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1. Riley JC. Rising Life Expectancy: A Global History. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

2. Mackenbach JP. Health Inequalities: Europe in Profile. London: COI for the Department of Health, 2006.  Available at: .  Accessed March 26, 2009.

3. Mackenbach JP, Meerding WJ, Kunst AE. Economic Implications of Socio-economic Inequalities in Health in the European Union. Luxembourg: European Commission, 2007.

4. Health Disparities Task Group. Reducing Health Disparities – Role of the Health Sector. Discussion paper. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada, 2004.  Available at:  http://www.phac-aspc. Accessed October 20, 2008.

5. Raphael D. Health inequalities in Canada: current discourses and implications for public action. Critical Public Health 2000;10(2): 193-216.

6. World Health Organization. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.

7. Wilkins R, Berthelot JM, Ng E. Trends in mortality by neighbourhood income in urban Canada from 1971 to 1996. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2002; 13 (Supplement): 45-71.

8. James PD, Wilkins R, Detsky AS, et al. Avoidable mortality by neighbourhood income in Canada: 25 years after the establishment of universal health insurance. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2007; 61: 287-96.

9. Eng K, Feeny D. Comparing the health of low income and less well educated groups in the United States and Canada. Population Health Metrics 2007; 5: 10.

10. Kopec JA, Williams JI, To T, Austin PC. Measuring population health: correlates of the Health Utilities Index among English and French Canadians. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2000; 91(6): 465-70.

11. Marra CA, Lynd LD, Esdaile JM, et al. The impact of low family income on self-reported health outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis within a publicly funded health-care environment. Rheumatology 2004; 43: 1390-7.

12. Roberge R, Berthelot JM, Wolfson M. The Health Utility Index: Measuring health differences in Ontario by socioeconomic status. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 1995; 7: 25-32.

13. Bossuyt N, Gadeyne S, Deboosere P, Van Oyen H. Socio-economic inequalities in health expectancy in Belgium. Public Health 2004; 118(1): 3-10.

14. Crimmins EM, Cambois E. Social inequalities in health expectancy. In: Robine JM, Jagger C, Mathers CD, et al., eds. Determining Health Expectancies. Chichester, England: Wiley, 2003: 111-25.

15. Wood R, Sutton M, Clark D, et al. Measuring inequalities in health: the case for healthy life expectancy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2006; 60:1089-92.

16. Murray CJL, Lopez AD, eds. The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Volume 1. Boston: Harvard University Press; 1996.

17. Robine JM, Jagger C, Mathers CD, Crimmins EM, Suzman RM, eds. Determining Health Expectancies. Chichester, England: Wiley, 2003.

18. Murray CJL, Salomon JA, Mathers CD, Lopez AD, eds. Summary Measures of Population Health: Concepts, Ethics, Measurement and Applications. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.

19. Wolfson MC. Health-adjusted life expectancy. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 1996; 8(1): 41-6.

20. Mayer F, Ross N, Berthelot JM, Wilkins R. Disability-free life expectancy by health region. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2002; 13(4): 49-60.

21. Boswell-Purdy J, Flanagan WM, Roberge H, et al. Population health impact of cancer in Canada, 2001. Chronic Diseases in Canada 2007; 28(1-2): 42-55.

22. Manuel DG, Schultz SE. Using linked data to calculate summary measures of population health: health-adjusted life expectancy of people with diabetes mellitus. Population Health Metrics  2004; 2: 4.

23. Manuel DG, Luo W, Ugnat A-M, Mao Y. Cause-deleted health-adjusted life expectancy of Canadians with selected chronic conditions. Chronic Diseases in Canada 2003; 24(4): 108-15.

24. Manuel DG, Schultz SE, Kopec JA. Measuring the health burden of chronic disease and injury using health-adjusted life expectancy and the Health Utilities Index. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2002; 56: 843-50.

25. Bélanger A, Martel L, Berthelot JM, Wilkins R. Gender differences in disability-free life expectancy for selected risk factors and chronic conditions in Canada. Journal of Women and Aging 2002; 14: 61-83.

26. Martel L, Bélanger A. An analysis of the change in dependence-free life expectancy in Canada between 1986 and 1996. In: Bélanger A, Gilbert S, eds. Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada 1998-1999 (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 91-209-XPE) Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 1999: 164-86 (and Erratum).

27. Roberge R, Berthelot JM, Cranswick K. Adjusting life expectancy to account for disability in a population: A comparison of three techniques. Social Indicators Research 1999; 48(2): 217-43.

28. Health Canada. Healthy Canadians: A Federal Report on Comparable Health Indicators 2004. Ottawa: Health Canada, 2004.

