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  1. World Health Organization. Obesity and Overweight. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006 [cited 2008 May 7].

  2. Tjepkema M. Adult obesity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 9-25.

  3. Shields M. Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 27-42.

  4. Rigby N, Leach R., James WPT. Seeking bold solutions for Britain's runaway obesity epidemic. International Obesity Taskforce Briefing Paper. London: IOTF, 2003.

  5. Sturm R, Ringel JS, Andreyeva T. Increasing obesity rates and disability trends. Health Affairs 2004; 23(2): 199-205.

  6. Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I. The economic costs associated with physical inactivity and obesity in Canada: an update. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 2004; 29: 90–115.

  7. Engstrom JL, Paterson SA, Doherty A, et al. Accuracy of self-reported height and weight in women: an integrative review of the literature. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health 2003; 48: 338–45.

  8. Niedhammer I, Bugel I, Bonenfant S, et al. Validity of self-reported weight and height in the French GAZEL cohort. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 24: 1111–18.

  9. Nieto-Garcia FJ, Bush TL, Keyl PM. Body mass definitions of obesity: sensitivity and specificity using self-reported weight and height. Epidemiology 1990; 1: 146–52.

  10. Rowland ML. Self-reported weight and height. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; 52: 1125–33.

  11. Connor Gorber S, Tremblay M, Moher D, Gorber B. A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews 2007; 8: 307-26.

  12. Shields M, Connor Gorber S, Tremblay M. Estimates of obesity based on self-report versus direct measures. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2008; 19(2): 61-76.

  13. Puhl RM, Brownell KD. Psychosocial origins of obesity stigma: toward changing a powerful and pervasive bias. Obesity Reviews 2003; 4: 213-27.

  14. Kumanyika S, Jeffery RW, Morabia A, et al. Obesity prevention: the case for action. International Journal of Obesity 2002; 26: 425-36.

  15. Canadian Institute for Health Information. Improving the Health of Canadians: Promoting Healthy Weights. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2006. 

  16. Shields M, Connor Gorber S, Tremblay M. Effects of measurement on obesity and morbidity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2008; 19(2): 77-84.

  17. Yannakoulia M, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Stefanadis C. Correlates of BMI misreporting among apparently healthy individuals: the ATTICA study. Obesity 2006; 14(5): 894-901.

  18. Chiolero A, Peytremann-Bridevaux I, Paccaud F.  Associations between obesity and health conditions may be overestimated if self-reported body mass index is used. Obesity Reviews 2007; 8: 373-4.

  19. Kuskowska-Wolk A, Bergstrom R, Bostrom G. Relationship between questionnaire data and medical records of height, weight and body mass index. International Journal of Obesity 1992; 16: 1-9.

  20. Statistics Canada. Population health surveys. Ottawa: Statistics Canada; 2005 [cited 2008 Jan 20].

  21. Béland Y. Canadian Community Health Survey – methodological overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2002; 13(3): 9-14.

  22. Ziebland S, Thorogood M, Fuller A, Muir J. Desire for the body normal: body image and discrepancies between self-reported and measured height and weight in a British population. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1996; 50: 105–6.

  23. Bostrom G, Diderichsen F. Socioeconomic differentials in misclassification of height, weight and body mass index based on questionnaire data. International Journal of Epidemiology 1997; 26: 860-6.

  24. Roberts RJ. Can self-reported data accurately describe the prevalence of overweight? Public Health 1995;109: 275-84.

  25. World Health Organization. Physical Status: The Use of and Interpretation of Anthropometry, Report of the WHO Expert Committee (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 854) Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.

  26. Health Canada. Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults (Catalogue H49-179) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003.

  27. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

  28. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

  29. Statistics Canada. Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 3.1 Derived Variable Specifications. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2006. 

  30. Visscher TLS, Viet AL, Kroesbergen HT, Seidell JC. Underreporting of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimations in the period 1998 to 2001. Obesity 2006; 14(11): 2054-63.

  31. Plankey MW, Stevens J, Flegal KM, Rust PF. Prediction equations do not eliminate systematic error in self-reported body mass index. Obesity Research 1997; 5(4): 308-14.

  32. Bolton-Smith C, Woodward M, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Morrison C. Accuracy of the estimated prevalence of obesity from self reported height and weight in an adult Scottish population. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2000; 54:143-8.

  33. Cawley J. The impact of obesity on wages. The Journal of Human Resources 2004; 39(2): 451-74.

  34. Nyholm M, Gullberg B, Merlo J, et al. The validity of obesity based on self-reported weight and height: implications for population studies. Obesity 2007; 15(1): 197-208.

  35. Katzmarzyk PT. The Canadian obesity epidemic, 1985–1998. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2002; 166: 1039-40.

  36. Ezzati M, Martin H, Skjold S, et al. Trends in national and state-level obesity in the USA after correction for self-report bias: analysis of health surveys. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2006; 99: 250-7.