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1. He J, Whelton PK. Epidemiology and prevention of hypertension. The Medical Clinics of  North America1997; 81: 1077–97.

2. Whelton PK. Epidemiology of hypertension. Lancet 1994; 344: 101-6.

3. World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2002, Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.

4. Lawes CM, Vander Hoorn S, Rodgers, A. Global burden of blood-pressure-related disease, 2001. Lancet 2008; 371: 1513-8.

5. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, et al. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005; 365: 217-23.

6. Connor Gorber S, Tremblay MS, Campbell N, Hard J. The accuracy of self-reported hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reviews 2005; 4: 36-62.

7. MacLean DR, Petrasovits A, Nargundkar M. Canadian Heart Health Surveys: a profile of cardiovascular risk. Survey methods and data analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal 1992; 146(11): 1969-2029.

8. Joffres MR, Ghadirian P, Fodor JG, et al. Awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in Canada. American Journal of Hypertension 1997; 10: 1097-102.

9. Tremblay M., Wolfson M., Gorber SC. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Rational, background and overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007;18(supplement): 7-20.

10. Giroux S. Canadian Health Measures Survey: Sampling strategy. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(supplement): 31-6.

11. Campbell NRC, Joffres MR, McKay DW. Hypertension surveillance in Canada. Minimum standards for assessing blood pressure in surveys. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2005; 96: 217-20.

12. Wright JM, Mattu GS, Perry Jr TL, et al. Validation of a new algorithm for the BPM-100 electronic oscillometric office blood pressure monitor. Blood Pressure Monitoring 2001; 6: 161-5.

13. Pan American Hypertension Initiative. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in population surveys. Pan American Journal of Public Health 2003; 14(5): 300-2.

14. Pereira M, Lunet N, Azeved H, Barros H. Differences in prevalence, awareness, treatment. and control of hypertension between developing and developed countries. Journal of Hypertension 2009; 27: 963-75.

15. Tremblay M., Langlois R., Bryan S., et al. Canadian Health Measures Survey Pre-test: Design, methods and results. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(supplement): 21-30.

16. VSM MedTech Ltd. BpTRU™ Operator’s Manual. 2004.

17. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measure Survey (CHMS) Household Questionnaire. Available at: /imdb-bmdi/instrument/5071_Q1_V1-eng.pdf.

18. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Questionnaire. 2007. Available at: /imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V4-eng.pdf. Accessed March 5, 2009].

19. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Clinic Questionnaire. Available at: /imdb-bmdi/instrument/5071_Q2_V1-eng.pdf.

20. Bryan SN, St-Denis M, Wojtas D.  Canadian Health Measures Survey: Clinic operations and logistics. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(supplement): 53-70.

21. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. The Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness & Lifestyle Approach, Third Edition. Ottawa: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, 2004.

22. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Data Users’ Guide: Cycle 0.1, September 2007. Available at:

23. Abbott D, Campbell N, Carruthers-Czyzewski P, et al. Guidelines for measurement of blood pressure, follow-up, and lifestyle counselling. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1994; 85(Suppl 2): S29-S35.

24. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2004; 114: 555-76.

25. Statistics Canada. Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) Derived Variable Document. Available at: