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1. Tremblay M, Wolfson M, Connor Gorber S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Rationale, background and overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18 (Suppl.): 7-20.

2. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour JP, et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporosis International 2009. Aug 19 [Epub ahead of print].
3. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. New England Journal of  Medicine. 2007; 357(3): 266-81.

4. White JH. Vitamin D signaling, infectious diseases, and regulation of innate immunity. Infectious Immunology 2008; 76: 3837-43.

5. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1997.

6. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, et al. Prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009; 169(6): 551-61.

7. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, et al. Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal 2009; 339: b3692 doi: 10.1136/bmj.b3692.

8. Lin J, Manson JE, Lee I-M, et al. Intakes of calcium and vitamin D and breast cancer risk in women. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007; 167(10): 1050-9.

9. Gorham ED, Garland CF, Garland FC, et al. Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: a quantitative meta analysis. American Journal of  Preventive Medicine 2007; 32: 210-6

10. Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Hollis BW, Rimm EB. 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008; 168: 1174-80.

11. Ramagopalan SV, Maugeri NJ, Handunnetthi L, et al. Expression of the multiple sclerosis-associated MHC class II allele HLA-DRB1*1501 is regulated by vitamin D. PLOS Genetics. 2009; 5(2): e1000369. Epub 2009 February 6.

12. Dixon T, Mitchell P, Beringer T, et al. An overview of the prevalence of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D inadequacy amongst elderly patients with or without fragility fracture in the United Kingdom. Current Medical Research and Opinion. 2006; 22: 405-15.

13. Ginde AT, Liu MC, Camargo CA Jr.  Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the US population, 1988-2004. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009; 169(6): 626-32.

14. Mansbach JM, Ginde AA, Camargo CA. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels among US children aged 1 to 11 years: do children need more vitamin D? Pediatrics 2009; 124: 1404-10.

15. Weiler HA, Leslie WD, Krahn J, et al. Canadian Aboriginal women have a higher rate of vitamin D deficiency than non-Aboriginal women status despite similar dietary vitamin D intakes. Journal of Nutrition 2007; 137: 461-5.

16. Gozdzik A, Barta JL, Wu C, et al. Low wintertime vitamin D levels in a sample of healthy young adults of diverse ancestry living in the Toronto area: Associations with vitamin D intake and skin pigmentation. BMC Public Health 2008 8: 336.

17. Roth DE, Prosser C, Martz P, et al. Are national guidelines sufficient to maintain adequate blood levels in children? Canadian Journal of Public Health 2005; 96: 443-9.

18. Rucker D, Allan JA., Fick GH, Hanley DA. Vitamin D insufficiency in a population of healthy western Canadians. Canadian Medical Association Journal  2002; 166: 1517-24.

19. Mark S, Gray-Donald K, Delvin EE, et al. Low vitamin D staus in a representative sample of youth from Quebec, Canada. Clinical Chemistry 2008; 54: 1283-9.

20. Vieth R, Cole DE, Hawker GA, et al. Wintertime vitamin D insufficiency is common in young Canadian women and their vitamin D intake does not prevent it. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001; 55: 1091-7.

21. Weiler H, Fitzpatrick-Wong S, Veitch R, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and whole-body and femur bone mass relative to weight in healthy newborns. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2005; 172(6): 757-61.

22. Newhook LA, Sloka S, Grant M, et al. Vitamin D insufficiency common in newborns, children and pregnant women living in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada Maternal and Child Nutrition 2009; 5(2): 186-91.

23. Waiters B, Godel JC, Basu TK. Perinatal vitamin D and calcium status of northern Canadian mothers and their newborn infants. Journal of the AmericanCollege of Nutrition 1998; 18: 122-6.

24. Liu BA, Gordon M, Labranche JM, et al. Seasonal prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in institutionalized older adults. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 1997; 45: 598-603.

25. Giroux S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Sampling strategy overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18 (Suppl.): 31-6.

26. Day B, Langlois R, Tremblay M, Knoppers B-M. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Ethical, legal and social issues. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18 (Suppl.): 37-51.

27. Bryan S, St-Denis M, Wojtas D. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Clinical operations and logistics. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18 (Suppl.): 53-70.

28. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data User Guide: Cycle 1.  Available at:

29. Cole SR, Chu H, Nie L, Schisterman EF. Estimating the odds ratio when exposure has a limit of detection. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009; 38: 1674-80.

30. Yetley EA, Brule D, Cheney MC, et al., Dietary reference intakes for vitamin D: justification for a review of the 1997 values. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; 89: 719-27.

31. Vieth R, Bischoff-Ferrari H, Boucher BJ, et al. The urgent need to recommend an intake of vitamin D that is effective. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 85: 649-50. 

32. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, et al. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006; 84: 18-28.

33. Dawson-Hughes B, Heaney RP, Holick MF, et al. Estimates of optimal vitamin D status. Osteoporosis International 2005; 16: 713-6

34. Hathcock JN, Shao A, Vieth R, Heaney RP. Risk assessment for vitamin D. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007; 85: 6-18. 

35. Jones G. Pharmacokinetics of vitamin D toxicity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008; 88: 582S-6S.

36. Looker AC, Pfeiffer CM, Lacher DA, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of the US population: 1988-1994 compared with 2000-2004. American Journal of Clinical  Nutrition 2008; 88: 1519-27.

37. Webb AR, Engelsen O. Calculated ultraviolet exposure levels for a healthy vitamin D status. Photochemistry and Photobiology 2006; 82: 1697-703

38. Yetley EA. Assessing the vitamin D status of the US population. American Journal of  Clinical Nutrition 2008; 88: 558S– 64S.

39. Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo MS, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone 2002; 30: 771-7.

40. Lips P, Bouillon R, van Schoor NM, et al. Reducing fracture risk with calcium and vitamin D. Clinical Endocrinology (Oxford) 2009 Sep 10. [Epub ahead of print]

41. IARC Working Group on Vitamin D. Vitamin D and Cancer (IARC Working Group Reports; 5) Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008. Available at: Accessed November 2, 2009.