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  1. Turner RJ, Lloyd D. The stress process and the social distribution of depression. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1999; 40: 374-404.

  2. Adler N, Boyce T, Chesney M, et al. Socioeconomic status and health: The challenge of the gradient. American Psychologist 1994; 49: 15-24.

  3. Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ, Hiripi R, Mroczek DK, Normand S-LT, et al. Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine 2002; 32: 959‑76.

  4. Cairney J, Veldhuizen B, Wade TJ, et al. Evaluation of 2 measures of psychological distress as screeners for depression in the general population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2007; 52: 111-20.

  5. Elstad J. Social Inequalities in Health and Their Explanations. Oslo: NOVA, 2000.

  6. Chandola T, Bartley M, Sacker A, et al. Health selection in the Whitehall II study, UK. Social Science and  Medicine 2003; 56: 2059-72.

  7. Yen IH, Syme SL. The social environment and health: A discussion of the epidemiological literature. Annual Review of Public Health 1999; 20: 287‑308.

  8. Selye H. The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw Hill, 1956.

  9. Cairney J, Krause N. The social distribution of psychological distress and depression in older adults. Journal of Aging and Health 2005; 17(6): 807‑35.

  10. McEwen B. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine 1998; 338: 171-9.

  11. Turner RJ, Wheaton B, Lloyd D. The epidemiology of social stress. American Sociological Review 1995; 60(1): 104‑25.

  12. Matthews S, Power C, Stansfeld SA. Psychological distress and work and home roles: a focus on socio-economic differences in distress. Psychological Medicine 2001; 31(4): 725-36.

  13. Myer L, Stein DJ, Grimsrud A, et al. Social determinants of psychological distress in a nationally-representative sample of South African adults. Social Science and Medicine 2008; 66: 1828‑40.

  14. Tambay J-L, Catlin G. Sample design of the National Population Health Survey—its longitudinal nature. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 1995; 7(1): 29-38.

  15. Statistics Canada. NPHS, Household Component, Cycles 1 to 7 (1994/1995 to 2006/2007), Longitudinal Documentation. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2008.

  16. Schwartz JE, Pieper CF, Karasek RA. A procedure for linking psychosocial job characteristics data to health surveys. American Journal of Public Health 1988; 78(8): 904-9.

  17. Wheaton B. Sampling the stress universe. In: Avison WR, Gotlib I, editors. Stress and Mental Health: Contemporary Issues and Prospects for the Future. New York: Plenum Press, 1994: 77-114.

  18. Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, et al. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry 2003; 60: 184-9.

  19. Rao J, Wu C, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology  (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001)1992; 18(2): 209-17.

  20. Rust K, Rao J. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

  21. Baron R, Kenny D. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 1986; 51(6): 1173-82.

  22. Orpana H, Lemyre L. Explaining the social gradient in health in Canada: Using the National Population Health Survey to examine the role of stressors. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2004; 11(3): 143-51.

  23. Orpana H, Lemyre L, Kelly S. Do stressors explain the relationship between income and declines in self-rated health? A longitudinal analysis of the National Population Health Survey. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2007; 14(1): 40-7.

  24. Watson D, Pennebaker J. Health complaints, stress and distress: Exploring the central role of negative affectivity. Psychological Review 1989; 96(2): 234-54.

  25. Spector P, Zapf D, Chen P, Frese M. Why negative affectivity should not be controlled for in job stress research: Don’t throw the baby out with the bath water. Journal of Organizational Behavior 2000; 21: 79-95.

  26. Orpana H. Using the National Population Health Survey to identify factors associated with patterns of psychological distress over 10 years. Healthcare Policy 2007; 394): 55-63.