References

Warning View the most recent version.

Archived Content

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please "contact us" to request a format other than those available.








  1. Tjepkema M. Adult obesity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 9-25.

  2. Shields M. Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 27-42.

  3. Garriguet D.  Canadians' eating habits. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(2): 17-32.

  4. Craig CL, Russell SJ, Cameron C, et al.  Twenty-year trends in physical activity among Canadian adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2004; 95(1): 59-63.

  5. Gilmour H. Physically active Canadians. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(3): 45-65.

  6. Spanier PA, Marshall SJ, Faulkner GE. Tackling the obesity pandemic: a call for sedentary behaviour research. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2006; 97(3): 255-7.

  7. Dietz WH, Jr., Gortmaker SL. Do we fatten our children at the television set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 1985; 75(5): 807-12.

  8. Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, et al.  Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 1998; 279(12): 938-42.

  9. Gortmaker SL, Dietz WH, Jr., Cheung LW. Inactivity, diet, and the fattening of America. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1990; 90(9): 1247-55.

  10. Gortmaker SL, Must A, Sobol AM, et al.  Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986-1990. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1996; 150(4): 356-62.

  11. Fleming-Moran M, Thiagarajah K. Behavioral interventions and the role of television in the growing epidemic of adolescent obesity—data from the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Methods of Information in Medicine 2005; 44(2): 303-9.

  12. Utter J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Jeffery R, et al.  Couch potatoes or french fries: are sedentary behaviors associated with body mass index, physical activity, and dietary behaviors among adolescents? Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2003; 103(10): 1298-305.

  13. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Boyce WF, et al.  Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationships with physical activity and dietary patterns. Obesity Reviews 2005; 6(2): 123-32.

  14. Eisenmann JC, Bartee RT, Wang MQ. Physical activity, TV viewing, and weight in U.S. youth: 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Obesity Research 2002; 10(5): 379-85.

  15. Gomez LF, Parra DC, Lobelo F, et al.  Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007; 4: 41.

  16. te Velde SJ, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Thorsdottir I, et al.  Patterns in sedentary and exercise behaviors and associations with overweight in 9-14-year-old boys and girls—a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 2007; 7: 16.

  17. Hancox RJ, Poulton R. Watching television is associated with childhood obesity: but is it clinically important? International Journal of Obesity 2006; 30(1): 171-5.

  18. Hancox RJ, Milne BJ, Poulton R. Association between child and adolescent television viewing and adult health: a longitudinal birth cohort study. Lancet 2004; 364(9430): 257-62.

  19. Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Field AE, et al.  Activity, dietary intake, and weight changes in a longitudinal study of preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls. Pediatrics 2000; 105(4): E56.

  20. Davison KK, Marshall SJ, Birch LL. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between TV viewing and girls' body mass index, overweight status, and percentage of body fat. Journal of Paediatrics 2006; 149(1): 32-7.

  21. Gable S, Chang Y, Krull JL. Television watching and frequency of family meals are predictive of overweight onset and persistence in a national sample of school-aged children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2007; 107(1): 53-61.

  22. Boone JE, Gordon-Larsen P, Adair LS, et al.  Screen time and physical activity during adolescence: longitudinal effects on obesity in young adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2007; 4: 26.

  23. Hardy LL, Dobbins TA, Denney-Wilson EA, et al.  Descriptive epidemiology of small screen recreation among Australian adolescents. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 2006; 42(11): 709-14.

  24. Burke V, Beilin LJ, Durkin K, et al.  Television, computer use, physical activity, diet and fatness in Australian adolescents. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 2006; 1(4): 248-55.

  25. Must A, Bandini LG, Tybor DJ, et al.  Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls. Obesity 2007; 15(7): 1774-81.

  26. Marshall SJ, Biddle SJ, Gorely T, et al.  Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2004; 28(10): 1238-46.

  27. Lowry R, Wechsler H, Galuska DA, et al.  Television viewing and its associations with overweight, sedentary lifestyle, and insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables among US high school students: differences by race, ethnicity, and gender. The Journal of School Health 2002; 72(10): 413-21.

  28. Béland Y, Dale V, Dufour J, Hamel M. The Canadian Community Health Survey: Building on the Success from the Past. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association Joint Statistical Meetings 2005, Section on Survey Research Methods, August 2005. Minneapolis: American Statistical Association, 2005.

  29. Kronenberg F, Pereira MA, Schmitz MK, et al.  Influence of leisure time physical activity and television watching on atherosclerosis risk factors in the NHLBI Family Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 2000; 153(2): 433-43.

  30. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.

  31. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5: 281-310.

  32. Health Canada. Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults (Catalogue H49-179). Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003.

  33. World Health Organization. Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry, Report of the WHO Expert Committee (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 854)  Geneva: World Health Organization, 1995.

  34. Serdula M, Coates R, Byers T, et al.  Evaluation of a brief telephone questionnaire to estimate fruit and vegetable consumption in diverse study populations. Epidemiology 1993; 4(5): 455-63.

  35. Ainsworth BE. The Compendium of Physical Activities Tracking Guide. Prevention Research Center, Norman J. Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, 2002. Accessed March 3, 2008.

  36. Shields M, Tremblay MS. Screen time among Canadian adults:  A profile. Screen time among Canadian adults: A profile (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2008; 19(2): 31-43.

  37. Must A, Tybor DJ. Physical activity and sedentary behavior: a review of longitudinal studies of weight and adiposity in youth. International Journal of Obesity 2005; 29 Suppl 2: S84-S96.

  38. Biddle SJ, Gorely T, Marshall SJ, et al.  Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in youth: issues and controversies. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 2004; 124(1): 29-33.

  39. Sidney S, Sternfeld B, Haskell WL, et al.  Television viewing and cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: the CARDIA study. Annals of Epidemiology 1996; 6(2): 154-9.

  40. Ching PL, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al.  Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals. American Journal of Public Health 1996; 86(1): 25-30.

  41. Coakley EH, Rimm EB, Colditz G, et al.  Predictors of weight change in men: results from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1998; 22(2): 89-96.

  42. Giles-Corti B, Macintyre S, Clarkson JP, et al.  Environmental and lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity in Perth, Australia. American Journal of Health Promotion 2003; 18(1): 93-102.

  43. Liebman M, Pelican S, Moore SA, et al.  Dietary intake, eating behavior, and physical activity-related determinants of high body mass index in rural communities in Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2003; 27(6): 684-92.

  44. Jakes RW, Day NE, Khaw KT, et al.  Television viewing and low participation in vigorous recreation are independently associated with obesity and markers of cardiovascular disease risk: EPIC-Norfolk population-based study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 57(9): 1089-96.

  45. Tucker LA, Bagwell M. Television viewing and obesity in adult females. American Journal of Public Health 1991; 81(7): 908-11.

  46. Tucker LA, Friedman GM. Television viewing and obesity in adult males. American Journal of Public Health 1989; 79(4): 516-8.

  47. Salmon J, Bauman A, Crawford D, et al.  The association between television viewing and overweight among Australian adults participating in varying levels of leisure-time physical activity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 24(5): 600-6.

  48. Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, et al.  Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 2003; 289(14): 1785-91.

  49. Koh-Banerjee P, Chu NF, Spiegelman D, et al.  Prospective study of the association of changes in dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking with 9-y gain in waist circumference among 16 587 US men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003; 78(4): 719-27.

  50. Vioque J, Torres A, Quiles J. Time spent watching television, sleep duration and obesity in adults living in Valencia, Spain. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 2000; 24(12): 1683-8.

  51. Robinson TN. Television viewing and childhood obesity. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2001; 48(4): 1017-25.

  52. Story M, Faulkner P. The prime time diet: a content analysis of eating behavior and food messages in television program content and commercials. American Journal of Public Health 1990; 80(6): 738-40.

  53. Harrison K, Marske AL. Nutritional content of foods advertised during the television programs children watch most. American Journal of Public Health 2005; 95(9): 1568-74.

  54. Powell LM, Szczypka G, Chaloupka FJ, et al.  Nutritional content of television food advertisements seen by children and adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics 2007; 120(3): 576-83.

  55. Subar AF, Ziegler RG, Patterson BH, et al.  US dietary patterns associated with fat intake: the 1987 National Health Interview Survey. American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84(3): 359-66.

  56. Esliger DW, Tremblay MS. Physical activity and inactivity profiling: the next generation. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2007; 98 Suppl 2: S195-S207.

  57. Connor Gorber S, Tremblay M, Moher D, et al.  A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews 2007; 8(4): 307-26.

  58. Shields M, Connor Gorber S, Tremblay MS. Estimates of obesity based on self-report versus direct measures. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2008; 19(2).

  59. Bryant MJ, Lucove JC, Evenson KR, et al.  Measurement of television viewing in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Obesity Reviews 2007; 8(3): 197-209.

  60. Olshansky SJ, Passaro DJ, Hershow RC, et al.  A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352(11): 1138-45.

  61. Doak CM, Visscher TL, Renders CM, et al.  The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Obesity Reviews 2006; 7(1): 111-36.

  62. Hills AP, King NA, Armstrong TP. The contribution of physical activity and sedentary behaviours to the growth and development of children and adolescents: implications for overweight and obesity. Sports Medicine 2007; 37(6): 533-45.

  63. Raitakari OT, Porkka KV, Taimela S, et al.  Effects of persistent physical activity and inactivity on coronary risk factors in children and young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994; 140(3): 195-205.

  64. Janz KF, Dawson JD, Mahoney LT. Tracking physical fitness and physical activity from childhood to adolescence: the muscatine study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2000; 32(7): 1250-7.