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  1. Martel L, Malenfant E. Portrait of the Canadian Population, 2006, by Age and Sex, 2006 Census. (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 97-551-X) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2008.

  2. Fries JF. Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity. New England Journal of Medicine 1980; 303: 130-6.

  3. Fries JF. The compression of morbidity: Near or far? Milbank Quarterly 1989; 67(2): 208-32.

  4. Jagger C. Compression or expansion of morbidity—what does the future hold? Age and Ageing 2000; 29: 93-4.

  5. Singer JB, Willett JB. Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis. Toronto: Oxford University Press; 2003.

  6. Hofer SM, Sliwinski MJ. Understanding aging: An evaluation of research designs for assessing the interdependence of ageing-related changes. Gerontology 2001; 47: 341-52.

  7. Liang J, Shaw BA, Krause N, et al. How does self-assessed health change with age? A study of older adults in Japan. Journals of Gerontology: Series B 2005; 60B(4): S224-32.

  8. McCullogh ME, Laurenceau J-P. Gender and the natural history of self-rated health: a 59-year longitudinal study. Health Psychology 2004; 23(6): 651-5.

  9. Tambay JL, Catilin G. Sample design of the National Population Health Survey. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 1995; 7: 29‑38.

  10. Smith G. The Population in Collective Dwellings: Canada 1961-1991.  (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 91F0015MIE1996002) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 1996.

  11. Diehr P, Patrick DL. Trajectories of health for older adults over time: Accounting fully for death. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003; 139: 416-20.

  12. Diehr P, Johnson LL, Patrick DL, Psaty B. Methods for incorporating death into health-related variables in longitudinal studies. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2005; 58: 1115-24.

  13. Belanger A, Martel L, Berthelot J-M, Wilkins R. Gender differences in disability-free life expectancy for selected risk factors and chronic conditions in Canada. Journal of Women and Aging 2002; 14(1/2): 61-83.

  14. St-Arnaud J, Beaudet M, Tully P. Life expectancy. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2005; 17(1): 43-6.

  15. Statistics Canada. Health-adjusted life expectancy, at birth and at age 65, by sex and income group, Canada and provinces, occasional. CANSIM Table 101-0121. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2001.

  16. Gilmour H, Park J. Dependency, chronic conditions, and pain in seniors. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2005; 16(Suppl.): 21-31.

  17. Rhodes AR. Attrition in Longitudinal Studies Using Older Adults: A Meta-analysis. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas, 2005.

  18. Patrick DL, Erickson J. Health Status and Health Policy: Quality of Life in Health Care Evaluation and Resource Allocation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

  19. Feeny D, Furlong W, Torrance GW, set al. Multi-attribute and single-attribute utility functions for the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 System. Medical Care 2002; 40(2): 113-28.

  20. Mplus [computer program]. Version 4.1. Los Angeles: Muthen & Muthen, 2006.

  21. Rao J, Wu C, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

  22. Drummond M. Introducing economic and quality of life measurements into clinical studies. Annals of Medicine 2001; 33(5): 344-9.

  23. Grootendorst P, Feeny D, Furlong W. Health Utilities Index Mark 3: Evidence of construct validity for stroke and arthritis in a population health survey. Medical Care 2000; 38(3): 290-9.

  24. Mathers CD, Sadana R, Salomon JA, et al. Estimates of DALE for 191 Countries: Methods and Results. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.

  25. World Heath Organization. World Health Report: Statistical Annex. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2006.