessed March 11, 2010.

32. European Chemicals Bureau. Updated Risk Assessment of 4,4’-Isopropylidenediphenol (Bisphenol-A). CAS Number 80-05-7. 2008. Available at: Accessed March 11, 2010.

33. Stahlhut RW, Welshons WV, Swan SH. Bisphenol A data in NHANES suggest longer than expected half-life, substantial nonfood exposure, or both. Environmental Health Perspectives 2009; 117: 784-9.

34. vom Saal FS, Hughes C. An extensive new literature concerning low-dose effects of bisphenol A shows the need for a new risk assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113: 926-33.

35. Tominaga T, Negishi T, Miyachi A, et al. Toxicokinetics of bisphenol A in rats, monkeys and chimpanzees by the LC-MS/MS method. Toxicology 2006; 226: 208-17.

36. Völkel W, Colnot T, Csanády GA, et al. Metabolism and kinetics of bisphenol A in humans at low doses following oral administration. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2002; 15: 1281-7.

37. Environment Canada and Health Canada. Screening Assessment for Phenol, 4,4’ -(1-methylethylidene)bis-(Bisphenol A). CAS Number 80-05-7. 2008. Available at: Accessed March 4, 2010.

38. Völkel W, Kiranoglu M, Fromme H. Determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine to assess daily uptake as a basis for a valid risk assessment. Toxicology Letters. 2008; 179: 155-62.

39. European Food Safety Authority. Scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and material in contact with food (AFC) on a request from the Commission on the toxicokinetics of bisphenol A. The EFSA Journal 2008; 759: 1-10.

40. Dekant W, Völkel W. Human exposure to bisphenol A by biomonitoring: methods, results and assessment of environmental exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2008; 228: 114-34.

41. Ye X, Kuklenyik Z, Needham LL, Calafat AM. Quantification of urinary conjugates of bisphenol A, 2,5-dischlorophenol, and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone in humans by online solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chormatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2005; 383: 638-44.

42. Sharpe RM. Is it time to end concerns over the estrogenic effects of bisphenol A? Toxicological Sciences 2010; 114: 1-4.

43. Ikezuki Y, Tsutsumi O, Takai Y, et al. Determination of bisphenol A concentrations in human biological fluids reveals significant early prenatal exposure. Human Reproduction 2002; 17: 2839-41.

44. Mielke H, Gundert-Remy U. Bisphenol A levels in blood depend on age and exposure. Toxicology Letters 2009; 190: 32-40.

45. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 1. 2010. Available at: /imdb-bmdi/document/5071_D2_T1_V1-eng.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2010.

46. Clark LC, Thompson HL. Determination of creatine and creatinine in urine. Analytical Chemistry 1949; 21: 1218-21.

47. Cook JD, Caplan YH, LoDico CP, Bush D. The characterization of human urine for specimen validity determination in workplace drug testing: A review. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 2000; 24:579-88.

48. Boeniger MF, Lowry LK, Rosenberg J. Interpretation of urine results used to assess chemical exposure with emphasis on creatinine adjustments - A review. American Industrial Hygiene Association 1993; 54: 615-27.

49. Barr DB, Wilder LC, Caudill SP, et al. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements. Environmental Health Perspectives 2005; 113: 192-200.

50. Cole S, Chu H, Nie L, Schisterman EF. Estimating the odds ratio when exposure has a limit of detection. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009; 38: 1674-80.

51. Health Canada. Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults (Health Canada, Catalogue H49-179) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003.

52. Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, et al. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal 2000; 320: 1240-3.

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54. SUDAAN [ Version 10.0] Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: RTI International, 2008.

55. Abdi H. The Bonferonni and Šidák Corrections for multiple comparisons. In: Salkind N, ed. Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage, 2007.

56. Statistics Canada. Canada Health Survey File, 1978-1979. Available at: /dli-ild/data-donnees/ftp/chs-esc/chs-esc1978-eng.htm.

57. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Report on the Environment : Blood lead level. 2009. Available at: Accessed April 7, 2010.

58. Son J-Y, Lee J, Paek D, Lee J-T. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. Environmental Research 2009;109:738-44.

59. Nash D, Magder LS, Sherwin R, et al. Bone density-related predictors of blood lead level among peri- and postmenopausal women in the United States: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004; 160: 901-11.

60. Campbell JR, Auinger P. The association between blood lead levels and osteoporosis among adults: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115: 1018-22.

61. Kim N-S, Lee B-K. National estimates of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels in the Korean general adult population. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2010;doi: 10.1007/s00420-010-0522-6 (available at

62. Rhainds M, Gingras S, Delage G, Gervais, M-C. Étude de la prévalence de la plombémie chez les donneurs de sang au Québec 2006-2007. Available at: Accessed February 8, 2010.

63. McKelvey W, Gwynn RC, Jeffery N, et al. A biomonitoring study of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the blood of New York City adults. Environmental Health Perspectives 2007; 115: 1435-41.

64. Lee M-G, Chun OK, Song WO. Determinants of the blood lead level of US women of reproductive age. Journal of the AmericanCollege of Nutrition 2005; 24:1-9.

65. Cheng Y, Willett WC, Schwartz J, et al. Relation of nutrition to bone lead and blood lead levels in middle-aged to elderly men: The Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1998; 147: 1162-74.

66. Fewtrell L, Kaufmann R, Pruss-Ustun A. Lead: Assessing the Environmental Burden of Disease at National and Local Levels. WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 2. 2003. Available at Accessed March 11, 2010.

67. Jones RL, Homa DM, Meyer PA, et al. Trends in blood lead levels and blood lead testing among US children aged 1 to 5 years, 1988-2004. Pediatrics 2009; 123: 376-85.

68. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Screening young children for lead poisoning: Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials. 1997. Available at Accessed March 11, 2010.

69. Mannino DM, Homa DM, Matte T, Hernandez-Avila M. Active and passive smoking and blood lead levels in U.S. adults: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2005; 7: 557-564.

70. Angelova V, Ivanov K, Ivanova K. Effect of chemical forms of lead, cadmium, and zinc in polluted soils on their uptake by tobacco. Journal of Plant Nutrition 2004; 27: 757-773.

71. Mena CM, Cabrera C, Lorenzo ML, Lopez MC. Determination of lead contamination in Spanish wines and other alcoholic beverages by flow injection atomic absorption spectometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1997; 45: 1812-5.

72. Goossens J, De Smaele T, Moens L, Dams R. Accurate determination of lead in wines by inductively coupled plasma mass spectometry. Fresenius Journal of Analytical Chemistry 1993; 347: 119-25.

73. Graziano JH, Blum C. Lead exposure from lead crystal. The Lancet 1991; 337: 141-2.

74. Barbee SJ, Constantine LA. Release of lead from crystal decanters under conditions of normal use. Food and Chemical Toxicology 1994; 32: 285-8.

75. Appel BR, Kahlon JK, Ferguson J, et al. Potential lead exposures from lead crystal decanters. American Journal of Public Health 1992; 82: 1671-3.

76. Calafat AM, Ye X, Wong L-Y, et al. Exposure of the U.S. population to Bisphenol A and 4-tertiary-Octylphenol: 2003-2004. Environmental Health Perspectives 2008; 116: 39-44.

77. Becker K, Göen T, Seiwart M, et al. German Environmental Survey for Children 2003/06 (GerES IV): Phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine of German children. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 2009; 212: 685-92.

78. Vandenberg LN, Chahoud I, Heindel JJ, et al. Urinary, circulating and tissue biomonitoring studies indicate widespread wxposure to bisphenol A. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2010; doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901716 (available at

79. Strolin Benedettia M, Baltes EL. Drug metabolism and disposition in children. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 2003; 17: 281-99.

80. Giroux S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Sampling strategy overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catlogue 82-003) 2007; 18(Suppl): 31-6.

81. Liou SH, Wu T-N, Chiang H-C et al. Blood lead levels in Taiwanese adults: distribution and influencing factors. The Science of the Total Environment 1996; 180: 219.

82. Peraza MA, Ayala-Fierro F, Barber DS, et al. Effects of micronutrients on metal toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives 1998; 106: 203-16.