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  1. Shields M, Tjekema M. Trends in adult obesity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 53-9.
  2. World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 894) Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.
  3. US Department of Health and Human Services. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General, 2001.
  4. Wilson PW, d'Agostino RB, Sullivan L, et al. Overweight and obesity determinants of cardiovascular risk: The Framingham experience. Archives of Internal Medicine 2002; 162: 1867-72.
  5. Bray GB. Overweight, mortality and morbidity. In: Bouchard C, ed. Physical Activity and Obesity. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2000: 31-53.
  6. Katzmarzyk PT, Janssen I, Ardern C. Physical inactivity, excess adiposity and premature mortality. Obesity Reviews 2003; 4: 257-90.
  7. Beamer BA. Genetic influences on obesity. In: Andersen RE, ed. Obesity: Etiology, Assessment, Treatment and Prevention. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 2003: 43-56.
  8. Tjepkema M. Adult obesity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 9-25.
  9. Tremblay MS, Pérez CE, Ardern CI, et al. Obesity, overweight and ethnicity. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2005; 16(4): 23-34.
  10. Story M, Evans M, Fabsitz RR, et al. The epidemic of obesity in American Indian communities and the need for childhood obesity-prevention programs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999; 69(suppl): 747S-54S.
  11. Department of Health and Ageing. Factbook 2006. Sydney, Australia, 2006. Available at
  12. Ministry of Social Development. The Social Report 2006. Auckland, New Zealand, 2006. Available at
  13. Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Obesity in the Pacific: Too Big to Ignore. Noumea, New Caledonia: Secretariat of the Pacific Community, 2002.
  14. Shields M. Overweight and obesity among children and youth. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2006; 17(3): 27-42.
  15. Béland Y. Canadian Community Health Survey – Methodological overview. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2002; 13(3): 9-14.
  16. Moshfegh AJ, Borrud L, Perloff B, et al. Improved method for the 24-hour dietary recall for use in national surveys. The FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1999; 13: A603 (abstract).
  17. Moshfegh AJ, Raper N, Ingwersen L, et al. An improved approach to 24-hour dietary recall methodology. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2001; 45(suppl): 156 (abstract).
  18. Health Canada. Canadian Nutrient File, 2005 Version. Available at
  19. Health Canada. Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating for People Four Years Old and Over (Catalogue H39-2521/1992E) Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1997.
  20. Rao JNK, Wu CFJ, Yue K. Some recent work on resampling methods for complex surveys using replication techniques. Survey Methodology (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 12-001) 1992; 18(2): 209-17.
  21. Rust KF, Rao JNK. Variance estimation for complex surveys using replication techniques. Statistical Methods in Medical Research 1996; 5(3): 281-310.
  22. Health Canada. Canadian Guidelines for Body Weight Classification in Adults (Catalogue H49-179/2003E) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2003.
  23. Stephens T, Craig CL, Ferris BF. Adult physical activity in Canada: Findings from the Canada Fitness Survey I. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1986; 77(4): 285-90.
  24. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2005.
  25. Garriguet D. Canadians'eating habits. Health Reports (Statistics Canada, Catalogue 82-003) 2007; 18(2): 17-32.
  26. Merchant AT, Anand SS, Vuksan V, et al. Protein intake is inversely associated with abdominal obesity in a multi-ethnic population. Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135(5): 1196-201.
  27. Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2004.
  28. Conway JM, Ingwersen LA, Vinyard BT, et al. Effectiveness of the US Department of Agriculture 5-step multiple-pass method in assessing food intake in obese and nonobese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003: 77: 1171-8.
  29. Conway JM, Ingwersen LA, Moshfegh AJ. Accuracy of dietary recall using the USDA fivestep multiple-pass method in men: an observational validation study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2004; 104(4): 595-603.
  30. Johnson RK, Soultanakis RP, Matthews DE. Literacy and body fatness are associated with underreporting of energy intake in US low income women using the multiple-pass 24-hour recall, a doubly labelled water study. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1998; 98(10): 1136-40.
  31. Jonnalagadda SS, Mitchell DC, Smiciklas-Wright H, et al. Accuracy of energy intake data estimated by a multi-pass 24-hour dietary recall technique. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2000; 100(3): 303-8.
  32. Johansson G, Wikman A, Ahren AM, et al. Underreporting of energy intake in repeated 24-hour recalls related to gender, age, weight status, day of interview, educational level, reported food intake, smoking habits and area of living. Public Health Nutrition 2001; 4(4): 919-27.
  33. Gersovitz M, Madden JP, Smicklas-Wright H. Validity of the 24-hr. dietary recall and sevenday record for group  comparisons. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1978; 73: 48-55.
  34. Myers RJ, Klesges RC, Eck LH, et al. Accuracy of self-reports of food intake in obese and normal-weight individuals: effect of obesity on self-reports of dietary intake in adult females. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988; 48: 1248-51.
  35. Kahn HA., Whelton PK, Appel LJ, et al. Validity of 24-hour dietary recall interviews conducted among volunteers in an adult working community. Annals of Epidemiology 1995; 5: 484-9.
  36. Hahn RA, Truman BI, Barker ND. Identifying ancestry: the reliability of ancestral identification in the United States by self, proxy, interviewer, and funeral director. Epidemiology 1996; 7: 75-80.