Abada, Teresa, Feng Hou, and Bali Ram. 2009. “Ethnic differences in educational attainment among the children of Canadian immigrants.” Canadian Journal of Sociology, Vol. 34, no. 1, p. 1 to 28.

Anisef, Paul, Robert S. Brown, Kelli Phythian, Robert Sweet, and David Walters. 2010. “Early school leaving among immigrants in Toronto secondary schools.” Canadian Review of Sociology, Vol. 47, no. 2.

Attewell, Paul, Philip Kasinitz, and Kathleen Dunn. 2009. “Black Canadians and black Americans: racial income inequality in comparative perspective.” Ethnic and Racial Studies, September 28, 2009.

Balde, Alhassane, J.-M. Sène, and Marie McAndrew. 2011. Portrait des jeunes Québécois originaires des Antilles et de l’Afrique subsaharienne, secteur français. Canada Research Chair in Education and Ethnic Relations.

Burgess, Simon, and Ellen Greaves. 2013. “Test scores, subjective assessment, and stereotyping of ethnic minorities.” Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 31, no. 3.

Cameron, Stephen V., and James J. Heckman. 2001. “The dynamics of educational attainment for Black, Hispanic, and White males.” Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 109, p. 455 to 499.

Chen, Wen-Hao, and Feng Hou. 2019. Intergenerational Education Mobility and Labour Market Outcomes: Variation Among the Second Generation of Immigrants in Canada. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019M. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian. 2017. “If they think I can: Teacher bias and youth of color expectations and achievement.” Social Science Research, Vol. 66.

Childs, Stephen, Ross Finnie, and Richard E. Mueller. 2018. “Assessing the importance of cultural capital on post-secondary education attendance in Canada.” Journal of Further and Higher Education, Vol. 42, no. 1, p. 57 to 91.

Croll, Paul. 2004. “Families, social capital and educational outcomes.” British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 52, no. 4, p. 390 to 416.

de Broucker, Patrice. 2005. “Getting there and staying there: Low-income students and post-secondary education.” Canadian Policy Research Networks, Research Report W|27, Work Network, March 2005.

Dumais, Susan A. 2002. “Cultural capital, gender, and school success: The role of habitus.” Sociology of Education, Vol. 75, no. 1, p. 44 to 68.

Eid, Paul. 2012. “Les inégalités « ethnoraciales » dans l’accès à l’emploi à Montréal : le poids de la discrimination.” Recherches sociographiques, Vol. 53, no. 2, p. 415 to 450.

Feliciano, Cynthia. 2006. “Beyond the family: The influence of premigration group status on the educational expectations of immigrants’ children.” Sociology of Education, Vol. 79, no. 4, p. 281 to 303.

Feliciano, Cynthia, and Yader R. Lanuza. 2016. “The Immigrant Advantage in Adolescent Educational Expectations,” International Migration Review, Vol. 50, p. 758 to 792.

Finnie, Ross, Marc Frenette, Richard E. Mueller, and Arthur Sweetman. 2010. Pursuing Higher Education in Canada: Economic, Social, and Policy Dimensions. Kingston (Ontario) and Montréal (Quebec), McGill–Queen’s University Press.

Finnie, Ross, and Richard E. Mueller. 2014. Access to Post-Secondary Education Among the First and Second Generation Children of Canadian Immigrants.

Fitzpatrick, Caroline, Carolyn Côté­Lussier, Linda S. Pagani, and Clancy Blair. 2015. “I don’t think you like me very much: Child minority status and disadvantage predict relationship quality with teachers.” Youth & Society, Vol. 20, no. 10.

Frenette, Marc. 2002. Too Far to Go on? Distance to School and University Participation. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, no 191. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019MIF. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Gilmore, Jason. 2010. “Trends in dropout rates and the labour market outcomes of young dropouts.” Education Matters: Insights on Education, Learning and Training in Canada, Vol. 7, no. 4. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 81-004-X. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Hou, Feng, and Simon Coulombe. 2010. “Earnings gaps for Canadian-born visible minorities in the public and private sectors.” Canadian Public Policy, Vol. XXXVI, no. 1.

Houle, René. 2020. Changes in the Socioeconomic Situation of Canada’s Black Population, 2001 to 2016. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-657. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

James, Carl E., and Tana Turner. 2017. Towards Race Equity in Education: The Schooling of Black Students in the Greater Toronto Area. Toronto, Ontario, York University.

