Boak, Angela, Hayley A. Hamilton, Edward M. Adlaf and Robert E. Mann. 2017. Drug Use Among Ontario Students, 1977–2017: Detailed Findings from the Ontario Student Drug Use And Health Survey. CAMH Research Document Series No. 46. Toronto: Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Bonner, W.I. Andrew, Mustafa Andkhoie, Charlene Thompson, Marwa Farag and Michael Szafron. 2017. “Patterns and factors of problematic marijuana use in the Canadian population: Evidence from three cross-sectional surveys.” Canadian Journal of Public Health. Vol. 108, no.2. p. e110–e116.

Braakmann, Nils and Simon Jones. 2014. “Cannabis depenalisation, drug consumption and crime: Evidence from the 2004 cannabis declassification in the UK.” Social Science & Medicine. August. Vol. 115. p. 29–37.

Cotter, Adam. 2015. “Public confidence in Canadian institutions.” Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey. December. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-652-X.

Di Forti, Marta, Paul D. Morrison, Alexander Butt and Robin M. Murray. 2007. “Cannabis use and psychiatric and cognitive disorders: The chicken or the egg?” Current Opinion in Psychiatry. May. Vol. 20, no. 3. p. 228–234.

Dills, Angela K., Sietse Goffard and Jeffrey Miron. 2017. The Effects of Marijuana Liberalizations: Evidence from Monitoring the Future. NBER Working Paper No. 23779. Cambridge, MA: The National Bureau of Economic Research.

Fergusson, David M. and Joseph M. Boden. 2008. “Cannabis use and later life outcomes.” Addiction. June. Vol. 103, no. 6. p. 969–976.

Fontes, Maria Alice, Karen I. Bolla, Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha, Priscilla Previato Almeida, Flávia Jungerman, Ronaldo Ramos Laranjeira, Rodrigo A. Bressan, and Acioly T. Lacerda. 2011. “Cannabis use before age 15 and subsequent executive functioning,” British Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 198, no. 6. p.442-447.

Grondin, Chantal. 2016. A New Survey Measure of Disability: The Disability Screening Questions (DSQ). Canadian Survey on Disability, 2012. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-654-X. Ottawa.

Hall, Wayne and Louisa Degenhardt. 2009. “Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use.” The Lancet. October. Vol. 374, no. 9698. p. 1383–1391.

Hao, Zhuang and Benjamin Cowan. 2017. The Cross-Border Spillover Effects of Recreational Marijuana Legalization. NBER Working Paper No. 23426. Cambridge, MA: The National Bureau of Economic Research.

Jackson, Nicholas J., Joshua D. Isen, Rubin Khoddam, Daniel Irons, Catherine Tuvblad, William G. Iacono, Matt McGue, Adrian Raine and Laura A. Baker. 2016. “Impact of adolescent marijuana use on intelligence: Results from two longitudinal twin studies.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. February. Vol. 113, no. 5. p. E500–E508.

Kandel, Denise B. 2002. Stages and Pathways of Drug Involvement: Examining the Gateway Hypothesis. Denise B. Kandel (ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 402 p.

Kerr, William C., Camillia Lui and Yu Ye. 2018. “Trends and age, period and cohort effects for marijuana use prevalence in the 1984–2015 US National Alcohol Surveys.” Addiction. October. Vol. 113, no. 3. p. 473–481.

Letki, Natalia. 2006. “Investigating the roots of civic morality: Trust, social capital, and institutional performance.” Political Behavior. December. Vol. 28, no. 4. p. 305–325.

Lilly, J. Robert, Francis T. Cullen and Richard A. Ball. 2014. Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Sixth Edition. London: Sage Publications. 568 p.

Macdonald, Ryan and Michelle Rotermann. 2017. “Experimental estimates of cannabis consumption in Canada, 1960 to 2015.” Economic Insights. December. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11-626-X.

Meier, Madeline H., Avshalom Caspi, Antony Ambler, HonaLee Harrington, Renate Houts, Richard S.E. Keefe, Kay McDonald, Aimee Ward, Richie Poulton and Terrie E. Moffitt. 2012. “Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. October. Vol. 109, no. 40. p. E2657–E2664.

Muhuri, Pradip K. and Joseph C. Gfroerer. 2011. “Mortality associated with illegal drug use among adults in the United States.” The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. May. Vol. 37, no. 3. p. 155–164.

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.

Perreault, Samuel. 2015. “Criminal victimization in Canada, 2014.” Juristat. November. Vol. 35, no. 1. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-X.

Perreault, Samuel and Shannon Brennan. 2010. “Criminal victimization in Canada, 2009.” Juristat. September. Vol. 30, no. 2. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 85-002-X.

Roberts, Julian V. 2007. “Public confidence in criminal justice in Canada: A comparative and contextual analysis.” Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice. April. Vol. 49, no. 2. p. 153–184.

Rotermann, Michelle and Ryan Macdonald. 2018. “Analysis of trends in the prevalence of cannabis use in Canada, 1985 to 2015.” Health Reports. February. Vol. 29, no. 2. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 82-003-X.

Rotermann, Michelle and Kellie Langlois. 2015. “Prevalence and correlates of marijuana use in Canada, 2012.” Health Reports. April. Vol.26, no. 4. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 82-003-X.

Secades-Villa, Roberto, Olaya García-Rodríguez, Chelsea J. Jin, Shuai Wang and Carlos Blanco. 2015. “Probability and predictors of the cannabis gateway effect: A national study.” Journal of Drug Policy. February. Vol. 26, no. 2. p. 135–142.

Van Gundy, Karen and Cesar J. Rebellon. 2010. “A life-course perspective on the ‘Gateway Hypothesis.’” Journal of Health and Social Behavior. September. Vol. 51, no. 3. p. 244–259.

van Ours, Jan C. and Jenny Williams. 2011. “Cannabis use and mental health problems.” Journal of Applied Econometrics. Vol. 26, no. 7. p. 1137–1156.

Volkow, Nora D., James M. Swanson, A. Eden Evins, Lynn E. DeLisi, Madeline H. Meier, Raul Gonzalez, Michael A.P. Bloomfield, H. Valerie Curran and Ruben Baler. 2016. “Effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis: A review.” Journal of the American Medical Association: Psychiatry. March. Vol. 73, no. 3. p. 292–297.

Volkow, Nora D., Ruben D. Baler, Wilson M. Compton and Susan R.B. Weiss. 2014. “Adverse health effects of marijuana use.” The New England Journal of Medicine. June. Vol. 370. p. 2219–2227.

Williams, Jenny and Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen. 2014. “Does liberalizing cannabis laws increase cannabis use?” Journal of Health Economics. July. Vol. 36. p. 20–32.

Date modified: