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  1. Baker GR, Norton PG, Flintoft V, et al. The Canadian Adverse Events Study:  the incidence of adverse events among hospital patients in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2004; 170(11): 1678-86.

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  3. Osborne J, Blais K, Hayes JS. Nurses' perceptions:  When is it a medication error?  The Journal of Nursing Administration 1999; 29(4): 33-8.

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  6. Carlton G, Blegen MA. Medication-related errors:  A literature review of incidence and antecedents. Annual Review of Nursing Research 2006; 24: 19-38.

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  8. Rex JH, Turnbull JE, Allen SJ, et al. Systematic root cause analysis of adverse drug events in a tertiary referral hospital.  Joint Commission Journal of Quality Improvement 2000; 26(10): 563-75.

  9. Milligan F. Adverse health-care events: Part I. the nature of the problem. Professional Nurse 2003; 18(9): 502-5.

  10. Reason J. Human error:  models and management. British Medical Journal 2000; 320: 768-70.

  11. Rogers AE, Hwang W-T, Scott LD, et al. The working hours of hospital staff nurses and patient safety. Health Affairs 2004; 23(4): 202-12.

  12. McGillis Hall L, Doran D, Pink GH. Nurse staffing models, nursing hours, and patient safety outcomes. The Journal of Nursing Administration 2004; 34(1): 41-5.

  13. Whitman GR, Kim Y, Davidson LF, et al. The impact of staffing on patient outcomes across specialty units. The Journal of Nursing Administration 2002; 32(12): 633-9.

  14. Spence Laschinger HK, Leiter MP. The impact of nursing work environments on patient safety outcomes.  The Journal of Nursing Administration 2006; 36(5): 259-67.

  15. Balas MC, Scott LD, Rogers AE. Frequency and type of errors and near errors reported by critical care nurses.  Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 2006; 38(2): 24-41.

  16. Balas MC, Scott LD, Rogers AE. The prevalence and nature of errors and near errors reported by hospital staff nurses. Applied Nursing Research 2004; 17(4): 224-30.

  17. Donabedian A. The quality of care.  How can it be assessed?  JAMA 1988; 260(12): 1743-8.

  18. El-Jardali F, Lagacé M. Making hospital care safer and better:  The structure-process connection leading to adverse events. Health Care Quarterly 2005; 8(2): 40-8.

  19. Elfering A, Semmer NK, Grebner S. Work stress and patient safety:  observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses. Ergonomics 2006; 49(5-6): 457-69.

  20. Estabrooks CA, Midozi WK, Cummings GG, et al. The impact of hospital nursing characteristics on 30-day mortality.  Nursing Research 2005; 54(2): 74-84.

  21. Jackson J, Chiarello LA, Gaynes RP, et al. Nurse staffing and healthcare-associated infections. Proceedings from a Working Group Meeting.  Journal of Nursing Administration 2002; 32(6):  314-22.

  22. Kane RL, Shamliyan TA, Mueller C, et al. The association of Registered Nurse staffing levels and patient outcomes:  Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medical Care 2007; 45(12): 1195-1204.

  23. Stone PW, Mooney-Kane C, Larson E, et al. Nurse working conditions and patient safety outcomes. Medical Care 2007; 45(6):  571-8.

  24. Shields M, Wilkins K. Findings from the 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 83-003-XPE) Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 2006.

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  27. Aiken LH, Patrician PA. Measuring organizational traits of hospitals: The Revised Nursing Work Index. Nursing Research 2000; 49(3): 146-53.

  28. Lake E. Development of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index.  Research in Nursing & Health 2002; 25: 176-88.

  29. Estabrooks CA, Tourangeau AE, Humphrey CK, et al. Measuring the hospital practice environment:  A Canadian context.  Research in Nursing & Health 2002; 25: 256-68.

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  32. Yeo D, Mantel H, Liu TP. Bootstrap variance estimation for the National Population Health Survey. American Statistical Association: Proceedings of the Survey Research Methods Section. Baltimore: August 1999.

  33. Scott LD, Rogers AE, Hwang WT, et al. Effects of critical care nurses' work hours on vigilance and patients' safety. American Journal of Critical Care 2006; 15(1): 30-7.

  34. Stone PW, Du Y, Cowell R, et al. Comparison of nurse, system and quality patient care outcomes in 8-hour and 12-hour shifts. Medical Care 2006; 44(12): 1099-106.

  35. Fitzpatrick JM, While AE, Roberts JD. Shift work and its impact upon nurse performance:  current knowledge and research issues. Journal of Advanced Nursing 1999; 29(1): 18-27.

  36. Bloodworth C, Lea A, Lane S, et al. Challenging the myth of the 12-hour shift:  a pilot evaluation. Nursing Standard 2001; 15(29): 33-6.

  37. Campolo M, Pugh J, Thompson L, et al. Pioneering the 12-hour shift in Australia—implementation and limitations.  Australian Critical Care 1998;11(4): 112-5.

  38. Sochalski J. Is more better?  The relationship between nurse staffing and the quality of nursing care in hospitals. Medical Care 2004; 42(2 suppl): II-67-II-73.

  39. Poster EC, Pelletier L. Primary versus functional medication administration:  Monitoring and evaluating medication error rates. Journal of Nursing Quality Assurance 1988; 2(2): 68-76.

  40. Keddy B, Gregor F, Foster S, et al. Theorizing about nurses' work lives:  the personal and professional aftermath of living with healthcare 'reform.' Nursing Inquiry 1999; 6: 58-64.

  41. Greenglass ER, Burke RJ.  Stress and the effects of hospital restructuring in nurses.  Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 2001; 33(2): 93-108.

  42. Nicklin W, McVeety JE. Canadian nurses' perceptions of patient safety in hospitals. Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership 2002; 15(3): 11-21.