29. Wilkins R, Adams O. Healthfulness of Life: A Unified View of Mortality, Institutionalization and Non-Institutionalized Disability in Canada, 1978. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1983.

30. Wilkins R, Adams OB. Health expectancy in Canada, late 1970s: demographic, regional, and social dimensions. American Journal of Public Health 1983; 73: 1073-80.

31. Nault F, Roberge R, Berthelot JM. Espérance de vie et espérance en santé selon le sexe, l’état matrimonial et le statut socio-économique au Canada. Cahiers Québécois de Démographie 1996; 25(2): 241-59.

32. Berthelot JM. Health-adjusted life expectancy. In: Robine JM, Jagger C, Mathers CD, et al., eds. Determining Health Expectancies. Chichester, England: Wiley, 2003: 235-46.

33. Wilkins R, Tjepkema M, Mustard CA, Choinière R. The Canadian census-mortality follow-up study, 1991 to 2001. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2008; 19(3): 25-43. Available at: /pub/82-003-x/2008003/article/10681-eng.pdf

34. Béland Y. Canadian community health survey: Methodological overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2002; 13(3): 9-14.

35. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS): Questionnaire for Cycle 1.1. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2002. /imdb-bmdi/instrument/3226_Q1_V1-eng.pdf

36. Statistics Canada. 1991 Census Dictionary (Catalogue 92-301E, POPLINE Document Number: 241233) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1992.

37. Ford BL. An overview of hot-deck procedures. In: Madow WG, Olkin I, Rubin DB, eds.  Incomplete Data in Sample Surveys. New York: Academic Press, 1983: 185-207.

38. Sullivan DF. A single index of mortality and morbidity. HSMHA Health Reports 1971; 86: 347-54.

39. Chiang CL. The Life Table and its Applications. Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger, 1984.

40. Feeny D. The Health Utilities Index: A tool for assessing health benefits. Patient Reported Outcomes Newsletter 2005; 34: 2-6.

41. Feeny D, Furlong W, Torrance GW, et al. Multi-attribute and single-attribute utilities functions for the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 system. Medical Care 2002; 40(2): 113-28.

42. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ. Resampling inference with complex survey data. Journal of the American Statistical Association 1988; 83: 231-41.

43. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18: 209-17.

44. Mathers C. Health Expectancies in Australia 1981 and 1988. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, AGPS, 1991.

45. Guyatt,GH, Osoba D, Wu AW, et al. Methods to explain the clinical significance of health status measures. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2002; 77: 371-83.

46. Horsman J, Furlong W, Feeny D, Torrance G. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®): Concepts, measurement properties and applications. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 2003; 1: 54.

47. Howe GK, Clapp RW. Are we winning or losing the war on cancer? Deciphering the propaganda of NCI’s 33-year war. New Solutions: A Journal of Environmental and Occupational Health Policy 2004; 14(2): 109-24.

48. Furlong WJ, Feeny DH, Torrance GW, Barr RD. The Health Utilities Index (HUI) system for assessing health-related quality of life in clinical studies. Annals of Medicine 2001; 33: 375-84.

49. Shaw JW, Johnson JA, Coons SJ. US valuation of the EQ-5D health states: development and testing of the D1 model. Medical Care 2005; 43: 203-20.

50. Brazier J, Usherwood T, Harper R, Thomas K. Deriving a preference-based single index from the UK SF-36 Health Survey. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1998; 51(11): 1115-28.

51. Murray CJL. Rethinking DALYs.In:Murray CJL, Lopez AD, eds. The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020. Volume 1. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; 1996: 1-98.

52. Wolfson MC. POHEM – A framework for understanding and modeling the health of populations. World Health Statistics Quarterly 1994; 47: 157-76.

53. Barendregt JJ. Confidence intervals for health expectancy. International Network on Health Expectancy (REVES). Hammamet, Tunisa: April 24-26, 2002.

54. Martikainen P, Mäkelä P, Koskinen S, Valkonen T. Income differences in mortality: A registry-based follow-up of three million men and women. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001; 30: 1397-405.

55. West P. Rethinking the health selection explanation for health inequalities. Social Science and Medicine 1991; 32: 337-84.

56. Wolfson MC, Rowe G, Gentleman JF, Tomiak M. Career earnings and death: a longitudinal analysis of older Canadian men. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences 1993; 49(4): 5167-79.

57. Benzeval M, Judge K. Income and health: The time dimension. Social Science and Medicine 2001; 52(9): 1371-90.

58. Muennig P. Health selection vs. causation in the income gradient: What can we learn from the graphical trends? Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 2008; 19(2): 574-9.

59. Turrell G, Lynch JW, Leite C, et al. Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and across the life course and all-cause mortality and physical function in adulthood: evidence from the Alameda County study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2007; 61: 723-30.