Education Indicators in Canada: Report of the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program, March 2024

Release date: March 28, 2024

These tables update or add to those published in previous issues of Education Indicators in Canada: Report of the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program.

The Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program (PCEIP) provides a statistical portrait of the elementary, secondary and postsecondary education systems through these tables and other products.

The Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program (PCEIP) is an ongoing initiative of the Canadian Education Statistics Council, a partnership between Statistics Canada and the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. PCEIP products are prepared by the two organizations in collaboration with the provincial and territorial departments and ministries responsible for education and training. They are aimed at policy makers, practitioners and the general public.

What’s new: Tables have been updated in sections D.6 Educational Attainment of the population aged 25 to 64, E.2 Transitions to the Labour Market, and E.3 Labour Market Outcomes.

Since the last release of PCEIP, some tables were automatically updated on the day of new data were released. These include:

  • D.1 Enrolment in postsecondary education
  • D.2 Graduation from postsecondary education
  • D.3 University educators
  • D.4 Research and development
  • E.2 Transitions to the labour market
  • F.1 Reference statistics for use in the calculation of indicators

About PCEIP

Education Indicators in Canada: Handbook for the Report of the Pan-Canadian Education Indicators Program (methodology and data sources)

Committees and organizations


Section A:
A portrait of the school-age population

Section A1: Population size
  • Population projections of the Canadian population, for Canada, provinces and territories (x 1,000)
    Data Table
  • Population projections of the Indigenous population, for Canada, provinces and territories (x 1,000)
    Data Table
  • ArchivedEstimates and projections of population aged 0 to 29, by age group, Canada, provinces and territories
    Data Table
  • ArchivedEstimates and projections of the population aged 0 to 29 with Aboriginal identity, and proportion of persons with Aboriginal identity among the Canadian population, by age group, Canada
    Data Table
  • ArchivedEstimates and projections of the population aged 0 to 29 with Aboriginal identity, and proportion of persons with Aboriginal identity among the provincial/territorial population, by age group, provinces and territories
    June 2016 HTML | XLSX
Section A.2: Cultural diversity
  • Immigrants and non-permanent residents among the school age population, in and out of census metropolitan areas (CMAs)
    Data Table
  • Visible minorities, among the school age population, in and out of census metropolitan areas (CMAs)
    Data Table
  • Proportion of the school-age population (aged 5 to 24) with non-official home language, Canada and jurisdictions, in and out of census metropolitan areas (CMAs)
    Data Table
  • School-age population with Aboriginal identity, in and out of census metropolitan areas (CMAs)
    Data Table
Section A.3: Low income
  • Percentage of the population aged 0 to 24 in low income, by age group and type of living arrangement
    Data Table
  • ArchivedDistribution of the population aged 5 to 24, by number of years in low income, Canada and provinces
    December 2012 HTML
Section A.4: Family background
  • School-age population by living arrangements and age group
    Data Table
  • School-age population by work activity of parents and age group
    Data Table
  • School-age population with Aboriginal identity by living arrangements and age group
    Data Table
  • School-age population with Aboriginal identity, by work activity of parents and age group
    Data Table

Section B:
Financing education systems

Section B.1: Total expenditure on education
  • Combined public and private expenditure on educational institutions, by level of education
    Data Table
  • Indices of change and percentage distribution of combined public and private expenditure on educational institutions, by level of education
    Data Table
  • Combined public and private expenditure on education per capita and index of change
    Data Table
  • Annual expenditure by educational institutions per student, by educational level, 2018/2019
    Data Table
  • Annual expenditure by educational institutions per student, by educational level, 2019/2020
    Data Table
  • Annual expenditure by educational institutions per student, by educational level, 2020/2021
    Data Table
  • Public and private expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, by level of education
    Data Table
  • Distribution of total and current expenditure by educational institutions, from public and private sources, by level of education
    Data Table
Section B.2: Public and private expenditure on education
  • ArchivedPublic expenditure on education, health, social services, and non-social programs, Canada
    December 2009 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPublic expenditure on education, by level of education, Canada and jurisdictions
    December 2009 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedIndices of change in public expenditure on education, by level of education, Canada and jurisdictions
    December 2009 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPrivate expenditure on education, by level of education, Canada and jurisdictions
    December 2009 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedIndices of change in private expenditure on education, in 2001 constant dollars, by level of education, Canada and jurisdictions
    December 2009 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPrivate expenditure as a percentage of total expenditure on education, by level of education, Canada and jurisdictions
    December 2009 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPercentage of households incurring education expenditure and average expenditure per household on education, Canada and jurisdictions
    April 2011 HTML | XLS
  • Canadian and international tuition fees by level of study (current dollars)
    Data Table
  • Canadian undergraduate tuition fees by field of study (current dollars)
    Data Table
  • Canadian graduate tuition fees by field of study (current dollars)
    Data Table
  • University revenues by source, as a percentage of total revenue
    Data Table
  • University expenditures by type of expenditure
    Data Table
  • Percentage distribution of university expenditures by type of expenditure
    Data Table
Section B.3: Student debt
  • Percentage of graduates who borrowed from government student loan programs and their average debt at graduation
    Data Table
  • Incidence and repayment of government student loans among graduates who did not pursue any further postsecondary education program
    Data Table

Section C:
Elementary-secondary education

Section C.1: Early years and school readiness
  • ArchivedGeneral health, health limitations and participation in selected activities of 4- and 5-year-olds, by sex, Canada
    April 2011 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPeabody Picture Vocabulary Test (Revised) scores for 4- and 5-year-olds, by sex, Canada
    April 2011 HTML | XLS
Section C.2: Elementary-secondary school: enrolments and educators
  • Proportion of educators in public elementary and secondary schools by sex
    Data Table
  • Proportion of educators in public elementary and secondary schools by age group
    Data Table
  • Proportion of educators in public elementary and secondary schools by work status
    Data Table
Section C.3: Elementary-secondary school: on-time and extended-time high school graduation rate
  • True cohort high school graduation rate, on-time and extended-time graduation rates, by gender
    Data Table
Section C.4: Student achievement
  • Estimated average scores of 15-year-old students for the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), by gender and domain
    Data Table
  • Estimated average scores and percent distribution of 15-year-old students, science, by gender and by proficiency level, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Canada and provinces, 2015
    HTML | XLSX
  • Estimated average scores of 15-year-old students, science assessment, by gender, by science scale and science sub-scales, Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Canada and provinces, 2015
    HTML | XLSX
  • Mean scores of Grade 8 students, Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) reading, science and mathematics assessment
    Data Table
  • Mean scores of Grade 8 students on the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) mathematics subdomains assessments
    Data Table
  • Percentage distribution, results of Grade 8 students on the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) mathematics assessment, by level of performance
    Data Table
  • Mean scores of Grade 8 students on the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) science subdomains assessments
    Data Table
  • Percentage distribution, results of Grade 8 students on the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) science assessment, by level of performance
    Data Table
  • Mean scores of Grade 8 students on the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) reading subdomains assessments
    Data Table
  • Percentage distribution, results of Grade 8 students on the Pan-Canadian Assessment Program (PCAP) reading assessment, by level of performance
    Data Table
Section C.5: Information and communications technologies (ICT)
  • ArchivedNumber of computers per student in the modal grade attended by 15-year-olds, by students' socio-economic status, Canada, provinces, G-8 and selected OECD countries, 2009
    May 2012 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPercentage of 15-year-old students who reported using computers at home and at school, by frequency of use, Canada, other countries and provinces, 2006
    June 2008 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPercentage of 15-year-old students who reported use of computers at home and at school, by frequency of use and sex, Canada, other countries and provinces, 2006
    June 2008 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPercentage of 15-year-old students in schools whose principals reported shortage or inadequacy of computer hardware or software for instruction, by students’ socio-economic status, Canada, provinces, G-8 and selected OECD countries, 2009
    May 2012 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedIndex of computer use at school, by students’ socio-economic status, Canada, provinces, G-8 and selected OECD countries, 2009
    May 2012 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedIndex of self-confidence in information and communications technologies high-level tasks, by students’ socio-economic status, Canada, provinces, G-8 and selected OECD countries, 2009
    May 2012 HTML | XLS
Section C.6: Teachers, the learning environment and the organisation of schools
  • Intended instruction time in public institutions, ages 6 through 17, by age
    Data Table
  • Organization of teachers' working time, by educational level taught
    Data Table
  • Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions, by level of education taught and teaching experience, Canadian dollars
    Data Table
  • Annual statutory teachers' salaries in public institutions, by level of education taught and teaching experience, US dollars
    Data Table

Section D:
Postsecondary education

Section D.1: Enrolment in postsecondary education
  • Apprenticeship programs by age groups, major trade groups, sex and registration status
    Data Table
  • Postsecondary enrolments, by registration status, institution type, status of student in Canada and gender
    Data Table
  • Proportion of male and female postsecondary enrolments, by registration status, institution type, and status of student in Canada
    Data Table
  • Proportion of Canadian and international student enrolments, by International Standard Classification of Education
    Data Table
  • Distribution of international student enrolments, by level of tertiary education
    Data Table
  • Postsecondary international student enrolments, by International Standard Classification of Education and country of citizenship
    Data Table
Section D.2: Graduation from postsecondary education
  • Apprenticeship certifications by age group, major trade group and sex
    Data Table
  • Postsecondary graduates, by institution type, status of student in Canada and gender
    Data Table
  • Proportion of male and female postsecondary graduates, by institution type and status of student in Canada
    Data Table
  • Graduation of career, technical or professional training certificate students, within Canada, by student characteristics
    Data Table
  • Proportion of students who started in a career, technical or professional training certificate program and graduated with a different educational qualification, within Canada, by student characteristics
    Data Table
  • Persistence and graduation of students in a STEM/ BHASE (non-STEM) grouping other than that of the first enrolment, within Canada, by student characteristics and educational qualification
    Data Table
  • Graduation of career, technical or professional training certificate students, within the province or territory of first enrolment, by student characteristics
    Data Table
  • Proportion of students who started in a career, technical or professional training certificate program and graduated with a different educational qualification, within the province or territory of first enrolment, by student characteristics
    Data Table
  • Graduation of career, technical or professional training certificate students, within the STEM/BHASE (non-STEM) grouping and province or territory of first enrolment, by student characteristics
    Data Table
  • Persistence and graduation of students in a STEM/BHASE (non-STEM) grouping other than that of first enrolment, within the province or territory of first enrolment, by student characteristics and educational qualification
    Data Table

For further information about persistence and graduation indicators, please refer to the technical reference guide: Persistence and graduation indicators of postsecondary students, 2011/2012 to 2021/2022.

Section D.3: University educators
  • Proportion of full-time teaching staff at Canadian universities, by gender and academic rank
    Data Table
  • Number and distribution of full-time academic staff at Canadian universities by age group, gender and province
    Data Table
  • ArchivedNumber of full-time teaching staff in universities, by academic rank and sex, Canada and provinces
    December 2012 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedNumber, age distribution and median age of full-time university teaching staff, by sex, Canada and provinces
    December 2012 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedAge distribution of full-time university teaching staff and of full-time employed labour force, Canada and provinces
    December 2012 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedNumber and salary of full-time university teaching staff, by rank and sex, Canada and provinces
    December 2012 HTML | XLS
Section D.4: Research and development
  • Total domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D) as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP), Canada and provinces, and G-7 countries
    Data Table
  • Percentage of total research and development (R&D) expenditure by performing sector, Canada and provinces, and G-7 countries
    Data Table
  • Expenditures on Research and Development (R&D), by performing sector (x 1,000,000)
    Data Table
  • Sources of funds for expenditures on research and development (R&D) in the higher education sector
    Data Table
Section D.5: Literacy
  • Results from the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) (2012)
    HTML | PDF
  • ArchivedLiteracy levels for numeracy proficiency, by urban/rural status, Canada and jurisdictions, population aged 16 and over, 2003
    June 2008 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedLiteracy levels for numeracy proficiency, by age group and sex, Canada and jurisdictions, population aged 16 and over, 2003
    June 2008 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedLiteracy levels for numeracy proficiency, by educational attainment, Canada and jurisdictions, population aged 16 and over, 2003
    June 2008 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedLiteracy levels for numeracy proficiency, Aboriginal (urban) and non-Aboriginal (urban and rural) populations aged 16 and over in Manitoba and Saskatchewan, 2003
    June 2008 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedLiteracy levels for numeracy proficiency, Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations aged 16 and over in Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, 2003
    June 2008 HTML | XLS
Section D.6: Educational attainment of the population aged 25 to 64
  • Educational attainment of the population aged 25 to 64, by age group and sex, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Canada, provinces and territories
    Data Table
  • Highest level of education by census year, Indigenous identity and Registered Indian status: Canada, provinces and territories
    Data Table
  • Educational attainment in the population aged 25 to 64, off-reserve Indigenous, non-Indigenous and total population
    Data Table
  • Highest level of education by census year, visible minority and generation status: Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations
    Data Table
Section D.7: Adult education and training
  • ArchivedParticipation rate in formal job-related training for the adult work force, by sex, age group, educational attainment and province
    June 2010 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedMean annual number of hours of formal job-related training per participant, by sex, age group, educational attainment and province
    June 2010 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedProportion of participants and non-participants reporting unmet job-related training needs or wants, by sex, age group and educational attainment, Canada
    June 2010 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedReasons for unmet job-related training needs or wants, training participants and non-participants, Canada
    June 2010 HTML | XLS

Section E:
Transitions and outcomes

Section E.1: Transitions to postsecondary education
  • Participation rate in postsecondary education, young Canadians between 19 and 23 years of age, by family characteristics measured five years earlier
    Data Table
  • Participation rate in education among 15- to 29-year-olds, by age and type of institution attended
    Data Table
  • Participation rate in education among 15- to 29-year-olds, by age group and type of institution attended
    Data Table
  • Participation rate in education among 18- to 34-year-olds, by age group and type of institution attended
    Data Table
  • ArchivedEducational status of an 18- to 20-year-old cohort over time, by sex, Canada and provinces
    December 2011 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPercentage of 18- to 20-year old high-school leavers in 1999 who later reported additional education, by sex, Canada and provinces
    December 2011 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedPercentage of a cohort of 26- to 28-year-olds who ever left high school, by sex, Canada and provinces
    December 2011 HTML | XLS
Section E.2: Transitions to the labour market
  • Percentage of 15-to 29-year-olds in education and not in education by labour force status, highest level of education attained, age group and sex
    Data Table
  • Proportion of students who are working aged 15 to 29, by age and type of institution attended
    Data Table
  • Proportion of students who are working, aged 15 to 29, by age group and type of institution attended
    Data Table
  • Population, aged 15 to 29, non-students and students by type of institution attended, age and labour force status
    Data Table
  • Characteristics and median employment income of postsecondary graduates five years after graduation, by educational qualification and field of study (primary groupings)
    Data Table
  • Characteristics and median employment income of longitudinal cohorts of postsecondary graduates two and five years after graduation, by educational qualification and field of study (primary groupings)
    Data Table
  • Characteristics and median employment income of postsecondary graduates two years after graduation, by educational qualification and field of study (primary groupings)
    Data Table
  • Characteristics and median employment income of postsecondary graduates five years after graduation, by educational qualification and field of study (STEM and BHASE (non-STEM) groupings)
    Data Table
  • Characteristics and median employment income of longitudinal cohorts of postsecondary graduates two and five years after graduation, by educational qualification and field of study (STEM and BHASE (non-STEM) groupings)
    Data Table
  • Characteristics and median employment income of postsecondary graduates two years after graduation, by educational qualification and field of study (STEM and BHASE (non-STEM) groupings)
    Data Table

