Publications

    Culture, Tourism and the Centre for Education Statistics

    A Profile of Minority-Language Students and Schools in Canada: Results from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009

    Appendix 4

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    Information on provincial minority-language communities covered in this report

    This section provides a brief overview of activities and information related to the provincial minority-language communities covered in this report. For Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia the information was taken from: www.fcfa.ca/profils. For Quebec the information comes from Wikipedia under keyword search Vision and Mission-Quebec Community Groups Network and English-speaking Quebecer.

    Nova Scotia

    History

    Acadia began in the 17th century, when about a hundred French families settled in the area of Port Royal, along the banks of the Baie française (Bay of Fundy). Gifted with a rare sense of community, the Acadians slowly developed their own customs and culture in a new environment based primarily on agriculture.

    Geography

    Acadians are concentrated in two main regions: Cape Breton Island and the south coast of the province. When Halifax - which accounts for the largest number of Francophones in the province - is added, these three areas account for over 85 percent of Nova Scotia's French-speaking community. Certain regions of the province are also home to a significant concentration of Acadians, who are the majority in the municipality of Clare (Digby county) and account for close to 50 percent of the population in Argyle (Yarmouth county). There they have developed a diversified network of institutions which support a vibrant cultural life and an active community. In Cape Breton, French enjoys a strong status on Île Madame and Acadians account for over 40 percent of the population north of Inverness, where they form the core of many villages such as Cheticamp.

    Nova Scotia Francophones are essentially a rural population even though 10,730 people with French as their first spoken official language live in the Halifax Metropolitan region.

    Social and Community Vitality

    Major organizations

    The Fédération acadienne de la Nouvelle-Écosse (FANE) is the primary organization representing this province's Acadian community. First established as Rouler les airs in 1968, the Fédération represents the interests of all Acadians and Francophones of Nova Scotia. To fulfill its mandate as a community organization, FANE is structured to ensure community participation in all its planning and administrative activities. Today's FANE is a true federation, bringing together 26 member organizations that meet regularly as the Conseil provincial des membres (CPM). The members advise their federation on the Acadian community's objectives and priorities.

    Communications

    Newspapers and magazines

    • Le Courrier de la Nouvelle-Écosse is a weekly newspaper established in 1937.

    Radio

    Three community radio stations are part of the Association des radios communautaires en Atlantique, which is located at 5527 Cogswell St., Halifax, NS, B3J 1R2; phone: (902) 224-1242, email:arcatlantique@gmail.com:

    • The community radio station CIFA Radio Clare, broadcasting since 1990;
    • The community radio station in Cheticamp, CKJM Coopérative Radio-Chéticamp, broadcasting since 1995;
    • A community radio project is underway in the Richmond and produces some radio programming periodically.

    Radio programs broadcast by the Société Radio-Canada from Moncton or Montreal; two radio programs produced in and broadcast from Halifax: a morning show (Le Réveil) and a mid-day program (Rouler les airs);

    Television

    • Programs produced and broadcast by the Société Radio-Canada from Montreal and Moncton;
    • French-language networks from Quebec (TVA, Télévision Quatre Saisons, TV5) are accessible by cable.

    Cultural and community life

    • Two community centres: La Picasse in Petit-de-Grat and Les Trois Pignons (managed by the Société Saint-Pierre) in Cheticamp;
    • Three school-community centres: the Centre scolaire communautaire Étoile de l'Acadie in the Sydney region, the Centre scolaire communautaire du Grand Havre in the Halifax/Dartmouth region and the Centre scolaire communautaire de Greenwood;
    • Some Nova Scotian performers are now renowned outside the province and even outside Canada. Among them are musical groups Blou and Grand Dérangement as well as visual artists Denise Comeau and François Gaudet;
    • The Fédération culturelle acadienne de la Nouvelle-Écosse encourages the development of young and lesser known artists.

    In addition to the increasingly elaborate programming offered by the community centres, there are a number of annual events that stand out:

    • Acadian celebrations and festivals traditionally held either during summer around August 15th (including the Festival acadien de Clare, one of the oldest Acadian festivals in the Maritimes) or during the mi-carême;
    • The annual regional finals of the Jeux de l'Acadie for Nova Scotia bring together over 500 young Acadians and Francophones of the province. In July 2008, Nova Scotia held the finals of the Jeux de l'Acadie for the first time in its history; over 1,100 athletes and 400 accompanying personnel came from everywhere in Acadia to attend the 29th Grand finals in the Halifax/Dartmouth metropolitan region.
    • The annual musical presentation Le Grand Cercle recalls the history of the Cheticamp region Acadians.

    Since the spring of 1998, the Acadian community is the official manager of the Grand Pré National Historic Site, in accordance with an agreement with the federal government. The site presents the history of the Acadian people and commemorates the deportation of 1755;

    Following New Brunswick in 1994 and Louisiana in 1999, it was Nova Scotia's turn to host the Congrès mondial acadien in 2004. Acadians from across the world "returned" to visit the place from which their ancestors were deported. At the same time, the 400th anniversary of the arrival of French colonists in Acadia was celebrated.

    Legislation and government services

    Federal Government

    The federal government offers French-language services at several points of services. According to statistics from the Public Service Agency, 10.9 percent of the 8,876 federal public service positions in Nova Scotia were designated bilingual.

    Provincial Government

    The Office of Acadian Affairs ensures the implementation of the French-language services Act (Bill 111) which was adopted in 2004 and officially became law in 2006.

    Municipalities

    Only the municipality of Clare has an official policy on Frenchlanguage services; two other municipalities, Richmond and Argyle, offer some services, but these are not guaranteed.

    New Brunswick

    History

    At the dawn of the 17th century, about one hundred French families created Acadia when they settled near the shores of the Baie française (the modern Bay of Fundy). The settlers had a very strong community spirit, and they gradually built up their very own culture in a new land that they worked hard to farm.

    Geography

    Acadians are located everywhere in the province, but mostly along the coasts from Cap-Pelé to Miscou, and in the interior as far as Saint-Jacques There are three areas of high concentration: Madawaska, the Acadian Peninsula in the northeast, and the southeast of the province. The seven counties of Gloucester, Kent, Madawaska, Northumberland, Restigouche, Victoria and Westmorland are home to almost all the province's Francophones (92.8%), and Francophones form the majority in four of these counties, ranging from 65% to 94% of their respective populations.

    New Brunswick is still not very urban, and there are many small rural communities where the vast majority of the population is Francophone. Some urban centres have become centres of Frenchlanguage life. These include Edmundston in Madawaska, which is 95% Francophone, Campbellton (61% Francophone), Bathurst (68%), and Moncton/Dieppe (35%). In some cases, communities are separated by vast stretches of forest or wholly Anglophone corridors, such as the Miramichi Valley, or by mixed areas, such as Moncton.

    Social and Community Vitality

    Major organizations

    Founded in 1973, the Société des Acadiens et Acadiennes du Nouveau-Brunswick (SAANB) was, up to 2008, the principal representative for the province's Acadians and Francophones.

    The association's objectives include the recognition of a distinct Acadian society, the creation of homogeneous French and bilingual institutions, the affirmation of French in the face of increasing assimilation, and the safeguarding of rights in a context of government restructuring.

    In a spirit of continuity and openness, the SAANB is maintaining the language file as a priority area, especially in the fields of health care and bilingualism in postsecondary education, among other sectors. The right to work in either official language in the public service, the development of French in public affairs, and regional development remain key concerns for the new organization. It is also focusing on revitalizing citizen participation in debates on major social issues.

    Communications

    Newspapers and magazines

    Newspapers were one of the first means of mass communication for Acadians. From Valentin Landry's Moniteur acadien, founded in 1867, through L'Évangéline and Le Matin, to L'Acadie nouvelle, founded in 1988, newspapers have constantly reflected the development and empowerment of New Brunswick Acadians.

    There are seven French-language weeklies in the province:

    • Le Madawaska (Edmundston)
    • Le Saint-Jeannois (Saint John)
    • L'Étoile (southeast)
    • L'Aviron (Campbellton)
    • Le Moniteur acadien (Shediac)
    • Le Front (student newspaper, Moncton)
    • L'Hebdo Chaleur (Bathurst)

    Magazines

    • Égalité, political analysis review
    • Revue de l'Université de Moncton
    • Info-Affaires, monthly

    Radio

    • The public radio station CBAF (FM), Radio-Canada's Première Chaîne affiliate, broadcasts throughout the province; some areas have access to Espace Musique on CBAL.
    • There are three private stations serving the north, northwest and southeast of New Brunswick: CKLE, CJEM/CKMV and CHOY-FM (Choix 99).
    • Over the years, a network of Acadian community radio stations has been developed within the framework of the Association des radios communautaires acadiennes du Nouveau-Brunswick (ARCANB). The association has nine members that are now broadcasting or in development: CKRO, Radio Péninsule; CFAI, Radio Coopérative des Montagnes; CFJU, Radio des Hauts Plateaux; CJSE, CFBO, Radio Beauséjour; CIMS, Radio Restigouche: CKUM, radio J (Université de Moncton); CHQC, Coopérative radiophonique La Brise de la Baie; CJPN, Radio Fredericton; and CKMA, Radio MirAcadie, Miramichi.

    Television

    • Radio-Canada, Télévision Acadie, is available everywhere in New Brunswick. Daily news programs as well as other programs dealing with provincial and regional issues are produced by and broadcast from the Radio-Canada station in Moncton.
    • The Réseau de l'information (RDI), TFO, TV5, and several Quebec stations are available by cable. Since 1999, TVA has produced some programs locally. Rogers Television provides community programming.

    New information and communications technologies

    • New Brunswick has an impressive network of Centres d'accès communautaire à Internet, or community Internet access centres, known as NB Branché.
    • There are information technology training centres, such as the Centre de l'excellence en informatique du collège communautaire de Bathurst, and Webmaster and multimedia production programs at the Collège communautaire de Dieppe.
    • The Centre international pour le développement de l'inforoute en français (CIDIF) is located in Edmundston.
    • Many Web sites have been developed and there are many businesses dealing with new technologies.
    • New Brunswick Acadians have been "connected" for several years. Most organizations, municipalities and other groups concerned with the development of the Acadian community use the Internet in their communications.
    • CapAcadie.com is a community information and entertainment portal. Its objective is to provide a single comprehensive site with as many Acadian (Atlantic Francophone) resources as possible to inform and entertain people and promote Acadians and Acadia over the Internet

    Cultural and community life

    Acadians enjoy a wide network of local, provincial and regional associations. Thousands of people interested in the development of different facets of Acadian society belong to them.

    Arts and culture

    One of Acadian New Brunswick's best-known features is its activity in the arts world. For several decades, Acadian creativity has been showing the region to the world. Through a host of activities at home and abroad, Acadian artists have gained international renown.

    On February 27, 2002, following considerable efforts made by all arts and culture stakeholders over a period of some fifteen years, the Province of New Brunswick established a policy on culture. In 2008, it went further, establishing a book policy. However, the arts and culture sector is still significantly under-funded; New Brunswick's per capita expenditures on culture are the lowest in the country.