James, Carl E. and Tana Turner. 2015. Fighting an uphill battle: Report on the consultations into the well-being of black youth in Peel Region. Mississauga, Ontario: F.A.C.E.S. of Peel Collaborative.

James, Carl E. 2000. “Students ‘at risk’: Stereotypes and the Schooling of Black Boys.” Urban Education, Vol. 4, no. 2.

Kamanzi, Pierre Canisius, and Tya Collins. 2018. “The postsecondary education pathways of Canadian immigrants: Who goes and how do they get there?” International Journal of Social Science Studies, Vol. 6, no. 2, p. 58 to 68.

Kamanzi, Pierre Canisius, Nicolas Bastien, Pierre Doray, and Marie­Odile Magnan. 2016. “Immigration et cheminements scolaires aux études supérieures au Canada : qui y va et quand? Une analyse longitudinale à partir du modèle de Cox.” Canadian Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 46, no. 2, p. 225 to 248.

Kao, Grace, and Jennifer S. Thompson. 2003. “Racial and ethnic stratification in educational achievement and attainment.” Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 29.

Krahn, Harvey, and Alison Taylor. 2005. “Resilient teenagers: Explaining the high educational aspirations of visible-minority youth in Canada.” Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. 6, no. 3 to 4, p. 405 to 434.

Laplante, Benoît, Pierre Doray, Émilie Tremblay, Pierre Canisius Kamanzi, Annie Pilote, and Olivier Lafontaine. 2018. “L’accès à l’enseignement postsecondaire au Québec : le rôle de la segmentation scolaire dans la reproduction des inégalités.” Cahiers québécois de démographie, Vol. 47, no. 1, p. 49 to 80.

Livingstone, Anne­Marie, and Morton Weinfeld. 2015. “Black families and socio-economic inequality in Canada.” Canadian Ethnic Studies, Vol. 47, no. 3.

McDonald, Steve, Nan Lin, and Dan Ao. 2009. “Networks of opportunity: Gender, race, and job leads.” Social Problems, Vol. 56, no. 3.

Oreopoulos, Philip. 2011. “Why do skilled immigrants struggle in the labor market? A field experiment with thirteen thousand resumes.” American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, Vol. 3, no. 4, p. 148 to 171.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2017a. Society at a Glance 2016: OECD Social Indicators, Chapter 1 — The NEET challenge: What can be done for jobless and disengaged youth?

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2017b. “Transition from school to work: How hard is it across different age groups?” Education Indicators in Focus, August 2017.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2012. “What are the returns on higher education for individuals and countries?” Education Indicators in Focus, June 2012.

Pendakur, Krishna, and Ravi Pendakur. 2011. “Color by numbers: Minority earnings in Canada 1995–2005.” Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. 12, no. 3.

Picot, Garnett, and Feng Hou. 2011. Preparing for Success in Canada and the United States: The Determinants of Educational Attainment Among the Children of Immigrants. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, no. 332. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019M. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Robson, Karen, Paul Anisef, Robert S. Brown, and Rhonda George. 2018. “Underrepresented students and the transition to postsecondary education: Comparing two Toronto cohorts.” Canadian Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 48, no. 1.

Robson, Karen, Paul Anisef, Robert S. Brown, and Gillian Parekh. 2014. “The intersectionality of postsecondary pathways: The case of high school students with special education needs.” Canadian Review of Sociology, Vol. 51, no. 3.

Rosen, Jill. 2017. “Black students who have at least one black teacher are more likely to graduate.” Johns Hopkins Magazine.

Skuterud, Mikal. 2010. “The visible minority earnings gap across generations of Canadians.” Canadian Journal of Economics, Vol. 43, no. 3.

Statistics Canada. 2019. Diversity of the Black population in Canada: An Overview. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-657. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Taylor, Alison, and Harvey Krahn. 2005. “Resilient teenagers: Explaining the high educational aspirations of visible-minority youth in Canada.” Journal of International Migration and Integration, Vol. 6, no. 3.

Turcotte, Martin. 2019. Education and Labour Market Outcomes of Children with an Immigrant Background by their Region of Origin. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-657. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Uppal, Sharanjit. 2017. “Young men and women without a high school diploma,” Insights on Canadian Society. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 75-006-X. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.

Zarifa, David. 2012. “Persistent inequality or liberation from social origins? Determining who attends graduate and professional schools in Canada’s expanded postsecondary system.” Canadian Review of Sociology, Vol. 49, no. 2, p. 109 to 137.

Date modified: