Section 6
Eight selected occupations

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Given the current policy focus of the FCR Program at HRSDC on specific occupations identified in the Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications (see text box below), this section presents similar results as those produced in sections 4.2 and 5.2, but for these specific occupations.

The current report covers eight of the 14 specific occupations identified in the Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications, mostly those from the first group (i.e., architects, engineers, financial auditors and accountants, medical laboratory technologists and pathologists' assistants, pharmacists, physiotherapists, registered nurses and licensed practical nurses). At the time of undertaking this study, these were the occupations that were identified as requiring more immediate attention.

Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications

To meet the needs of the 21st century economy, Canada requires a highly skilled work force. One of the keys to Canada's prosperity and competitiveness will be the degree to which internationally-educated paid workers are able to contribute to Canada's economic and social development (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada 2010).

New policy measures to improve the integration of internationally-educated paid workers from selected occupations in the Canadian labour market are currently being developed by the federal government and concerned stakeholders. Given this, the following section focuses on the education-job skills match and education-employment earnings match of individuals from instructional programs that would normally lead to work in one of the occupations identified in the Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications.

The Framework describes the commitment by provincial and territorial governments and the Government of Canada to work together to create positive change for immigrants in Canada. As part of this commitment, immigrants looking to enter regulated occupations in Canada will receive clear information as early as possible in the immigration process, fair treatment during the assessment process and prompt communication of recognition decisions. Supports will also be extended to both individuals and employers to help enable immigrants' participation in the workforce (FLMM 2009).

One of the goals identified in the Framework is that individuals in eight occupational groups — architects, engineers, financial auditors and accountants, medical laboratory technologists, occupational therapists,1 pharmacists, physiotherapists and registered nurses — will know within one year whether their qualifications will be recognized, be informed of the additional requirements necessary for registration or be directed toward related occupations commensurate with their skills and experience. By the end of 2012, six more occupations — dentists, engineering technicians, licensed practical nurses, medical radiation technologists, physicians and teachers (K-12) — will also be included.

The government of Canada is also playing a role in facilitating foreign credential recognition in non-regulated occupations, which make up about 85 percent of the labour market. Non-regulated occupations are in sectors such as tourism, textiles, software technology, and aviation maintenance.

End of text box.

6.1 Education-job skills match

Similar to the analysis reported in section 4.2, the goal of this section is to examine which factors influence the likelihood, for paid workers, of working in the best corresponding or in an equivalent occupation, but for the eight selected occupations (i.e., architect, engineer, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, pharmacist, physiotherapist, and financial auditor and accountant) as identified in the Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications. As shown previously, the main indicator used to determine if individuals are working in their field or in an equivalent occupation is the 'education-job skills match' variable.

In these logistic regression models, the dependent variable equals 1 if a paid worker with credentials leading to each of the eight selected occupations has a good education-job skills match and 0 otherwise. Similar to what was performed earlier, the logistic regression analysis first considers the contribution of 'given' characteristics to the probability of having a good education-job skills match: immigrant status by region of education. Given the lower sample size shown in Table 6.1 for the eight selected occupations, however, results by 'time elapsed since landing' could not be analyzed. Some socio-demographic characteristics of paid workers also needed to be grouped together. This was the case for paid workers with credentials from North America and Oceania, as well as for those living in the Atlantic Provinces.

Table 6.1 Distribution of paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations as identified through the Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications, Canada, 2006

The sex and age group, marital status and presence of children, province, territory and area of residence, the language ability status variable, the visible minority status variable, and the variable defining the full/part-time and full/part-year status of employment were then added progressively in order to assess their independent effects on the likelihood, for immigrant paid workers, of having a good education-job skills match.

Results

Analysis of data from the 2006 Census shows that, among paid workers in the core working-age group of 25 to 64 with credentials leading to one of the eight selected occupations, internationally-educated immigrants were, in general, less likely than their counterparts educated in Canada and the Canadian-born with a postsecondary education to have a good education-job skills match (Table 6.2).

Table 6.2 (Model 6.1) Adjusted odds ratios for working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupations among paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

The likelihood of having a good education-job skills match also varies by region from which the highest postsecondary credentials were obtained. As shown in Table 6.2, immigrant paid workers with credentials from Canada, North America and Oceania, and from Northern Europe generally showed the highest likelihood among all immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to one of the selected occupations, though the rank order of these regions varied across the selected occupations. In the case of immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of licensed practical nurse and physiotherapist, for example, those who completed their studies in Northern Europe were slightly more likely than those with credentials from other regions to report working in their field or in an equivalent occupation. Conversely, immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of architect, engineer, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, pharmacist, and financial auditor and accountant from Canada, and from North America and Oceania were more likely than those with credentials from other regions to report having a good education-job skills match.

Sex and age group

While results from section 4.2 showed a lower likelihood of having a good education-job skills match for female paid workers overall, the results are more mixed for the eight selected occupations. In fact, as shown in Table 6.3, female paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of nurse supervisor and registered nurse (+18%), licensed practical nurse (+11%) and physiotherapist (+52%) were all more likely than their male counterparts to report working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupation. However, those with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, engineer, pharmacist and financial auditor and accountant were less likely than their male counterparts to report such a positive employment outcome. Gender differences were not statistically significant for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant.

Table 6.3 (Model 6.2) Adjusted odds ratios for working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupations among paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

Depending on field of study, paid workers in some age groups were more likely than others to have a good education-job skills match. Among paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, pharmacist, and financial auditor and accountant, for example, those in older age groups were generally more likely than paid workers aged 25 to 34 to have a good education-job skills match. Conversely, among those with credentials in engineering, nursing and physiotherapy, younger paid workers were more likely than their older counterparts to report working in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation (Table 6.3).

With variations of 4 percentage points or less, controlling for sex and age group did not, in general, have a large influence on the likelihood of working in the best corresponding or in an equivalent occupation for a majority of immigrant paid workers across the selected occupations. Such small variations in the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match seem to suggest that the distribution of immigrant paid workers according to such variables was relatively similar to that observed for the population of paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations.

Variations of more than 4 percentage points could, however, be observed among immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of physiotherapist (42 percentage points), licensed practical nurse (11 percentage points), nurse supervisor and registered nurse (7 percentage points) and architect (5 percentage points) from Northern Europe. Immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist from Western Europe (9 percentage points) and to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse from North America and Oceania (5 percentage points) also showed variations of more than 4 percentage points in the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match when controlling for sex and age group (Table A.7.1 (columns 1 and 2), Appendix 7). In all these cases except for the occupation of architect, the age-sex distribution of the specific immigrant population played a positive role in improving the initial migrant gap observed.

Marital status and presence of children

Being married or living in a common-law relationship is associated with an increase in the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match. As shown in Table 6.4, this was generalized across the selected occupations with the exception of paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse. For these paid workers, those who reported being never married or living in a common-law relationship were, in fact, 12% more likely than those being in this type of relationship to report a good education-job skills match.

Table 6.4 (Model 6.3) Adjusted odds ratios for working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupations among paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

The impact of the presence of pre-school children (aged 5 and under) was not as obvious. As shown in Table 6.4, compared to paid workers without any children, while the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match was higher for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of engineer (+5%), medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant (+36%), and licensed practical nurse (+37%), this likelihood was lower for those with credentials leading to the occupation of architect (-31%). Differences were not statistically significant for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of nurse supervisor and registered nurse, pharmacist, physiotherapist, and financial auditor and accountant.

Controlling for marital status and presence of children had none to very small influence on the likelihood of working in the best corresponding or in an equivalent occupation among internationally-educated paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations. With variations of around 4 percentage points, immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant from Africa and Eastern Asia showed the largest variations. Variations of less than 3 percentage points were observed among all of the other internationally-educated immigrant paid workers (Table A.7.1 (columns 2 and 3), Appendix 7).

In the case of immigrant paid workers educated in Canada, the odds ratios remained pretty much stable across all eight occupations; variations of about 2 percentage points for those with credentials leading to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, and of 1 percentage point or less for immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the other seven occupations. Differences were not statistically significant for Canadian-educated immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist (Table A.7.1 (columns 2 and 3), Appendix 7).

Again, similar to what was observed for sex and age group, such small variations in the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match when controlling for marital status and presence of children seem to suggest that the distribution of immigrant paid workers according to these variables was relatively similar to that observed for the population of paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations.

Province, territory and area of residence

As shown in Table 6.5, no specific pattern was found by province and territory with regard to the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match among paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations. Depending on the field of study, some paid workers were more likely than those from Ontario to report a good education-job skills match. This was the case for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of architect from Manitoba (+90%) and British Columbia (+40%); to the occupation of engineer from Quebec (+11%) and Alberta (+15%); to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant from the Atlantic Provinces (+68%), Quebec (+56%), Manitoba (+120%), Saskatchewan (+53%) and Alberta (+26%); to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse from the Atlantic Provinces (+28%) and Quebec (+33%); to the occupation of physiotherapist from the Atlantic Provinces (+44%); and those with credentials leading to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant from Alberta (+11%). Paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of licensed practical nurse and pharmacist living in Ontario were, on the other hand, more likely than those from all of the other provinces to report having a good education-job skills match.

Table 6.5 (Model 6.4) Adjusted odds ratios for working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupations among paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

In the case of the area of residence, paid workers residing in rural areas were generally less likely than those living in population centres to report working in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation. The only exception to this were paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of pharmacist, who were 43% more likely than their counterparts living in population centres to report a good education-job skills match (Table 6.5).

With variations of 4 percentage points or less, controlling for location of residence (i.e., province, territory, population centre and rural area) had, in general, a relatively small influence on the likelihood of working in the best corresponding or in an equivalent occupation among immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations.

Larger variations when controlling for location of residence could, however, be observed among immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant from Canada (8 percentage points); to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse from North America and Oceania (5 percentage points); to the occupation of licensed practical nurse from Northern Europe (6 percentage points); to the occupation of physiotherapist from Latin America (5 percentage points), Northern Europe (12 percentage points) and Africa (5 percentage points); and, finally, to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant from Canada (9 percentage points), and North America and Oceania (10 percentage points) (Table A.7.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 7). Such larger variations for these immigrant paid workers seem to suggest a relatively different distribution according to location of study when compared to the population of paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations.

Ability to conduct a conversation in Canada's official languages

Results reported in Table 6.6 show that, with the exception of paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, those who reported knowing both official languages were generally more likely than paid workers speaking English only to have a good education-job skills match. Differences were not statistically significant for those with credentials leading to the occupations of licensed practical nurse and pharmacist.

Conversely, paid workers with credentials leading to one of the selected occupations and who reported not being able to converse in at least one of Canada's official languages were less likely than their counterparts speaking English only to report working in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation. Results were not statistically significant for those with credentials leading to the occupations of architect and physiotherapist (Table 6.6).

Table 6.6 (Model 6.5) Adjusted odds ratios for working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupations among paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

The likelihood of having a good education-job skills match was not as obvious for paid workers who reported speaking French only. In fact, as shown in Table 6.6, while paid workers with credentials leading to nursing (i.e., nurse supervisor and registered nurse, and licensed practical nurse) were more likely than their counterparts speaking English only to work in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation, those with credentials leading to the occupations of engineer, and financial auditor and accountant showed the opposite. Results were not statistically significant for those with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, pharmacist and physiotherapist.

As can be observed in Appendix 7, with variations ranging from 1 to 3 percentage points, controlling for language ability had, in general, a relatively small influence on the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match among immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations. Immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of architect from Eastern Asia; to the occupation of physiotherapist from Western and Northern Europe; to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse from Eastern Europe; and to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant from Eastern Asia were the only exceptions to this, with variations ranging from about 4 to 5 percentage points (Table A.7.1 (columns 4 and 5), Appendix 7).

As mentioned earlier, such small variations in the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match when controlling for language ability seem to suggest that the distribution of immigrant paid workers according to these variables was relatively similar to that observed for the population of paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations.

Visible minority status

As shown in Table 6.7, other than for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist (+58%), the analysis finds that being a member of a visible minority group decreased the likelihood of working in the corresponding or in an equivalent occupation. Results were not statistically significant for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect and pharmacist.

Table 6.7 (Model 6.6) Adjusted odds ratios for working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupations among paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

Except for those with credentials leading to the occupation of pharmacist (with variations ranging from 0 to 3 percentage points), the analysis finds that controlling for visible minority status did have, in general, a significant impact on the likelihood that immigrants (either educated in Canada or abroad) would be working in the best corresponding or an equivalent occupation.

With variations of more than 10 percentage points, immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant from Latin America (14 percentage points), Southeast (18 percentage points) and Southern Asia (10 percentage points); to the occupation of licensed practical nurse from Canada (20 percentage points), Latin America (12 percentage points), Africa (11 percentage points), Eastern (20 percentage points), Southeast (16 percentage points) and Southern Asia (19 percentage points); and to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant from Canada (14 percentage points), and North America and Oceania (12 percentage points) showed the highest increases in percentage points in the likelihood of reporting a good education-job skills match (Table A.7.1 (columns 5 and 6), Appendix 7). Such larger variations for these immigrant paid workers suggest a relatively different distribution according to visible minority status, which, when compared to the population of paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations, played a positive role in reducing significantly the remaining migrant gap before introducing this variable in the model.

Full/part-time and full/part-year status of employment

Results from Table 6.8 show that paid workers who reported being employed full-time for the full year were more likely than those being employed part-time for part or the full year or being employed full-time for part of the year to have a good education-job skills match for each of the eight selected occupations. Differences were not statistically significant for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of architect who reported being employed part-time for the full year.

Table 6.8 (Model 6.7) Adjusted odds ratios for working in the best corresponding or equivalent occupations among paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

Unlike what was observed for paid workers overall, controlling for the full/part-time and full/part-year status of employment did not have a clear influence on the likelihood of working in the best corresponding or an equivalent occupation among immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations. In fact, as shown in Appendix 7, while variations in the likelihood of reporting a good education-job skills match remained below 5 percentage points for a majority of immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to one of the eight selected occupations, those for immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation architect from West Central Asia and the Middle East (6 percentage points); to the occupation of engineer from Western Europe (7 percentage points); and to the occupation of licensed practical nurses in general were relatively larger (Table A.7.1 (columns 6 and 7), Appendix 7).

The highest variations in the likelihood of reporting a good education-job skills match were observed among immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of licensed practical nurse. These results are not surprising considering that, compared to immigrants with credentials leading to the other selected occupations, a higher proportion of those immigrants reported working on a part-time basis. Variations ranging from 11 to 76 percentage points were observed among these immigrants (Table A.7.1 (columns 6 and 7), Appendix 7).

6.2 Education-employment earnings match

This section presents results similar to those discussed in the previous section, but for Employment outcome #2 (i.e., likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match).

As shown in Table 6.9, given the small number of full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, results by 'time elapsed since landing' could not be analyzed. Similarly, it was necessarily to group several of the analysed characteristics. This was the case for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials from North America and Oceania, Latin America and Africa, as well as those with credentials from all regions of Europe and Asia. Full-time full-year paid workers who reported being divorced, separated or widowed were grouped within a single category of marital status. Full-time full-year paid workers living in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta were grouped together, as were those from British Columbia and the territories, and those who reported living in the Atlantic Provinces.

Table 6.9 Distribution of full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations as identified through the Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications, Canada, 2006

Results

Analysis of data from the 2006 Census shows that full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to one of the eight selected occupations were generally less likely than their counterparts educated in Canada and full-time full-year Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. As shown in Table 6.10, this was especially the case for immigrants with credentials from Asia, Latin America and Africa. Those educated in North America and Oceania, and Europe showed the highest likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match among all full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers in 2006, and this, for the majority of the eight selected occupations. Full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from North America and Oceania leading to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse and to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant were, for example, 58% and 28% more likely than their counterparts born in Canada to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study.

Table 6.10 (Model 6.8) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

Sex and age group

Although results from the previous section showed that, for some of the selected occupations, female paid workers were more likely than their male counterparts to have a good education-job skills match, results from Table 6.11 showed that their earnings were, on the other hand, generally lower than those reported by their full-time full-year male counterparts. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, and medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant.

Table 6.11 (Model 6.9) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

Similar to what was observed among full-time full-year paid workers overall (Section 5.2), those in older age groups who reported credentials leading to one of the eight selected occupations were, in general, more likely than their counterparts aged 25 to 34 to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. This was especially the case for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect (+486%), engineer (+180%), and medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant (+217%) (Table 6.11).

Other than for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of architect from Canada (6 percentage points) and Europe (12 percentage points); to the occupation of engineer from North America and Oceania (11 percentage points) and Europe (6 percentage points); to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse from North America and Oceania (9 percentage points); and to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant from Latin America and Africa (5 percentage points) where variations ranging from 5 to 12 percentage points were observed, controlling for sex and age group resulted in variations of 4 percentage points or less in the likelihood of reporting earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study for a majority of full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations (Table A.8.1 (columns 1 and 2), Appendix 8). Such small variations in the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match when controlling for sex and age group suggest that the distribution of full-time full-year immigrant paid workers according to such variables was relatively similar to that observed for the population of full-time full-year paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations.

Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist from all regions of education (Table A.8.1 (columns 1 and 2), Appendix 8).

Marital status and presence of children

Similar to results observed earlier for the education-job skills match for the selected occupations, being married or living in a common-law relationship had a positive influence on the likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. Results from Table 6.12 show that, with the exception of those with credentials in nursing (i.e., nurse supervisor and registered nurse, and licensed practical nurse), the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match was higher for full-time full-year paid workers who reported being married or living in a common-law relationship. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, pharmacist and physiotherapist who reported being divorced, separated or widowed, and for those with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, and physiotherapist who reported never been married or in a common-law relationship.

Table 6.12 (Model 6.10) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

The effect of presence of children, either aged 5 and under or over 5 years of age, was not as clear. As shown in Table 6.12, compared to full-time full-year paid workers without children, while the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match was higher for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of engineer, and financial auditor and accountant, this likelihood was lower for those with credentials leading to the occupations of nurse supervisor and registered nurse, and pharmacist. Differences were not statistically significant for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, licensed practical nurse and physiotherapist.

Controlling for marital status and presence of children had none to very small influence on the likelihood of reporting earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study among full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations (i.e., variations below 3 percentage points) (Table A.8.1 (columns 2 and 3), Appendix 8). Again, such small variations in the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match when controlling for marital status and presence of children seem to suggest that the distribution of full-time full-year immigrant paid workers according to these variables was relatively similar to that observed for the population of full-time full-year paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations.

Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist from all regions of education (Table A.8.1 (columns 2 and 3), Appendix 8).

Province, territory and area of residence

Although not generalized across all of the eight selected occupations, full-time full-year paid workers residing in Ontario were generally more likely than their counterparts living in all other provinces and territories to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. As shown in Table 6.13, the only exceptions to this were for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect living in the Prairies (+45%) and in British Columbia and the territories (+52%); the occupation of engineer living in the Prairies (+59%); and the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant living in British Columbia and the territories (+31%), who were all more likely than their counterparts living in Ontario to report a good education-employment earnings match. Full-time full-year paid workers in the Atlantic Provinces and Quebec were, on the other hand, generally less likely to report such earnings levels.

Table 6.13 (Model 6.11) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

In the case of area of residence, full-time full-year paid workers living in population centres were generally more likely than their counterparts living in rural areas to have a good education-employment earnings match (Table 6.13). Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, licensed practical nurse, pharmacist and physiotherapist.

Depending on the field of study, controlling for location of residence (i.e., province, territory, population centre and rural area) had different impacts on the likelihood of reporting a good education-employment earnings match among full-time full-year immigrant paid workers. Full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, engineer and licensed practical nurse, for example, showed variations in the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match below 3 percentage points when controlling for location of residence, and this, independently of their region of education.

Variations ranging from 3 to 15 percentage points were, however, observed among full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, pharmacist, and financial auditor and accountant. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist from all regions of education (Table A.8.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 8).

More precisely, variations in the likelihood of reporting earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study decreased by more than 5 percentage points for those with credentials leading to the occupation of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant from Asia (15 percentage points) and Europe (7 percentage points); to the occupation of nurse supervisor and registered nurse from Latin America and Africa (9 percentage points); to the occupation of pharmacist from Europe (9 percentage points); and to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant from Europe (8 percentage points) (Table A.8.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 8).

Combining such results with those obtained from the previous section suggest the existence of a certain trade-off between the likelihood of 'working in the best corresponding or in an equivalent occupation' and 'finding a job with a good pay' for immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to some specific occupations. In the case of immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of licensed practical nurse, for example, while location of residence had a relatively low influence on their likelihood to report a good education-employment earnings match, this same factor had a much higher influence on their likelihood to report a good education-job skills match. The reverse could be observed for immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of pharmacist (Table A.7.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 7 and Table A.8.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 8).

Ability to conduct a conversation in Canada's official languages

As shown in Table 6.14, with the exception of full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of licensed practical nurse, the likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study was higher for those with knowledge of English only or of both official languages. Results were not statistically significant for those with credentials leading to the occupations of engineer, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, pharmacist and physiotherapist.

Table 6.14 (Model 6.12) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

Full-time full-year paid workers who reported not being able to converse at least one of Canada's official languages and those who reported speaking French only were, in general, less likely than those speaking English only to report having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study (Table 6.14). The only exception to this was full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of licensed practical nurse; those who reported speaking French only were 80% more likely than their counterparts speaking English only to report a good education-employment earnings match. Results were not statistically significant for full-time full-year French-speaking paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, pharmacist and physiotherapist, and for those speaking in neither of Canada's official languages with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, pharmacist and physiotherapist.

Controlling for language ability had none to very little influence on the likelihood of reporting a good education-employment earnings match among full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to one of the eight selected occupations. Variations of less than 2 percentage points were observed for a majority of them, and this, independently of their region of education. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist from all regions of education (Table A.8.1 (columns 4 and 5), Appendix 8).

Visible minority status

As shown in Table 6.15, other than for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant, the analysis finds that being a member of a visible minority group decreased the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match. Differences were not statistically significant for paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, pharmacist and physiotherapist.

Table 6.15 (Model 6.13) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations, Canada, 2006

Similar to what was observed for location of residence, the impact of controlling for visible minority status on the odds, for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers, of having a good education-employment earnings match seems to vary according to the field of study. As shown in Appendix 8, after controlling for visible minority status, the large majority of full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse, licensed practical nurse and pharmacist, for example, showed variations of less than 3 percentage points in the likelihood of reporting earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study.

Variations of more than 5 percentage points were, on the other hand, observed for those with credentials leading to the occupation of architect from Latin America and Africa (7 percentage points); to the occupation of engineer from Canada (10 percentage points), and North America and Oceania (9 percentage points); and to the occupation of financial auditor and accountant from Canada (8 percentage points). Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to the occupation of physiotherapist from all regions of education (Table A.8.1 (columns 5 and 6), Appendix 8). Such larger variations for these full-time full-year immigrant paid workers suggest a relatively different distribution according to visible minority status when compared to the population of full-time full-year paid workers within each of the eight selected occupations.

Summary

Results from the 2006 Census show that internationally-educated immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to one of the eight selected occupations were, in general, less likely than their counterparts educated in Canada and Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education to have good education-job and education-employment earning matches. Regions from which these immigrants reported completing their credentials had a clear influence on the likelihood that these immigrants would be working in the corresponding field or in an equivalent occupation or to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. As observed earlier, immigrant paid workers with credentials earned in Canada, North America and Oceania, and different regions in Europe showed the highest likelihood of having 'positive' outcomes among all immigrant paid workers with credentials leading to one of the selected occupations. The rank order of these regions did, however, vary by the type of credentials obtained.

Although, for some of the selected occupations (i.e., medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, nurse supervisor and registered nurse and physiotherapist), female paid workers were no less likely than their male counterparts to report a good education-job skills match, they were, however, less likely to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study.

Similar to what was observed for full-time full-year paid workers in general, those in older age groups who reported credentials leading to one of the eight selected occupations were, in general, more likely than their counterparts aged 25 to 34 to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study.

The influence of the age was not as obvious in the case of the education-job skills match. Among paid workers with credentials leading to the occupations of architect, medical laboratory technologist and pathologists' assistant, pharmacist, financial auditor and accountant, for example, those in older age groups were generally more likely than paid workers aged 25 to 34 to have a good education-job skills match. Conversely, among those with credentials in engineering, nursing and physiotherapy, younger paid workers were more likely than their older counterparts to report working in their field of study or in an equivalent occupation.

As observed earlier, other than for paid workers with credentials in nursing, being married or living in a common-law relationship seems to increase the likelihood of having 'positive' outcomes in the Canadian labour market. The presence of pre-school children was not as clear and not generalized across all eight selected occupations.

No specific pattern was found by province and territory with regard to the likelihood of having a good education-job skills match among paid workers with credentials leading to the eight selected occupations. In the case of the education-employment earnings match, although not generalized across all selected occupations, full-time full-year paid workers residing in Ontario were, in general, more likely than their counterparts living elsewhere in Canada to report earnings at or above the one corresponding best to their field of study. Those in the Atlantic Provinces and Quebec were, on the other hand, generally less likely to report such earnings levels.

As observed previously, paid workers with credentials leading to all eight selected occupations and living in population centres were, in general, more likely than their counterparts in rural areas to have a good education-job skills match or a good education-employment earnings match. Paid workers with credentials in pharmacy and living in rural areas were the only exception to this. In fact, results from the 2006 Census showed that they were about 43% more likely than their counterparts living in population centres to report working in their field or in an equivalent occupation.

As shown by the 2006 Census, paid workers who reported knowing both official languages were, in general, more likely than speaking English only to have a good education-job skills match or to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study.

Finally, the influence of visible minority groups on the likelihood of having 'positive' outcomes in the Canadian labour market was not clear and, for the large majority of the selected occupations, was not statistically significant.


Note

1. Although 'Occupational therapists' was part of the occupations selected through the Pan-Canadian Framework for the Assessment and Recognition of Foreign Qualifications, this occupation was not identified by the FCR Program and HRSDC and is thus, excluded from the present analysis.

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