    • The movie-making industry in the province is growing. Filmmakers have access to incentives (development and production assistance programs, tax credits, and an industry support program) offered by the Province through Film NB.
    • Recording artists have access to provincial incentives through Initiative sonore NB (development and infrastructure program, sound recordings and demos, product marketing, artistic development).
    • Although the first Acadian publishing company, Les Éditions d'Acadie, has closed its doors, many professional writers can still get their work published by a number of other companies, including Les Éditions Perce-neige, Les Éditions Marévi, Les Éditions Boutons d'or d'Acadie, Les Éditions de la Grande Marée and the more recently established Éditions de la francophonie.
    • There are several Francophone bookstores, including the Librairie acadienne (Moncton), Le Bouquin (Tracadie), the Librairie Pélagie (Shippagan), and the Librairie Matulu (Edmundston).
    • There is a provincial network of public libraries.
    • More than 300 artists work in all disciplines (sculpture, painting, photography, ceramics, multimedia and graphic arts, etc.).
    • There are three professional theatre companies: the Théâtre populaire d'Acadie, the Théâtre l'Escaouette and the Collectif Moncton-Sable.
    • There are several dance companies, including DansEncorps.
    • Acadian New Brunswick has a large network of important heritage sites and institutions. A dozen specialized Frenchlanguage institutions portray the past, present and future of Acadia. They include the following:
    • Le Pays de la Sagouine (Bouctouche)
    • Village historique acadien (Caraquet)
    • Monument Lefebvre National Historic Site (Memramcook)
    • Musée Madawaska (Edmundston)
    • Jardins publics du Nouveau-Brunswick (Edmundston)
    • Centre culturel Aberdeen (Moncton)
    • Galerie d'art de l'Université de Moncton (Moncton)
    • Galerie Restigouche (Campbellton)
    • Fort Beauséjour (Aulac)
    • Centre culturel de Caraquet

    The Conseil provincial des sociétés culturelles coordinates a network of 13 cultural groups and their performances.

    Réseau atlantique de diffusion des arts de la scène (RADARTS) broadcasts shows and performances.

    There is local cultural programming in all areas of Acadia.

    The three school-community centres provide cultural programming.

    There are about thirty festivals, the major ones being the Festival acadien de Caraquet, the Foire Brayonne (Edmundston), the Festival du Homard (Shediac), the FrancoFête (Moncton), and the Fête du 15 août (in most Acadian communities).

    There are a number of specialized cultural festivals: the Festival international de musique baroque (Lamèque), the Moisson d'Art (Tracadie), the Festival des arts visuels en Atlantique (Caraquet), the Festival des vins du monde (Moncton), the Festival des vins français (Caraquet), the Festival international du cinéma francophone en Acadie (Moncton), the Nuit internationale du conte en Acadie (Petit-Rocher), and the Frye Festival, an international literary event honouring Northrop Frye (Moncton).

    Annual galas include the Gala de la chanson de Caraquet, the Gala des Prix Éloizes and the Gala de l'entrepreneur de l'année.

    Legislation and government services

    Federal government

    Members of the public are entitled to communicate and receive services in French in designated-bilingual offices. According to Public Service Commission data, 49.9% of the 5,939 federal public service positions in New Brunswick are designated bilingual.

    The federal government supports the Acadian community's comprehensive development efforts, particularly through cooperation agreements signed by the Department of Canadian Heritage and representatives of the community. The current agreement expires in March 2009 and will have to be revised and renewed to cover future development.

    Provincial government

    New Brunswick is the only officially bilingual province in Canada. The provincial policy on official languages is based on the Official Languages Act of 1969, sections 16 to 20 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and the Act Recognizing the Equality of the Two Official Linguistic Communities in New Brunswick of 1981 (Bill 88). All residents and organizations can (in theory) communicate in French with any government department, institution or agency, without exception. In 1990, there were 3,589 Francophone employees in the provincial public service, representing 33% of all provincial government employees. However, since then, because of new regulations enacted by the government at the time, it has not been possible to obtain a linguistic profile of the provincial public service.

    In response to demands by the Société des Acadiens et Acadiennes du Nouveau-Brunswick (SAANB) and the Association des juristes d'expression française du Nouveau-Brunswick (AJEFNB), which were supported by the Forum de concertation des organismes acadiens du Nouveau-Brunswick and the hospital community, the Legislative Assembly passed a new Official Languages Act, Bill 64, in June 2002. This is a significant milestone in the development of language rights in New Brunswick.

    Municipalities

    A number of municipalities provide services essentially in French. They are members of the Association francophone des municipalités du Nouveau-Brunswick (AFMNB). The association was founded in 1989 and currently represents 50 municipalities. Other municipalities provide services in both official languages.

    Ontario

    History

    Ever since the first French settler set foot on Ontario soil in 1610, nearly 400 years ago, the history of the province has been closely connected with that of the French-speaking men and women who developed it, particularly from the 19th century onward.

    Geography

    While Francophones are located throughout Ontario, they remain concentrated in specific regions, with the biggest concentration in the eastern part of the province. Here, Franco-Ontarians live mainly in three census divisions, Ottawa (163,265), Prescott-Russell (53,165) and Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry (24,945).

    The north-eastern region has the second highest contingent of mother-tongue Francophones. This population is located mainly in the census divisions of Greater Sudbury (43,240), Cochrane (38,610), Nipissing (20,655) and Timiskaming (8,080).

    A relatively large Francophone population is also located in Central Ontario, particularly in the census divisions of Toronto, Niagara and Hamilton. Moreover, Ontario's cities are witnessing a significant increase in their French-language population: Ottawa and Toronto alone have almost 15,000 more Francophones than five years ago, with respective growth rates of 5.4% and 5.9%.

    Social and Community Vitality

    Major organizations

    To contribute to its development and vitality, the Franco-Ontarian community benefits from no fewer than 28 provincial organizations working in the main areas of activity.

    Created from the amalgamation of the Association canadiennefrançaise de l'Ontario (ACFO) and the Direction Entente Canada- Communauté Ontario (DECCO) on April 1, 2006, the Assemblée de la francophonie de l'Ontario (AFO) is now the provincial organization representing all Francophones in Ontario at the political level. It is a non-profit organization.

    The mandate of AFO is to advocate the rights of Franco-Ontarians, promote the vitality of the Francophone community, represent Ontario's Francophone community at all political levels, determine the priorities of the community, establish the strategic community plan, and negotiate and manage agreements including the Canada-Ontario community agreement.

    Communications

    Newspapers and magazines

    One daily publication (Le Droit) and several published weekly or monthly: Agricom (Clarence Creek); Le Carillon (Hawkesbury); Le Journal de Cornwall; Le Reflet de Prescott-Russell (Embrun); La Nouvelle (Embrun); L'Express de Toronto; Le Goût de vivre (Penetanguishene); Les Nouvelles (Timmins); L'Ours noir (Cochrane); L'Action (London); Le Métropolitain (Brampton); Le Régional (Brampton); Le Nord (Hearst); Le Rempart (Windsor); Le Voyageur (Sudbury); Vision (Rockland); Tribune-Express (Hawkesbury); L'Express (Ottawa).

    Radio

    Francophones have access to a community radio network that has been built up over the years. These five radio stations are located in Kapuskasing, Cornwall, Hearst, Penetanguishene and Toronto, reaching a total audience of more than 150,000 Francophones. Three projects are currently underway.

    Franco-Ontarians can also count on radio service from Radio-Canada, which has stations in Ottawa, Windsor, Sudbury and Toronto.

    Two private radio stations round out the French-language radio services available.

    Television

    Francophones also have access to TFO, the French-language public education network in Ontario and the only French-language broadcaster outside Quebec.

    In June 2006, the Ontario government announced its intention to grant full autonomy to TFO. The Office des télécommunications éducatives de langue française de l'Ontario (OTÉLFO) was created on April 1, 2007, a corporation with its own board of directors encompassing the TFO television station, which officially became an autonomous Franco-Ontarian organization independent of TVOntario, which also operates the Anglophone station TVO.

    Radio-Canada has stations in Ottawa, Toronto, Windsor, and Sudbury.

    Francophones also have access to numerous French-language television channels through their cable operator.

    Cultural and community life

    The community benefits from a firmly entrenched network of arts and cultural centres, school-community centres and Francophone associations, most often run by volunteers. Cultural organizations organize activities that strengthen the identity of Franco-Ontarian communities while increasing the awareness of arts and culture.

    Culture in the Franco-Ontarian community includes:

    • Nine professional theatre groups and seven community theatre groups
    • Eight publishers: Centre Fora, Centre franco-ontarien de ressources pédagogiques, Éditions David, Éditions du GREF, Éditions du Nordir, Éditions du Vermillon, Éditions L'Interligne, Éditions Prise de Parole
    • No fewer than nine cultural centres that are part of the distribution network
    • Book fairs in Toronto and Sudbury
    • Numerous festivals
    • Talented artists
    • A number of art galleries

    Legislation and government services

    Federal government

    The federal government provides French-language services at a number of points of service. According to statistics from the Public Service Agency, 10.5% of the 23,523 bilingual positions in the public service in Ontario are designated bilingual, as are 65% of the 74,465 positions in the National Capital Region (Ottawa and Gatineau).

    The passing of the Act to amend the Official Language Act in 2005 amended section 41 of the Official Languages Act and now requires federal institutions to take positive measures to enhance the vitality and development of Canada's official language minority communities. This obligation may also be subject to recourse before the courts. Franco-Ontarian politicians initiated this step forward.

    Provincial government

    The French Language Services Act guarantees an individual's right to receive services in French from the provincial government in 25 designated areas. Kingston became the 25th designated area for bilingual services as of May 1, 2009. The Act was amended in 2007 to create the Office of the French Language Services Commissioner. At present, the government has designated 209 public agencies to offer some or all of their services in French.

    Municipalities

    Although there is no act requiring municipalities to provide French-language services, more and more are realizing the importance of offering just such a service.

    The Government of Ontario has recognized the bilingual character of Ottawa in legislation. Though this legislation does not impose bilingualism, it guarantees that services to the public are offered pursuant to bilingualism policies adopted by the city council in 2001.

    The Association des municipalités de langue française de l'Ontario has 44 members that provide French-language services.

    Manitoba

    History

    Walking into the footsteps of La Vérendrye, who reached in 1738 the future site of Saint-Boniface, the first Europeans to reach the West in the 18th century were Francophones. One hundred and fifty years before Manitoba became a province, the territory had many French place names: Fort Rouge, Fort LaReine, Fort Maurepas, Fort Dauphin, Fort Bourbon. These were some of the fur trading posts visited annually by voyageurs and coureurs des bois. Having migrated from their homes in what would become Lower Canada, they established a Francophone presence in Manitoba.

    Geography

    Manitoba's Francophonie is mostly urban. Fully two-thirds of all Franco-Manitobans live in Winnipeg, while about a third live in villages or rural centres, concentrated in the south of the province. In fact, nearly 90 percent of Francophones live within one hour of the Manitoban capital.

    More than half of the Francophones living in Winnipeg are found within the traditionally French-speaking neighbourhoods of Saint-Boniface, Saint-Vital and Saint-Norbert. Others live in villages and parishes founded by Francophones and today members of one of the 17 bilingual municipalities that make up the Association des municipalités bilingues du Manitoba (AMBM). There are however a few exceptions in regions more distant from Winnipeg.

    Social and Community Vitality

    The Société franco-manitobaine (SFM) is the official representative of the Francophone community. The SFM advocates for the full implementation of the rights guaranteed to Francophones and the adoption of new legislation and government policies for the development of French-language services in Manitoba. The SFM facilitates communication and cooperation between Francophone groups in Manitoba, manages the Collaboration Accord between the Francophone community and the Department of Canadian Heritage and is active in all aspects of the community.

    Communications

    Newspapers and Magazines

    La Liberté is the sole French-language weekly in the province. It was established in 1913 by the Oblate religious community. Since 1970, it has been operated by Presse-Ouest Ltd, owned by the Société franco-manitobaine.

    Several local publications are produced: La Gazette (Saint-Claude), Le Montagnard (Saint-Léon), Le Papier de Chez-nous (La Broquerie), Kes Kis Passe (Sainte-Anne), Le Bulletin (Saint-Pierre-Jolys), La Poche aux lièvres (Sainte-Geneviève), Le Réveil (Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface), De Chez-nous à Chez-vous (Sainte-Rose-du-Lac).

    Radio

    CKSB, the provincial Radio-Canada station, started broadcasting in 1946. CKSB offers its listeners several regional and national information and variety programs. Furthermore, Espace musique (89.9 FM in Winnipeg) offers a national programming aimed at musical diversity, the arts and Franco-Manitoban talent.

    Envol 91 FM, la Radio communautaire du Manitoba Inc., is the result of the combined efforts of people of all walks of life to create a French-language radio offering music and entertainment. Upon its creation in 1991, Envol 91 FM was the first French-language community radio in Western Canada and the territories.

    Television

    The télévision de Radio-Canada au Manitoba (CBWFT) offers programming which reflects the cultural and social realities of the population it serves in Manitoba. The Téléjournal Manitoba is the chief regional news program.

    The Réseau de l'information (RDI) broadcasts 24-hour news programming and covers international, national and regional stories, with the contribution of a team of journalists based in Western Canada.

    Cable: Subscribing to the basic cable package gives access to four French-language channels: SRC, RDI (Réseau de l'information), TV5 (international Francophonie) and TVA (Quebec television network). Additional fees give access to a wider variety of French-language channels.

    Cultural and community life

    Located at the heart of Winnipeg's French Quarter, the Centre culturel franco-manitobain (CCFM) was established in 1974 as a Crown Corporation. It plays a key role as a showcase for the talent of Francophone artists and acts as a meeting place for French-language cultural life in Manitoba.

    L'Association culturelle franco-manitobaine (ACFM) represents cultural committees in 19 French-speaking communities. Its mission is to represent and develop French-language cultural committees in Manitoba. These committees offer a wide variety of activities and events which complement each other and meet the needs of each community.

    Established in 1925, Le Cercle Molière is the oldest theatre group still in existence in Canada. Other theatre groups include Chiens de soleil at the Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface, the Ligue d'improvisation du Manitoba (LIM), the Théâtre Montcalm de Saint-Jean-Baptiste, the Théâtre de la FAFM, the Théâtre des crudités, the Théâtre dans le cimetière and the "Bières et Saynètes" (beer and playlets) evenings.

    There are two publishing houses: Éditions du Blé (1974) and Éditions des Plaines (1979).

    Alliance chorale Manitoba, established in 1971, is a non-profit provincial federation which promotes French-language choir music and thus contributes to the development of Frenchlanguage culture in Manitoba.

    Les Productions Rivard (1995) is the most important film production company in Western Canada.

    The Saint-Boniface museum, established in 1959, gathers and preserves a significant collection of artefacts pertaining to the French and Metis heritage in the Canadian West. Other museums attract visitors in rural communities like Saint-Claude, Saint-Joseph, Saint-Pierre-Jolys, Notre-Dames-de-Lourdes, Sainte-Anne and Sainte-Geneviève.

    The Gabrielle-Roy House, where the famous Franco-Manitoban author was born, was completely restored and welcomes visitors since 2003.

    The Maison des artistes visuels francophones du Manitoba is a group of Francophone artists working with the Franco-Manitoban community and the French-speaking community at large.

    The Festival du Voyageur Inc. is a major meeting place for the community and is recognized internationally for providing authentic and unique historical and cultural experiences that reflect the spirit and culture of the voyageurs as well as the joie de vivre of Manitoba's Francophones.

    Since its creation 35 years ago, 100 Nons has worked to develop the French-language music industry in Manitoba.

    Legislation and government services

    Federal Government

    The Federal government provides services in French in several offices. According to the Public Service Agency, 7.9% of the 6,832 Federal civil service positions in Manitoba are designated bilingual.

    Provincial Government

    The number of positions that are designated bilingual grew from 376 in 1999-2000 to 812 in 2006-2007. In 2007-2008, 71% of the positions with a bilingual designation were held by bilingual employees.

    In 1989, the province of Manitoba adopted a policy aiming to provide, as much as possible, services in French in regions of the province with a high concentration of Francophones. This policy applied especially to general correspondence, public forms, written information destined for the general public, posters and public notices.

    Municipalities

    Including Winnipeg, there are 17 bilingual municipalities, represented by the Association des municipalités bilingues du Manitoba (AMBM). The 16 others are:

    • The city of Sainte-Anne
    • The rural municipality of Alexander
    • The rural municipality of De Salaberry
    • The rural municipality of La Broquerie
    • The rural municipality of Montcalm
    • The rural municipality of Ritchot
    • The rural municipality of Saint-Laurent
    • The rural municipality Taché/Lorette
    • The rural municipality of Ellice
    • The village of Notre-Dame-de-Lourdes
    • The village of Saint-Claude
    • The village of Saint-Lazare
    • The village of Saint-Léon
    • The village of Saint-Pierre-Jolys
    • The village of Somerset
    • The village of Powerview/Pine Falls
    • The AMBM plays a leadership role in advising its members on bilingualism issues.

    Alberta

    History

    Grande Cache, Miette, Lac La Biche: at the time of the voyageurs, the vast spaces west of the Great Lakes were for the most part given French place names. French also predominated at Fort Edmonton, constructed in 1795 by the Hudson's Bay Company.

    Geography

    Franco-Albertans are found in all areas of the province. They are most populous around Calgary and Edmonton, attracted by the job opportunities and the varied services in an urban setting. More than half of the Franco-Albertan population lives in these cities and their surrounding areas: south of Edmonton, in the town of Beaumont, and to the north, in the towns of Saint Albert, Morinville and Legal. In Edmonton itself, the Bonnie Doon neighbourhood, home to many Francophone institutions, claims the title of French Quarter.

    Significant concentrations of Francophones are found in Rivière la Paix, Bonnyville, Saint Paul, Plamondon and Lac La Biche. These northeastern and northwestern regions of the province have the highest percentage of Francophones: close to 8 percent in Census Division no. 12 (Bonnyville, Saint-Paul, Cold Lake). Francophones are a majority in the Falher region, particularly in the town of Falher itself and in the town of Girouxville.

    Social and Community Vitality

    The Association canadienne-française de l'Alberta (ACFA) is the principal representative organization of the Francophone community. It brings together twelve regional associations and two local circles. ACFA is dedicated to defending the rights of Francophones in all sectors of daily life, and is responsible for coordinating the advocacy and community development actions in cooperation with Alberta's Francophone organizations. Among other actions, ACFA promotes the pride and culture of the Francophone community throughout Alberta.

    Communications

    Newspapers and magazines

    • Le Franco, published weekly by ACFA, covers Francophone issues and matters of interest to the general population;
    • Le Chinook, a privately-owned monthly in Calgary, serves the southern area of Alberta;
    • Universo is a trilingual (English, French and Spanish) monthly produced since 2003 by a non-profit organization and distributed in Edmonton, Calgary, Red Deer, Lethbridge and Medicine Hat;
    • L'annuaire des services en français, published by Le Franco, lists Francophone businesses, organizations and professionnals every year since 1982.

    Radio

    • The Société Radio-Canada (French CBC) operates two stations, one in Edmonton and the other in Calgary. Both broadcast CHFA, which has been owned by Radio-Canada since 1949. The programming is divided in three sections: provincial, Western Canada and national (the latter broadcast from Montreal).
    • Espace Musique was first established in Calgary as La chaîne culturelle during the winter of 2004, with another antenna opening in Edmonton on June 30 of the same year. This service then changed its name to Espace musique in September 2004.
    • Community radio (CKRP) in the Rivière la Paix region;
    • Community radio projects in St-Paul, Plamondon and Bonnyville, currently broadcasting part-time.

    Television

    • The Téléjournal Alberta is locally produced by Radio-Canada and broadcast throughout the province, as well as Oniva, a youth program broadcast throughout the four Western provinces as well as the Yukon. During the summer, this program is broadcast nationwide.
    • Satellite service allows access to several French-language channels.

    Cultural and community life

    • Cultural life is encouraged and supported by cultural associations and school-community centres: there are community centres in Edmonton, Bonnyville, Saint-Isidore and Falher, and school-community centres in Calgary, Saint-Paul, Plamondon, Legal andFort McMurray. There are plans for a new community centre to serve the French-speaking community in Lethbridge; construction should begin in 2009.
    • Two buildings, the Cité des Rocheuses in Calgary and the Cité francophone in Edmonton, are the seats of several Francophone organizations;
    • There is a professional theatre company (L'UniThéâtre) and several community groups in Plamondon, Legal, Saint-Paul, Bonnyville and Rivière la Paix. A project is under way to revitalize French theatre in Calgary with the help of a resource person.
    • A number of dancing groups (folk and other styles) including Zephyr, which is a member of the Association la Girandole (Edmonton), as well as Les Blés d'or (Saint-Paul), Les Plein Soleil (Saint-Isidore) and Les Vols-au-Vent (Bonnyville).
    • Cultural activities: Fête franco-albertaine, Festival de théâtre jeunesse, Jeux francophones de l'Alberta, the Chicane albertaine, Gala albertain de la chanson, Edmonton chante, festival Cinémagine, Carnaval de Saint-Isidore, Festival des sucres à Calgary;
    • The Regroupement artistique francophone de l'Alberta (RAFA) had close to 100 members at the end of 2008, including 56 artists and approximately 40 organizations working in arts and culture. The art disciplines covered are dance, drama, literature, music, media arts, visual arts and distribution/production;
    • ACFA supports artistic and cultural development in the Franco-Albertan community and coordinates regional activities;
    • Two Franco-Albertan genealogy societies: the Société généalogique du Nord-Ouest and the Société historique et généalogique de Smoky River.
    • Museums: Musée Héritage in Saint-Albert, Musée de Girouxville, Musée de Plamondon, Musée de Bonnyville, Musée de Saint-Paul;
    • A tourist circuit including the village of Legal and its historic murals;
    • The Provincial Archives of Alberta and the Archives du Campus Saint-Jean preserve the archives of Francophone organizations and individuals.
    • Francophonie jeunesse de l'Alberta (FJA) is a non-profit organization established in 1972. For ten years now, FJA has organized an annual meet for Francophone youth, the Rassemblement Jeunesse (RaJe). The 2008 edition was attended by more than 800 youth. FJA also organizes the youth Parliament, leadership training as well as goAGA, an event which combines FJA's Annual General Meeting with workshops and discussion groups.

    Legislation and government services

    Federal government

    Federal agencies and departments offer services in French at various locations. According to the Public Service Agency, 4.5 percent of the 9,520 federal government positions in Alberta are designated bilingual.

    Provincial government

    The Languages Act of 1988 reaffirmed unilingualism in the province; there is currently no policy or law on French in Alberta.

    However, Alberta recognizes some constitutional obligations, including the right to education and school governance, as well as the right to use the official language of one's choice before provincial courts.

    The Alberta government is working with the Franco-Albertan community to develop practical approaches to meet the needs of the province's Francophones.

    Municipalities

    Beaumont, Legal and Falher are the only bilingual municipalities in Alberta. Some municipalities (Edmonton and Calgary) publish brochures in French. Several others have bilingual signs.

    British Columbia

    History

    When Alexander Mackenzie, the first European to cross the Rockies, reached the Pacific in 1793, he was accompanied by six French Canadian voyageurs. A few years later, more than 20 French Canadians traveled with Simon Fraser on the series of voyages that would lead to the construction of several forts in the region for the Northwest Company.

    Geography

    Francophones are found in every part of British Columbia. By far the greatest number are concentrated in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (54 percent of British Columbia's Francophones). Over 38,000 of them are spread across the various municipalities that make up the metropolitan area, including Vancouver, Surrey, Burnaby, North Vancouver, West Vancouver and Coquitlam (which includes Maillardville). Another concentration is found in the different communities of the Greater Victoria area, where 6,445 residents have French as their first spoken official language - accounting for 9 percent of the province's Francophones. The remaining Francophones in the province are spread throughout the other divisions. There are cultural centres in Kelowna, Prince George, Nanaimo, Powell River, Kamloops, Comox, Campbell River, Kootenay Ouest and Kitimat. The urban area of Abbotsford also attracts many Francophones and accounts for 3 percent of the French-speaking population of the province.

    Nowhere in British Columbia do Francophones constitute a significant percentage of the population. They represent only a very small minority in the Vancouver and Victoria metropolitan areas - respectively 1.8 and 2 percent. Their numbers are just as small in other localities; in the part of Coquitlam where the old village of Maillardville was located, they now account for only 2.3 percent of the population. The city of Surrey has the highest concentration of Francophones (5,365).

    Social and Community Vitality

    The Fédération des Francophones de la Colombie-Britannique (FFCB) is the organization that represents the interests of the Francophone community in British Columbia. FFCB is dedicated to the advancement of an inclusive and welcoming Francophone community. Its goals include broadening the French-speaking environment in the province and strenghtening British Columbia's French-speaking civil society. FFCB includes some 40 member associations in the fields of culture, economy, education, justice, communications, social services and community development.

    Communications

    Newspapers and magazines

    L'Express du Pacifique, published by Société de l'Express du Pacifique, is a bimonthly newspaper created in 1998, just after the closing of Le Soleil de Colombie (which had been publishing since 1968). It is the only all-French newspaper in the province, and now has an online edition.

    The Community Digest is a bilingual (French-English) multicultural magazine published every week. It promotes cultural exchanges, bilingualism and social harmony.

    La Data from: is a bimonthly bilingual (French-English) newspaper which started publication in June 1999. It is intended as a forum on diversity in the sense that it covers British Columbia's cultural communities. There is an online edition of this newspaper.

    Local radio

    French-language radio broadcasts by the Société Radio-Canada (SRC) originating in Vancouver and Montreal.

    The Société radio communautaire Victoria is the first French-language community radio in British Columbia. It develops and produces French programs in Victoria, in the studios of CILS-FM 107.9. It started broadcasting in the Greater Metropolitan Victoria in November 2007.

    There is also a French-Language program broadcast by the University of Vancouver's campus radio station.

    Local television

    The local Société Radio-Canada in Vancouver produces a regional news program. Other programs by the SRC are produced in Montreal.

    Other French-language channels are available by cable and satellite, including TV5, RDI, TVA, Artv, Canal D, Canal Évasion, Canal Z, Historia, RDS and Série +.

    Cultural and community life

    Francophones are served by a dynamic associative network that provides a meeting place for all forms of expression of the Francophone culture. The Conseil culturel et artistique Francophone de la Colombie-Britannique provides a voice for individuals and organizations working in fields related to arts and culture.

    There are Francophone associations in almost every region, with a variety of mandates (provincial, regional, community, various sectors). They organize festivals, theatre events, community soirées, sports or educational activities, etc.

    Several communities have access to community centre services: Vancouver, Victoria, Kelowna, Comox, Campbell River, Kamloops, Maillardville, Powell River, Prince George, Nanaimo, Kootenay-Ouest, Surrey and Kitimat.

    Various activities in British Columbia include:

    Theatre productions by the Théâtre la Seizième, the only Frenchlanguage professional theatre group;

    • The Festival du bois de Maillardville, held in March, a celebration of French-Canadian traditions;
    • The Festival d'été francophone de Vancouver, the Coup de Coeur francophone de Vancouver and the Concerts Nouvelle Scène are major celebrations of music;
    • A traditional dance group, Les Cornouillers, and two choirs, Les Échos du Pacifique and Les Voix de l'Île, recreate the atmosphere of French-Canadian soirées;
    • In 2009, Juste pour rire will be offered in Vanvouver;
    • The Maple Sugar Festival du Sucre d'érable de Nanaimo holds festivities on the theme of the sugar bush. It is now one of the prominent events on Vancouver Island;
    • The Festival Francophone de Victoria brings together Francophones and Francophiles from the provincial capital region every March to enjoy numerous musical and film-related activities as well as discussions in French;
    • The Rendez-vous du cinéma québécois takes place in February and March and showcases a wide variety of French-language films;
    • The Jeux Francophones in May attract hundreds of young British Columbians who wish to take part in sports, cultural and educational activities in an atmosphere of fun and friendship;
    • Pacifique en chanson, an annual event which takes place during spring and gives Francophone singer/songwriters and singers an opportunity to show their talents. The winners go on to Chant'Ouest, a contest bringing together the Western provinces and the North;
    • The Parlement jeunesse Francophone de la Colombie-Britannique, held in February, has become a major forum for the province's Francophone youth to deliberate and develop;
    • Every fall, CILS-FM holds a radiothon in Victoria, which brings together volunteers, members and listeners from the Capital region.

    Legislation and government services

    Federal government

    All federal laws and regulations must be available in both official languages. The public has the right to communicate and receive services in French in offices that are designated bilingual. According to data from the Public Service Agency, 3.3 percent of the 16,061 federal public service positions in British Columbia are designated bilingual.

    Provincial government

    There is currently no obligation for the Government of British Columbia to offer French-language services. However, a government office is responsible for Francophone Affairs, following a framework agreement signed with the federal government in 2001 to promote official languages and strengthen the Francophone community. The same year, the Premier appointed an MLA responsible for Francophone Affairs. Since then, the framework agreement has been renewed and partnerships have been made possible in several fields including health, social affairs, justice, child care and tourism.

    Municipalities

    With the exception of the city of Coquitlam, no municipal services are offered in French. However, municipalities are cooperating more and more with Francophone associations.

    Quebec

    History

    The earliest English-speaking Quebecers arrived in Montreal at the beginning of the British regime in the second half of the 18th century. American merchants, United Empire Loyalists and Anglo-Scot Protestants founded Quebec's public and private English-language institutions and would represent Quebec's elite merchant and financial classes up until the 1960s; the heritage of this era remains in neighbourhoods such as Westmount and the Golden Square Mile.

    Geography

    A large proportion of Quebec's English-speaking population resides in or near Montreal. Most reside on the Island of Montreal, particularly in the West Island and in the western half of Montreal's urban core, where there is a network of English-language educational, social, cultural, economic, and medical institutions.

    Social and Community Vitality

    The Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN) is a not-for-profit organization bringing together 36 English-language community organizations across Quebec for the purposes of supporting and assisting the development and enhancing the vitality of the English-speaking minority communities. This is undertaken principally through cooperation in the prioritization and development of projects and through the promotion of an effective coordinated approach.

    The Quebec Community Groups Network (QCGN) identifies, explores and addresses the strategic issues affecting the development and vitality of English-speaking Quebec. It encourages dialogue and collaboration among its member organizations, individuals, community groups, institutions and leaders. In partnership with member organizations, stakeholders, community leaders and institutions, it articulates the views of English-speaking Quebec on issues of strategic concern and takes action to address them.

    Cultural and community life

    • In the Montreal area, access to a fairly complete range of cultural activities and consumer goods including English-language bookstores, record stores, cinemas, and theatres; variety of performing artists in English guaranteed through universities, four public CEGEPs and private cultural groups; outside Montreal, however, the situation is much less positive.
    • Several English-language professional and amateur theatre companies including Centaur Theatre, Theatre 1774, Geordie Productions and Youtheatre; recent initiatives include the Montreal Fringe Festival, and the Quebec Drama Federation's Professional Theatre Showcase '93.
    • Sixteen publishing houses, eleven of which are members of the Association of English-Language Publishers of Quebec; and the Quebec Society for the Promotion of English Language Literature, which promotes and publishes Anglophone writers in the province.
    • Over 20 festivals and local fairs including the Wakeham-York Homecoming Festival (Gaspé), Fall Fest (Quebec City), Townshippers' Day (Eastern Townships), Heritage Day (Lower Laurentians), and the Ormstown Exhibition (Chateauguay Valley).
    • Dozens of museums and historical societies including the Aylmer Heritage Association and the Aylmer Museum (Western Quebec), the Brome County Historical Society (Eastern Townships), the Ascot Museum and historical Society (Eastern Townships), the Quebec Family History Society (Montreal), and the Gaspesian British Heritage Association (New Richmond).

    Communications

    English-language media tend to come from outside the province. Most local English-language media are based in the Montreal area.

    Television

    The province's English-language television stations are CBMT (CBC), CFCF (CTV), CKMI (Global) and CJNT (independent multilingual). These stations are available on cable throughout the province.

    Anglophones in the Outaouais region are served by English stations from Ottawa. Southern Quebec is also served by American network affiliates from Vermont and New York's North Country who actually depend on the Montreal market for most of their revenue. The Burlington, VT stations are WCAX (CBS), WVNY (ABC), WFFF-TV (Fox), and Vermont Public Television (PBS). The Plattsburgh, NY stations are WPTZ (NBC) and WCFE (PBS). These stations are carried on Montreal-area cable networks, along with other English and French language cable stations. (See Multichannel television in Canada.) Western Montreal carries more English-language programming to better serve the large English-speaking market.

    Radio

    English-language radio stations in Montreal include AM stations CKGM (sports), CJAD (news/talk) and CINW (oldies), and FM outlets CBME (CBC Radio One), CKUT (campus radio from McGill University), CFQR (Q92, adult contemporary), CJFM (Virgin Radio 96, Hot AC), CBM (CBC Radio 2) and CHOM (mainstream rock). Listeners in Sherbrooke, Lennoxville and the Eastern Townships are served by CBC Radio One and CBC Radio 2 and the Bishop's University station CJMQ. CBC Radio One is also available in many other Quebec communities. Parts of the province also receive English-language signals from Ontario, New Brunswick, New York or New England. However, no community in the province besides Montreal has an English commercial station.

    Newspapers and periodicals

    Quebec has two English-language daily newspapers: the large Montreal Gazette, and the small Sherbrooke Record, a local newspaper for the Eastern Townships. Many smaller communities in Quebec also have English-language weekly papers, including The Equity in Shawville, the Stanstead Journal in Stanstead, The First Informer in the Magdalen Islands, The Gleaner in Huntingdon, the Quebec Chronicle-Telegraph in Quebec City, SPEC in the Gaspé region, the West Quebec Post in Buckingham, the Aylmer Bulletin in Aylmer, the Townships Sun in Lennoxville, the Suburban and the Chronicle in the West Island of Montreal and The LowDown to Hull and Back News in La Pêche. Montreal also has two English alternative weeklies, Hour and Mirror. Maisonneuve is a culturally literate bimonthly general-interest English-language magazine published in Montreal.

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