For more information about the labour market outcomes indicators for postsecondary graduates, please refer to this technical guide: Labour market outcomes for college and university graduates, 2010 to 2019.

  • Median employment income of journeypersons who certify in selected trades, two and five years after certification, cross-sectional analysis
    Data Table
  • Median employment income of journeypersons who certify in selected trades at 4 and 2 years before certification, year of certification, 2 and 4 years after certification, longitudinal analysis
    Data Table
  • Movements of journeypersons by province or grouped territories of certification (origin) and of residence or employment (destination), one and three years after certification
    Data Table
  • Net mobility indicators of newly certified journeypersons, one and three years after certification
    Data Table

For more information on labour market outcome indicators for apprentices, please refer to the technical guides: Earnings indicators for certified journeypersons in Canada, 2008 to 2018 and Indicators on the interprovincial and territorial mobility of certified journeypersons, 2008 to 2018.

  • ArchivedPercentage of 2009-2010 graduates working full-time, three years after graduation, by level of education and province of study
    October 2015 HTML | XLSX
  • ArchivedPercentage of 2009-2010 university graduates working full-time, three years after graduation, by sex and field of study, Canada
    October 2015 HTML | XLSX
  • ArchivedPercentage of 2009-2010 college graduates working full-time, three years after graduation, by sex and field of study, Canada
    October 2015 HTML | XLSX
  • ArchivedMedian annual earnings of 2009-2010 graduates working full-time, three years after graduation, by level of education and province of study
    October 2015 HTML | XLSX
  • ArchivedDistribution of annual earnings of 2009-2010 graduates working full-time, three years after graduation, by sex, level of education and province of study
    October 2015 HTML | XLSX
  • ArchivedMedian annual earnings of 2009-2010 college graduates working full-time, three years after graduation, by sex and field of study, Canada
    October 2015 HTML | XLSX
  • ArchivedMedian annual earnings of 2009-2010 university graduates working full-time, three years after graduation, by sex and field of study, Canada
    October 2015 HTML | XLSX
  • ArchivedMigration characteristics of 2000 graduates in the period before enrolling and two years after graduation, Canada and jurisdictions
    June 2009 HTML | XLS
  • ArchivedMigration characteristics of 2005 graduates in the period before enrolling and two years after graduation, Canada and jurisdictions
    June 2009 HTML | XLS
Section E.3: Labour market outcomes
  • Employment rates of 25-to 64-year-olds, by highest level of education attained, age group and sex
    Data Table
  • Unemployment rates of population aged 15 and over, total and with Indigenous identity, by educational attainment, Canada
    Data Table
  • Unemployment rates of 25- to 29-year-olds, by educational attainment, Canada and provinces
    Data Table
  • Average earnings or employment income, by age group and highest certificate, diploma or degree, 2016
    Data Table
  • Employment income groups by highest level of education: Canada, provinces and territories, 2021
    Data Table
  • Distribution of earners, by highest certificate, diploma or degree and earnings/employment income, 2016
    Data Table
  • Employment income statistics by highest level of education and major field of study (summary): Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations with parts, 2021
    Data Table

Section F:
Reference statistics

Section F.1: Reference statistics for use in the calculation of indicators
  • Implicit price indexes, gross domestic product, provincial and territorial
    Data Table
  • Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted
    Data Table
  • Consumer Price Index, monthly, not seasonally adjusted
    Data Table
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