Section 5
Employment outcome #2 – Education-employment earnings match

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Unlike the waves of immigrants who arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, those arriving in Canada since the 1970s have possessed relatively high educational levels. Upon their arrival, however, many immigrants, especially those educated abroad, initially face difficulties finding employment as well as locating jobs that pay relatively high wages. In fact, as per a report by Plante (2010), about three-quarters of internationally-educated immigrants in the core working-age group of 25 to 64 reported being employed in 2006. This was lower than the employment rates recorded by their counterparts educated in Canada and by the Canadian-born with a postsecondary education, both at 82%, respectively.

About six in ten internationally-educated immigrant paid workers reported working on a full-time full-year basis in 2005

As shown in Table 5.1, of the 617,930 internationally-educated immigrant paid workers aged 25 to 64 in 2006, about 60% (or 372,245) reported doing so on a full-time full-year basis in 2005 (i.e., working for pay 49 to 52 weeks, for 30 hours or more per week). This compares to about 70% of their Canadian-educated counterparts (67%) and Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education (69%).

Table 5.1 Full/part-time and full/part-year status of employment of paid workers aged 25 to 64 with a postsecondary education by immigrant status, location of study and period of landing, Canada, 2005

Less than half of very-recent immigrant paid workers reported working on a full-time full-year basis compared to about two-thirds for their counterparts established in the country for more than five years

Analysis of data from the 2006 Census shows that the longer an immigrant has been in Canada, the more likely he or she is to report being employed full-time, for the full year. As shown in Table 5.1, while about 46% of very-recent internationally-educated immigrant paid workers reported full-time full-year employment in 2005, this was the case for 64% of recent immigrants. At 66%, established immigrants were only slightly less likely than Canadian-educated immigrant paid workers (67%) and Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education (69%) to report being employed full-time, for the full year in 2005. As noted previously, having spent a longer period of time in Canada has likely provided established immigrants with the tools and Canadian work experience that assist in improving their chances of securing employment.1

Full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers generally earned less than their counterparts educated in Canada and Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education

However, even when working the same number of hours for the same number of weeks, internationally-educated immigrant paid workers generally earned less than their counterparts educated in Canada and Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education. Overall, as shown in Table 5.2, full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers had median earnings of $44,600, compared to median earnings of $52,900 reported by their immigrant counterparts educated in Canada and $52,500 reported by full-time full-year Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education.

Employment earnings: Refers to the income received by persons aged 25 to 64 during calendar year 2005 as wages, salaries, tips or commissions.

Median earnings: Median earnings are earnings levels that divide the population into two halves, i.e., half of the population receiving less than this amount, and half more. The median provides a more accurate measure of income since the average can be heavily skewed by a few very high income earners.

Individuals with no earnings from employment are excluded from the calculation.

End of text box.

Table 5.2 Median employment earnings of paid workers aged 25 to 64 with a postsecondary education by immigrant status, location of study and period of landing, Canada, 2005

These results seem to support the argument that "the low earnings of immigrants are often attributed to the specificity of human capital to the country from which it originates, the argument being that skills generated through education or work experience in the source country cannot be directly transferred to the host country, resulting in apparently well-qualified immigrants holding low-paying jobs" (Statistics Canada 2008c). Another argument is that "it is not the 'specificity' of one's education or work experience that is the problem, but that appropriate systems are not currently in place to accurately and adequately recognize the skills they impart."

Language barriers and both real and perceived discrimination may also represent some of the factors influencing the earnings of immigrants compared to those of the Canadian-born with a postsecondary education (Picot and Hou 2009). Oreopoulos (2008) found, for example, that job applicants with English-sounding names and Canadian experience were much more likely to be called for an interview (all other job and personal characteristics identical) than those with Asian-sounding names and foreign experience. But whether this points to discrimination or to employers' concerns regarding language ability among immigrants and other traits is not known (Picot and Hou 2009).

Earning gaps between internationally-educated immigrants and Canadian-born paid workers decreased with time elapsed since landing in Canada

As observed previously, there is an association between the length of time spent in Canada and earnings of immigrants. Analysis of the International Adult Literacy Survey data by Bonikowska, Green and Riddell (2008) indicates that returns in the Canadian labour market to foreign work experience are very low, and quite possibly, zero. They argue that it is work experience in Canada that counts toward earnings growth. When only their Canadian work experience is taken into account, immigrants' earnings are more similar to those of the Canadian-born with the same years of experience.

In fact, as shown in Table 5.3, earning gaps between internationally-educated immigrants and Canadian-born paid workers decreased with time elapsed since landing in Canada. Results from the 2006 Census show that full-time full-year very-recent immigrants aged 25 to 64 earned, on average, 68 cents for each dollar received by Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education in 2005. This compares to about 84 cents on the dollar for recent immigrants and to 93 cents on the dollar for immigrants established in the country for more than ten years.

Table 5.3 Median employment earnings ratio of full-time full-year paid workers by immigrant status, location of study and period of landing, Canada, 2005

Again, as noted earlier, the decrease in the size of these earning gaps may not be entirely attributable to the effect of 'time elapsed since landing' since compositional change of immigrants who landed during different periods, labour market conditions as well as other factors may also contribute to differences across groups.

Another part of the explanation lies in differences in skill levels, especially between internationally-educated immigrants and those who received some or all of their education in Canada (Bonikowska, Green and Riddell 2008). In fact, at $52,900 in 2005, the median earnings of full-time full-year Canadian-educated immigrant paid workers were substantially higher than the median earnings of their counterparts educated abroad ($44,600) and matched those of full-time full-year Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education in 2005 ($52,500) (Table 5.3).

5.1    Profile of full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers

As shown by the 2006 Census, there were about 372,240 full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers aged 25 to 64 who reported a postsecondary credential in a field of study that would normally lead to work in one of the targeted occupations as identified by the FCR Program at HRSDC. This represents 61% of the 617,930 internationally-educated immigrant working population analysed in Section 4.

Socio-demographic characteristics and area of residence

Compared to the overall internationally-educated immigrant working population in 2006, a slightly higher proportion of those working on a full-time full-year basis reported being established in the country for more than five years (79% vs. 73%) and being men (63% vs. 57%) (Tables 4.1 and 5.4). About the same proportions of each group reported being in the prime-working age group of 35 to 54 (67% vs. 65%), being married or living in a common-law relationship (83% vs. 83%), living in the three most populated provinces (87% vs. 86%) and in population centres (96% vs. 96%) (Tables 4.1, 4.3 and 5.4).

Table 5.4 Socio-demographic characteristics of full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with a postsecondary education by immigrant status, location of study and period of landing, Canada, 2006

Level of education and major instructional programs

Not surprisingly, internationally-educated immigrants who reported working on a full-time full-year basis were as likely as the overall internationally-educated immigrant paid workers (70% vs. 70%) to report having completed their education at the university-level in 2006 (Tables 4.2 and 5.5). The top regions from which they received their highest level of education were very similar to the regions from which they immigrated: Eastern Europe (14%), Southeast Asia (14%), Southern Asia (13%), Eastern Asia (12%), and Northern Europe (12%) (see Appendix 1 for the list of countries corresponding to these regions of study) (Table 5.5).

Table 5.5
Educational characteristics of full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with a postsecondary education by immigrant status, location of study and period of landing, Canada, 2006

Similar to all internationally-educated immigrant paid workers, about 44% of their counterparts working on a full-time full-year basis were found in instructional programs leading to occupations in natural and applied sciences such as engineers, engineering technicians and architects, followed by those leading to occupations in business, finance and administration (23%), occupations in social science, education, government service and religion (12%) and in health occupations (9%). About 8% reported postsecondary credentials leading to trades, transport and equipment operators and related occupations, while the remaining 4% were distributed almost evenly between occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport and those related to sales and service (Tables 4.2 and 5.5).

Linguistic portrait and ethnocultural diversity

Similar to what was observed for all internationally-educated immigrant paid workers aged 25 to 64, almost all of those who reported working full-time for the full year reported being able to conduct a conversation in one of Canada's two official languages: more than eight in ten (85%) reported the knowledge of English only, followed by knowledge of both English and French (12%) and knowledge of French only (2%). Only a small proportion (slightly less than 1%) reported not being able to conduct a conversation in either English or French. Furthermore, about the same proportions reported being part of a visible minority group (59% for full-time full-year paid workers vs. 61% for the overall immigrant population paid workers) (Tables 4.4, 4.5 and 5.6).

Table 5.6 Ethnocultural and linguistic profile of full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with a postsecondary education, by immigrant status, location of study and period of landing, Canada, 2006

5.2    The many factors leading to a good education-employment earnings match

As mentioned earlier, the 'successful' integration of internationally-educated immigrants can be measured in different ways. The following section examines the extent to which internationally-educated immigrants who reported working full-time for the full-year in 2005 reported employment earnings at or above the national median earnings calculated for the occupation corresponding best to their highest postsecondary credential.

Logistic regression model

In the logistic regression model used for Employment outcome #2, the dependent variable takes the value of 1 if a full-time full-year paid worker has employment earnings at or above the national median earnings calculated for the occupation corresponding best to their highest postsecondary credential. The dependent variable takes the value of 0 otherwise.

As reported in the Data and methodology section, the logistic regression analysis first considers the contribution of 'given' characteristics to the probability of having a good education-employment earnings match: immigrant status by period of landing and region of education.

The sex and age group, marital status and presence of children, level of education and major instructional program, province, territory and area of residence, the language ability status variable and the visible minority status variable are then added progressively in order to assess both their independent effects and whether they modify the effects of previously-added variables.

The logic behind this approach is that immigrants possess certain 'given' characteristics (i.e., they either completed their highest level of education in Canada or abroad, and they landed in Canada during different time period). Their likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match can then be influenced by various socio-demographic and educational characteristics, their province, territory and area of residence, as well as by their language ability in one of the two official languages and their belonging to a visible minority group.

Results

Analysis of data from the 2006 Census shows that, among the 372,240 full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers who reported a postsecondary credential in a field of study that would normally lead to work in one of the targeted occupations identified by the FCR Program at HRSDC in 2006, slightly more than half (54%) reported working in their trained occupation or in an occupation requiring similar or higher skill levels. This is slightly higher than the proportion of 48% observed for all internationally-educated immigrant paid workers in 2006 (Table 4.6). Results from Table 5.7 show that this proportion increased to 71% for their Canadian-educated counterparts and to 73% for the full-time full-year Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education (Table 5.7).

Table 5.7 Education-job skills matching status of full time-full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64 with a postsecondary education by immigrant status, location of study and period of landing, Canada, 2006

'Given' characteristics

The following section examines the extent to which full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers who have a field of study that typically leads to a targeted occupation were actually having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. It then identifies the characteristics and determinants more closely associated with a 'successful' employment outcome in the Canadian labour market (i.e., region of education and time elapsed since landing).

Full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers were less likely than full-time full-year Canadian-born paid workers to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study

Analysis of data from the 2006 Census shows that full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers were generally less likely than the Canadian-born who reported working full-time for the full year to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study, with odds ratios ranging from 0.39 for those with credentials from countries in Southeast and Southern Asia to 0.70 when credentials were obtained from countries in Western Europe. The only exceptions to this were for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers educated in Northern Europe and Oceania, who were each 11% and 25% more likely than their counterparts born in Canada to report a good education-employment earnings match. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from North America and Canada (Table 5.8).

Table 5.8 (Model 5.1) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

Time elapsed since landing

Similar to what was observed in the previous section for the education-job skills match, full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers established in the country for more than ten years were generally more likely than their very-recent — and of most of their recent counterparts — to report a good education-employment earnings match (Table 5.9).

Table 5.9 (Model 5.2) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

The analysis finds that the magnitude of that 'improvement over time' varies by region from which the highest postsecondary credentials were obtained. In fact, as shown in Table 5.9 (columns 1 and 3), full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from countries in Southern Europe and from Canada showed the highest 'improvement over time' with around 50 percentage-point difference in the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match between very-recent and established immigrants. This was followed by full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from Africa (40 percentage points), Eastern Europe (33 percentage points), Eastern Asia (26 percentage points), Southeast Asia (24 percentage points), Latin America (22 percentage points) and Western Europe (20 percentage points). Differences of less than 15 percentage points were observed between full-time full-year very-recent and established immigrant paid workers with credentials from countries in West Central Asia and the Middle East and Southern Asia. Such comparisons between very-recent and established immigrants were not possible for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from North America, Northern Europe and Oceania as some of the results were not statistically significant.

Even if difficulties in finding employment that pays relatively high wages seem to ease over time, full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers established in the country for more than ten years were still generally less likely than their counterparts born in Canada to report earnings at or above the national median earnings calculated for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study, with odds ratios ranging from 0.40 for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials from countries in Southern Asia to 0.79 for those with credentials from countries in Africa (Table 5.9 (column 3)). The only exceptions to this were for those who reported receiving their highest level of education from countries in North America (+16%) and Northern Europe (+15%). In comparison, full-time full-year Canadian-educated immigrant paid workers established in the country for more than ten years were about 6% more likely than their counterparts born in Canada to report such a level of earnings.

Interestingly, immigrant paid workers who were the most likely to report a good education-employment earnings match were also the most likely to report working in their field or in an equivalent occupation. This was the case for those who reported credentials from Canada, North America, Western Europe, Northern Europe, and Southern Europe.  At the other end of the spectrum, immigrant paid workers who were the least likely to report earnings at or above the national median earnings calculated for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study were also the least likely to report a good education-job skills match (Tables 4.8 and 5.9).

Socio-demographic characteristics

Sex and age group

Results from the 2006 Census showed that, in addition to being less likely to report a good education-job skills match (-23%) (Table 4.9), women were also less likely than their male counterparts to report a good education-employment earnings match (-14%) (Table 5.10).

Table 5.10 (Model 5.3) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

With respect to age, those in older age groups were, in general, more likely than their counterparts aged 25 to 34 to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study: +73% in the case of full-time full-year paid workers aged 45 to 54 and +54% in the case of those aged 34 to 44 (Table 5.10). In the case of paid workers aged 55 to 64, although results showed that they were 5% less likely than younger paid workers aged 25 to 34 to work in the best corresponding or in an equivalent occupation (Table 4.9), these full-time full-year paid workers were, on the other hand, 59% more likely than younger paid workers to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study (Table 5.10).

The analysis finds that controlling for sex and age group resulted in an increase in the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match for very-recent immigrants; however, the reverse was observed for their counterparts established in the country for a longer period of time (Table A.6.1 (columns 1 and 2), Appendix 6). These results are not surprising considering that, compared to their recent (16%) and established counterparts (2%), a much larger share of very-recent were aged 25 to 34 (34%). In comparison, about 12% of all full-time full-year paid workers in 2005 were in the younger age group of 25 to 34 (Table 5.4).

Lower variations in the share of full-time female paid workers could be observed among the different cohorts of internationally-educated immigrants, with proportions ranging from 34% for very-recent immigrants, to 36% for recent immigrants, and to 40% for those established in the country for more than ten years. In comparison, about 37% of all full-time full-year paid workers in 2005 were female (Table 5.4).

Marital status and presence of children

Similar to what was observed for the education-job skills match, being married or living in a common-law relationship seems to have a positive influence on the likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. In fact, as shown in Table 5.11, full-time full-year paid workers in the core working-age of 25 to 64 who reported being never married or in a common-law relationship, divorced, separated or widowed were all less likely than those being married or living in a common-law relationship to have a good education-employment earnings match, with odds ratio varying from 0.80 for those who reported being separated or widowed to 0.85 for those who reported being divorced.

Table 5.11 (Model 5.4) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

The presence of pre-school children also seems to increase the likelihood that full-time full-year paid workers will have a good education-employment earnings match. In fact, as shown in Table 5.11, paid workers with pre-school children (aged 5 and under) were 12% more likely than those without any children to report a good education-employment earnings match. Differences for full-time full-year paid workers with older children were not statistically significant.

Removing the effect of marital status and presence of children resulted in a slight decrease in the likelihood of reporting a good education-employment earnings match for internationally-educated immigrants (variations generally ranging from less than 1 to about 3 percentage points) (Table A.6.1 (columns 2 and 3), Appendix 6). As observed earlier, such results are not surprising considering that, compared to Canadian-educated immigrants and the Canadian-born with a postsecondary education, a slightly higher proportion of internationally-educated immigrants aged 25 to 64 reported living in a married or common-law family with children in 2006 (Plante 2010).

Similarly, considering the greater similarity in the type of family arrangement between the Canadian-born with a postsecondary education and immigrants educated in Canada, it is not surprising to see almost no variation from the previous model when controlling for those two variables (variation of less than 1 percentage point).

Level of education and major instructional programs

Full-time full-year paid workers who completed their education at the university level were more likely than those who completed their education at the college or apprenticeship and trades levels to report having a good education-employment earnings match (Table 5.12). In fact, the analysis finds that full-time full-year paid workers with university degrees were 261% more likely that their counterparts who completed their education at the college level to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. Full-time full-year paid workers with a certificate or diploma from apprenticeship or trade programs were, on the other hand, about 16% less likely than paid workers with a certificate or diploma from a college to report such a positive employment outcome.

Table 5.12 (Model 5.5) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

Similar to what was found in the previous section with regard to the education-job skills match, full-time full-year paid workers who studied in programs where there was a clear relationship between educational credentials and the ability to meet the requirements to work — such as for most regulated occupations and trades — generally had higher education-employment earnings match than those who had studied in a field of study for which this relationship was not as clear.

In fact, as shown in Table 5.12, full-time full-year paid workers who graduated from instructional programs leading to trades, transport and equipment operators and health occupations were, respectively, 313% and 147% more likely than those with credentials in business, finance and administration to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. This was followed by full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to occupations in social science, education, government service and religion (+43%) and in natural and applied sciences (+4%).

In the case of full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to sales and service occupations, although the results show that they were about 9% less likely than those with credentials in business, finance and administration to have a good education-job skills match (Table 4.11), they were 260% more likely than those with credentials in business, finance and administration to have earnings at least equal to the median for occupations related to their field of study (Table 5.12). Differences for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials leading to occupations in art, culture, recreation and sport were not statistically significant.

Controlling for level of education and major instructional program had a relatively large influence on the likelihood of reporting a good education-employment earnings match (Table A.6.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 6). These results are not surprising considering the higher proportion of university degree-holders within this population compared to the Canadian-born with a postsecondary education.

The largest decreases (more than 10 percentage points) in the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match, after controlling for the effects of education level and major instructional program were observed among recent immigrants with credentials from Eastern Europe, Africa, and West Central Asia and the Middle East, and established immigrants educated in Southeast Asia (Table A.6.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 6).

In the case of full-time full-year immigrant paid workers educated in Canada, the likelihood of having a good education-employment earnings match dropped by about 2 percentage points to 1.01 for immigrants established in the country for more than ten years, and decreased by about 7 percentage points to 0.57 for very-recent immigrants. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year Canadian-educated immigrant paid workers established in Canada from six to ten years (Table A.6.1 (columns 3 and 4), Appendix 6).

Province, territory and area of residence

As shown in Table 5.13, other than their counterparts in Alberta (+14%) and the territories (+18%), full-time full-year paid workers residing in all of the other provinces were less likely than those in Ontario to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. Paid workers in Alberta and the territories were also more likely than those in Ontario to report working in the best corresponding or in an equivalent occupation (Table 4.12).

Compared to full-time full-year paid workers in Ontario, those living in the Atlantic Provinces (-41%) and Quebec (-40%) showed the lowest likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study (Table 5.13). This was followed by full-time full-year paid workers in Manitoba (-23%), Saskatchewan (-20%) and British Columbia (-14%).

Table 5.13 (Model 5.6) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

Full-time full-year paid workers from rural areas were 15% less likely than those established in population centres to report a good education-employment earnings match (Table 5.13).

Controlling for location of residence (i.e., province, territory, population centre and rural area) resulted in a relatively large decrease in the likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study for internationally-educated immigrant paid workers (Table A.6.1 (columns 4 and 5), Appendix 6). These results are not surprising considering that, compared to the population of full-time full-year paid workers in general, a higher proportion of internationally-educated immigrants reported living in Ontario (59% vs. 40%) or in population centres (96% vs. 84%) (Table 5.4).

Ability to conduct a conversation in Canada's official languages

The likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study was highest for those with knowledge of English only compared to other language groups. In fact, similar to what was observed for the education-job skills match, full-time full-year paid workers who reported not being able to converse in at least one of Canada's official languages were about 45% less likely than those speaking English only to report having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study, while those who reported speaking French only were about 22% less likely. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year paid workers who reported being able to conduct a conversation in both English and French (Table 5.14).

Table 5.14 (Model 5.7) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

However, with a change of 1 percentage point or less, controlling for language ability did not have a significant impact on the likelihood of reporting earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study, for both full-time full-year Canadian- and internationally-educated immigrant paid workers (Table A.6.1 (columns 5 and 6), Appendix 6). These results are not surprising considering that, similar to what was observed for full-time full-year paid workers in general, the majority of immigrants reported being able to conduct a conversation in one of Canada's official languages, with the majority reporting English only (Table 5.6).

Visible minority status

Similar to what was observed for the education-job skills match, the analysis finds that being a member of a visible minority group decreased the likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. As shown in Table 5.15, full-time full-year paid workers who reported being a member of a visible minority group were about 18% less likely than those who were not to have a good education-employment earnings match.

Table 5.15 (Model 5.8) Adjusted odds ratios for having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to the highest postsecondary credential among full-time full-year paid workers aged 25 to 64, Canada, 2006

Controlling for visible minority status had a significant impact on the likelihood that full-time full-year immigrant paid workers (either educated in Canada or abroad) would report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. Full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from Canada, Africa and Asia showed the highest increases in the likelihood of reporting a good education-employment earnings match, once accounting for the impact of visible minority status. Conversely, controlling for visible minority status did not seem to have much impact on the likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study among full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from Eastern and Southern Europe (Table A.6.1 (columns 6 and 7), Appendix 6).

Summary

According to data from the 2006 Census, slightly more than half (54%) of the 372,240 full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers not attending school who had a postsecondary credential in a field of study that would normally lead to work in one of the targeted occupations identified by the FCR Program at HRSDC reported working in their trained occupation or in an occupation requiring similar or higher skill levels. This proportion was lower than in the case of their Canadian-educated counterparts (71%) and Canadian-born paid workers with a postsecondary education (73%).

Full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers were generally less likely than the Canadian-born who reported working full-time for the full year to have earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study, with odds ratios ranging from 0.39 for those with credentials from countries in Southeast and Southern Asia to 0.70 when credentials were obtained from countries in Western Europe. The only exceptions to this were full-time full-year immigrant paid workers educated in Northern Europe and Oceania, who were each 11% and 25% more likely than their counterparts born in Canada to report a good education-employment earnings match. Differences were not statistically significant for full-time full-year immigrant paid workers with credentials from North America and Canada.

Similar to what was observed in the previous section for the education-job skills match, full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers established in the country for a longer period were generally more likely than their very-recent counterparts to report a good education-employment earnings match. Even if difficulties in finding employment that pays relatively high wages seem to ease over time, full-time full-year internationally-educated immigrant paid workers established in the country for more than ten years were still generally less likely than their counterparts born in Canada to report earnings at or above the national median earnings calculated for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study, with odds ratios varying from 0.40 for full-time full-year paid workers with credentials from countries in Southern Asia to 0.79 for those with credentials from countries in Africa. The only exceptions to this were for those who reported receiving their highest level of education from countries in North America (+16%) and Northern Europe (+15%). In comparison, full-time full-year Canadian-educated immigrant paid workers established in the country for more than ten years were about 6% more likely than their counterparts born in Canada to report such a level of earnings.

Those in older age groups were, in general, more likely than their counterparts aged 25 to 34 to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study: +73% in the case of full-time full-year paid workers aged 45 to 54, +59% in the case of those aged 55 to 64 and +54% for those aged 34 to 44.

Provincially, other than their counterparts residing in Alberta and the territories, full-time full-year paid workers residing in all of the other provinces were less likely than those in Ontario to report earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study. Those living in the Atlantic Provinces and Quebec showed the lowest likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study, followed by full-time full-year paid workers residing in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and British Columbia.

Similar to what was observed in the previous section with regard to the education-job skills match, the likelihood of having earnings at or above the median for the occupation corresponding best to their field of study was higher for immigrants having knowledge of English only, compared to those with other language profiles. This was also the case for full-time full-year paid workers who studied in programs where there was a clear relationship between educational credentials and the ability to meet the requirements to work. Being male, not being a member of a visible minority group, living in a married or common-law relationship, having pre-school children, and living in population centres also figured among the characteristics and determinants more closely associated with a 'positive' integration of full-time full-year paid workers in the Canadian labour market.


Note

1. It should be noted that the likelihood of being employed full-time for the full year may not be entirely attributed to the effect of 'time elapsed since landing' since compositional change of immigrants who landed during different periods, labour market conditions as well as other factors may also contribute to differences among groups.

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